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Internetworking Technologies Handbook, Fourth Edition

Book Description

The updated edition of the best-selling all-in-one networking reference provides coverage of essential and cutting-edge technologies

  • Concise overviews of technologies essential to networking professionals at all levels, from novice to expert.

  • New chapters include coverage of important topics like VoIP and EAP

  • Coverage of cutting edge technologies like optical networking and storage

  • Authored by Cisco Systems, worldwide leader in networking for the Internet.

  • Internetworking Technologies Handbook, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive reference that enables networking professionals to understand and implement contemporary internetworking technologies. Master the terms, concepts, technologies, and devices used in today's networking industry. Learn how to incorporate internetworking technologies into a LAN/WAN environment. Complete with new and updated chapters on security, storage, optical networking, scalability, and speed, this book is a complete and up-to-date reference to the topics that are essential to all networking professionals, regardless of expertise.

    Readers will obtain a greater understanding of LAN and WAN networking, particularly the hardware, protocols, and services involved. Fundamental technology information is provided on a broad range of integral systems and services, including detailed descriptions, review questions to ensure concept comprehension and retention, and additional resources for further study. Coverage is also extended not only to new networking concepts, but also to older, legacy systems, providing a more realistic picture of the real-world networking environments in which professionals operate. Tools and guidelines for optimizing system performance will increase productivity and improve efficiency, helping the reader make more intelligent, cost-efficient decisions for their networks.

    Cisco Systems, Inc. is the worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Cisco solutions, which include industry-leading publications from Cisco Press, educate and a provide competitive advantage to customers through more efficient and timely exchange of information, leading to cost saving, process efficiencies, and closer business relationships. These solutions form the networking foundation for many organizations worldwide.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
    2. Icons Used in This Book
    3. Command Syntax Conventions
    4. Introduction
      1. Objectives
      2. Updates to the Fourth Edition
      3. Audience
      4. Organization
    5. Acknowledgments and Contributors
      1. Third Edition Contributors
      2. First Edition Contributors
    6. I. Introduction to Internetworking
      1. 1. Internetworking Basics
        1. What Is an Internetwork?
          1. History of Internetworking
          2. Internetworking Challenges
        2. Open System Interconnection Reference Model
          1. Characteristics of the OSI Layers
          2. Protocols
          3. OSI Model and Communication Between Systems
            1. Interaction Between OSI Model Layers
            2. OSI Layer Services
            3. OSI Model Layers and Information Exchange
              1. Information Exchange Process
          4. OSI Model Physical Layer
          5. OSI Model Data Link Layer
          6. OSI Model Network Layer
          7. OSI Model Transport Layer
          8. OSI Model Session Layer
          9. OSI Model Presentation Layer
          10. OSI Model Application Layer
        3. Information Formats
        4. ISO Hierarchy of Networks
        5. Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Network Services
        6. Internetwork Addressing
          1. Data Link Layer Addresses
          2. MAC Addresses
          3. Mapping Addresses
          4. Network Layer Addresses
          5. Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space
          6. Address Assignments
          7. Addresses Versus Names
        7. Flow Control Basics
        8. Error-Checking Basics
        9. Multiplexing Basics
        10. Standards Organizations
        11. Summary
        12. Review Questions
        13. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      2. 2. Introduction to LAN Protocols
        1. What Is a LAN?
        2. LAN Protocols and the OSI Reference Model
        3. LAN Media-Access Methods
        4. LAN Transmission Methods
        5. LAN Topologies
        6. LAN Devices
        7. Review Questions
        8. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      3. 3. Introduction to WAN Technologies
        1. What Is a WAN?
        2. Point-to-Point Links
        3. Circuit Switching
        4. Packet Switching
        5. WAN Virtual Circuits
        6. WAN Dialup Services
        7. WAN Devices
          1. WAN Switch
          2. Access Server
          3. Modem
          4. CSU/DSU
          5. ISDN Terminal Adapter
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      4. 4. Introduction to Cisco IOS Software
        1. System Architecture
        2. Cisco IOS CLI
        3. Debugging and Logging
        4. Reloading and Upgrading
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      5. 5. Bridging and Switching Basics
        1. What Are Bridges and Switches?
        2. Link Layer Device Overview
        3. Types of Bridges
        4. Types of Switches
          1. ATM Switch
          2. LAN Switch
        5. Review Questions
        6. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      6. 6. Routing Basics
        1. What Is Routing?
        2. Routing Components
          1. Path Determination
          2. Switching
        3. Routing Algorithms
          1. Design Goals
          2. Algorithm Types
            1. Static Versus Dynamic
            2. Single-Path Versus Multipath
            3. Flat Versus Hierarchical
            4. Host-Intelligent Versus Router-Intelligent
            5. Intradomain Versus Interdomain
            6. Link-State Versus Distance Vector
            7. Routing Metrics
        4. Network Protocols
        5. Review Questions
      7. 7. Network Management Basics
        1. Introduction
        2. What Is Network Management?
          1. A Historical Perspective
        3. Network Management Architecture
        4. ISO Network Management Model
          1. Performance Management
          2. Configuration Management
          3. Accounting Management
          4. Fault Management
          5. Security Management
        5. Review Questions
    7. II. LAN Protocols
      1. 8. Ethernet Technologies
        1. Background
        2. Ethernet—A Brief History
        3. Ethernet Network Elements
        4. Ethernet Network Topologies and Structures
        5. The IEEE 802.3 Logical Relationship to the ISO Reference Model
        6. The Ethernet MAC Sublayer
          1. The Basic Ethernet Frame Format
          2. Frame Transmission
            1. Half-Duplex Transmission—The CSMA/CD Access Method
            2. Full-Duplex Transmission—An Optional Approach to Higher Network Efficiency
            3. Flow Control
          3. Frame Reception
          4. The VLAN Tagging Option
        7. The Ethernet Physical Layers
          1. Encoding for Signal Transmission
          2. The 802.3 Physical Layer Relationship to the ISO Reference Model
          3. 10-Mbps Ethernet—10Base-T
          4. 100 Mbps—Fast Ethernet
            1. 100Base-X
            2. 100Base-T4
            3. 100Base-T2
          5. 1000 Mbps—Gigabit Ethernet
            1. 1000Base-T
            2. 1000Base-X
          6. Network Cabling—Link Crossover Requirements
        8. System Considerations
          1. Choosing UTP-Based Components and Media Category
          2. Auto-negotiation—An Optional Method for Automatically Configuring Link Operational Modes
          3. Network Switches Provide a Second, and Often Better, Alternative to Higher Link Speeds in CSMA/CD Network Upgrades
          4. Multispeed NICs
          5. Choosing 1000Base-X Components and Media
          6. Multiple-Rate Ethernet Networks
          7. Link Aggregation—Establishing Higher-Speed Network Trunks
          8. Network Management
          9. Migrating to Higher-Speed Networks
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
      2. 9. Fiber Distributed Data Interface
        1. Introduction
          1. Standards
        2. FDDI Transmission Media
        3. FDDI Specifications
        4. FDDI Station-Attachment Types
        5. FDDI Fault Tolerance
          1. Dual Ring
          2. Optical Bypass Switch
          3. Dual Homing
        6. FDDI Frame Format
          1. FDDI Frame Fields
        7. Copper Distributed Data Interface
        8. Summary
        9. Review Questions
    8. III. WAN Technologies
      1. 10. Frame Relay
        1. Introduction
          1. Frame Relay Standardization
        2. Frame Relay Devices
        3. Frame Relay Virtual Circuits
          1. Switched Virtual Circuits
          2. Permanent Virtual Circuits
          3. Data-Link Connection Identifier
        4. Congestion-Control Mechanisms
          1. Frame Relay Discard Eligibility
          2. Frame Relay Error Checking
        5. Frame Relay Local Management Interface
        6. Frame Relay Network Implementation
          1. Public Carrier-Provided Networks
          2. Private Enterprise Networks
        7. Frame Relay Frame Formats
          1. Standard Frame Relay Frame
          2. LMI Frame Format
        8. Summary
        9. Review Questions
      2. 11. High-Speed Serial Interface
        1. Introduction
        2. HSSI Interface Basics
        3. HSSI Operation
          1. Loopback Tests
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
      3. 12. Integrated Services Digital Network
        1. Introduction
        2. ISDN Devices
        3. Services
          1. ISDN BRI Service
          2. ISDN PRI Service
        4. ISDN Specifications
          1. Layer 1
          2. Layer 2
          3. Layer 3
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      4. 13. Point-to-Point Protocol
        1. Introduction
        2. PPP Components
        3. General Operation
        4. Physical Layer Requirements
        5. PPP Link Layer
        6. PPP Link-Control Protocol
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
      5. 14. Switched Multimegabit Data Service
        1. Introduction
        2. SMDS Network Components
        3. SMDS Interface Protocol
          1. SIP Levels
        4. Distributed Queue Dual Bus
        5. SMDS Access Classes
        6. SMDS Addressing Overview
        7. SMDS Reference: SIP Level 3 PDU Format
        8. SMDS Reference: SIP Level 2 Cell Format
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
      6. 15. Dialup Technology
        1. Introduction
        2. A Short Dialup Technology Background
        3. Dialup Connectivity Technology
          1. Plain Old Telephone Service
          2. Basic Rate Interface
          3. T1/E1
          4. Primary Rate Interface
          5. Channel Associated Signaling
          6. Modems
          7. PPP
            1. LCP
            2. Authentication
            3. NCP
          8. A Couple of Advanced Considerations
          9. AAA
        4. Dialup Methods
          1. What's a Dialer?
          2. Interesting Traffic
        5. Benefits and Drawbacks
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      7. 16. Synchronous Data Link Control and Derivatives
        1. Introduction
        2. SDLC Types and Topologies
        3. SDLC Frame Format
        4. Derivative Protocols
          1. High-Level Data Link Control
          2. Link-Access Procedure, Balanced
          3. IEEE 802.2
          4. Qualified Logical Link Control
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
      8. 17. X.25
        1. Introduction
        2. X.25 Devices and Protocol Operation
          1. Packet Assembler/Disassembler
          2. X.25 Session Establishment
          3. X.25 Virtual Circuits
        3. The X.25 Protocol Suite
          1. Packet-Layer Protocol
          2. Link Access Procedure, Balanced
          3. The X.21bis Protocol
        4. LAPB Frame Format
        5. X.121 Address Format
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
      9. 18. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
        1. VPN Definition
        2. VPN Applications
        3. IPSec
          1. Authentication Header (AH)
          2. Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
          3. IPSec Transport Mode and Tunnel Mode
          4. Security Association (SA)
          5. Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol
        4. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
          1. Implementation Topologies
            1. Compulsory Tunneling
            2. Voluntary Tunneling
          2. L2TP Protected by IPSec
        5. MPLS VPNs
          1. BGP/MPLS VPN
          2. MPLS-Based Layer 2 VPN
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
    9. IV. Multiservice Access Technologies
      1. 19. Voice/Data Integration Technologies
        1. Introduction
          1. Standards
          2. Technology
          3. Network Performance
          4. Economic Advantages
        2. Advances in Applications
        3. New World Voice Technologies
        4. Voice Networking
          1. Basic Telephony
        5. Voice over ATM
          1. VoATM Signaling
          2. VoATM Addressing
          3. VoATM Routing
          4. VoATM and Delay
        6. Voice over Frame Relay
          1. VoFR Signaling
          2. VoFR Addressing
        7. Voice over IP
          1. Voice Codec Overview
          2. VoIP Network Design Constraints
            1. Network Bandwidth Requirements
            2. Delay
        8. Quality of Service for VoIP
          1. H.323 Overview
          2. H.323 Call Flow and Protocol Interworking
        9. General MGCP Overview
          1. MGCP Concepts
          2. MGCP Advantages
          3. MGCP Protocol Definitions
        10. General SIP Tutorial
          1. SIP Messages
          2. SIP Addressing
          3. SIP Call Flow
        11. Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP)
        12. Comparison and Contrast of the Various VoIP Signaling Alternatives
        13. Evolution of Solutions for Voice over Data
          1. The Future: Telephony Applications
          2. Incentives Toward Packet Telephony Applications
        14. Summary
        15. Review Questions
        16. For More Information
          1. Books
            1. Bibliography
      2. 20. Wireless Technologies
        1. Wireless Concepts
        2. Radio Fundamentals
          1. The Components of a Wireless Communication System
          2. The Electromagnetic Spectrum
          3. RF Transmission Theory
            1. Electromagnetic Energy
            2. Power Measurement
            3. Transmission Lines
            4. Antennas
              1. Full-Duplex Simultaneous Transmission
              2. Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)
              3. Antenna Types
            5. Free Space RF Propagation
        3. NLOS Wireless: Overcoming Multipath Signals in NLOS High Speed
          1. Multipath Signals
          2. Microwave Communication Links
          3. Multipath Signals in NLOS Environments
          4. Modulation and Encoding Methods for QAM
          5. Advanced Signaling Techniques Used to Mitigate Multipath Signals
          6. QAM with DFE
        4. Spread Spectrum
          1. FHHS
          2. FDM
          3. OFDM
          4. VOFDM
        5. Elements of a Total Network Solution
          1. Premises Networks
          2. Access Networks
          3. Core Networks
          4. Network Management
          5. Deployment
        6. Wireless Local-Area Networks (WLANs)
          1. WLAN Overview
          2. WLAN Architecture
          3. Distribution Services
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
          2. Regulations and Government
            1. Bibliography
          3. WLL
            1. Bibliography
          4. LMDS/MMDS (Wireless Cable)
            1. Bibliography
          5. Cordless
            1. Bibliography
          6. Satellite
            1. Bibliography
          7. Modulations
            1. Bibliography
          8. Interfaces
            1. Bibliography
        10. Glossary Terms
      3. 21. Digital Subscriber Line
        1. Introduction
        2. Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
          1. ADSL Capabilities
          2. ADSL Technology
        3. Signaling and Modulation
          1. CAP and DMT Modulated ADSL
            1. CAP and DMT Compared
            2. Adaptive Equalization
            3. Power Consumption
            4. Latency
            5. Speed
          2. ADSL Standards and Associations
        4. Additional DSL Technologies
          1. SDSL
          2. HDSL
          3. HDSL-2
          4. G.SHDSL
          5. ISDN Digital Subscriber Line
          6. VDSL
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      4. 22. Cable Access Technologies
        1. Introduction
        2. Evolution from One-Way Broadcast to Two-Way Hybrid Fiber Coax
        3. Limitations and Specifications of the HFC Plant
        4. DOCSIS Standards, Signaling Protocols, and Applications
        5. DOCSIS Hardware Deployment and Resulting Service Capabilities
        6. Future DOCSIS Applications
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Books
            1. Bibliography
          2. URLs
            1. Bibliography
          3. Magazines
            1. Bibliography
      5. 23. Introduction to Optical Technologies
        1. What Is Optical Networking?
          1. Wave Division Multiplexing and Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
          2. Fiber to the Home
          3. All-Optical Networks
            1. Metro Optical Networks
            2. Core Optical Networks
          4. Passive Optical Networks
          5. Residential and Business PONs
          6. Optical Network Units and Optical Network Terminals
          7. Ethernet Passive Optical Networks
          8. Metro Access Networks
          9. Transparent Optical Networks
          10. Transport Networks
          11. Long-Haul Networks
          12. Extended Long-Haul Networks
          13. Ultra-Long-Haul Networks
          14. Gigabit and 10 Gigabit Ethernet Optical Networks
        2. Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching
          1. Label Switch Routers
          2. Link Management Protocol
            1. LMP Control Channel and Control Channel Management
            2. Link Property
          3. User-to-Network Interface
        3. G.ASON
          1. Control Plane
          2. Unified Control Plane
            1. Overlay Model
            2. Peer Model
          3. Overlay Network Configuration
          4. Peer Model
          5. Full Peering Model
          6. Filtered-Pair Model and Augmented Model
        4. Optical Control Plane User Network Interface
        5. Optical Control Plane Optical Network-to-Network Interface
        6. Next-Generation Protection and Restoration
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      6. 24. VoIP
        1. H.323 Network Devices
          1. H.323 Terminals
          2. H.323 Gatekeepers
          3. H.323 Directory Gatekeepers
          4. H.323 Gateways
          5. Multipoint Control Unit (MCU)
        2. H.323 Protocol Suite
          1. H.323
          2. H.225
            1. Setup
            2. Call Proceeding
            3. Alerting
            4. Connect
            5. Release and Release Complete
          3. H.245
            1. Capability Exchange
            2. Master/Slave Determination
            3. Control Channel Management
            4. Round-Trip Delay Determination
            5. Maintenance Loop Signaling
            6. Mode Request
            7. RTP and RTCP
          4. H.450
          5. Audio CODECs
          6. H.225 RAS
            1. Gatekeeper Discovery
            2. Gateway Registration
            3. Gateway Unregistration
            4. Call Admission
            5. Location Request
            6. Call Disengage
            7. Bandwidth Modification
            8. Information Request
            9. Resource Availability
        3. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
          1. SIP Messages
          2. Session Description Protocol
          3. SIP Network Devices
          4. SIP Call Flows
        4. Connecting VoIP Networks with the SS7 Network
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
          1. H.323
            1. Bibliography
          2. SIP
            1. Bibliography
          3. SS7 Interconnect for Voice Gateways
            1. Bibliography
        8. Glossary Terms
      7. 25. Dynamic Packet Transport/Spatial Reuse Protocol
        1. DPT Architecture
        2. SRP Bandwidth Optimization
        3. SRP Packet Priority
        4. SRP Fairness Algorithm
        5. DPT Resiliency
        6. Topology Discovery
        7. DPT/SRP Packet Formats
        8. SRP Version 2 Generic Header
        9. SRP Data Packet
        10. SRP Control Packet
        11. Multicast Support
        12. Summary
        13. Review Questions
        14. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
        15. Glossary Terms
      8. 26. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
        1. The EAP Protocol
        2. Using RADIUS for EAP Authentication
        3. A Typical Authentication Conversation
        4. PKI Support with EAP
          1. EAP Transport Layer Security (EAP-TLS)
          2. Protected EAP (PEAP)
        5. EAP Implementations
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
    10. V. Bridging and Switching
      1. 27. Transparent Bridging
        1. Transparent Bridging Operation
          1. Bridging Loops
          2. Spanning-Tree Algorithm
        2. Frame Format
        3. Review Questions
        4. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      2. 28. Mixed-Media Bridging
        1. Background
        2. Translation Challenges
        3. Translational Bridging
        4. Source-Route Transparent Bridging
        5. Review Questions
        6. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      3. 29. Source-Route Bridging
        1. Background
        2. SRB Algorithm
        3. Frame Format
          1. Routing Control Field
          2. Routing Designator Fields
        4. Review Questions
        5. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      4. 30. LAN Switching and VLANs
        1. History
        2. LAN Switch Operation
          1. VLANs Defined
          2. Switch Port Modes
          3. LAN Switching Forwarding
          4. LAN Switching Bandwidth
        3. LAN Switch and the OSI Model
        4. Review Questions
        5. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      5. 31. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Switching
        1. Standards
        2. ATM Devices and the Network Environment
          1. ATM Cell Basic Format
          2. ATM Devices
          3. ATM Network Interfaces
        3. ATM Cell Header Format
          1. ATM Cell Header Fields
        4. ATM Services
          1. ATM Virtual Connections
        5. ATM Switching Operations
        6. ATM Reference Model
          1. The ATM Physical Layer
          2. ATM Adaptation Layers: AAL1
          3. ATM Adaptation Layers: AAL2
          4. ATM Adaptation Layers: AAL3/4
          5. ATM Adaptation Layers: AAL5
        7. ATM Addressing
          1. Subnetwork Model of Addressing
          2. NSAP Format ATM Addresses
          3. ATM Address Fields
        8. ATM Connections
        9. ATM and Multicasting
        10. ATM Quality of Service
        11. ATM Signaling and Connection Establishment
          1. The ATM Connection-Establishment Process
          2. Connection-Request Routing and Negotiation
        12. ATM Connection-Management Messages
        13. PNNI
        14. Integrated Local Management Interface
        15. LAN Emulation
          1. The LANE Protocol Architecture
          2. LANE Components
          3. LAN Emulation Connection Types
          4. LANE Operation
            1. Initialization and Configuration
            2. Joining and Registering with the LES
            3. Finding and Joining the BUS
            4. Data Transfer
        16. Multiprotocol over ATM
        17. Review Questions
        18. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      6. 32. MPLS
        1. MPLS Terminology
        2. MPLS Operations
        3. MPLS/Tag-Switching Architecture
          1. Control Component
          2. Label Distribution Protocol
          3. Forwarding Component
          4. Label Encapsulation
          5. Label Switching with ATM
        4. Hierarchical Routing
        5. MPLS-Based Virtual Private Networks
        6. MPLS Quality of Service
        7. MPLS Traffic Engineering
        8. Summary
        9. Review Questions
        10. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      7. 33. Data-Link Switching
        1. Background
        2. DLSw Contrasted with Source-Route Bridging
        3. DLSw SNA Support
        4. DLSw Switch-to-Switch Protocol
        5. DLSw Operation
          1. DLSw Processes
            1. DLSw Capabilities Exchange
            2. DLSw Circuit Establishment
            3. DLSw Flow Control
              1. DLSw Flow-Control Indicators
              2. Adaptive-Pacing Examples
        6. DLSw Message Formats
        7. Review Questions
    11. VI. Network Protocols
      1. 34. Open System Interconnection Protocols
        1. Background
        2. OSI Networking Protocols
          1. OSI Physical and Data Link layers
          2. OSI Network Layer
            1. OSI Layer Standards
            2. OSI Connectionless Network Service
            3. OSI Connection-Oriented Network Service
            4. Network Layer Addressing
              1. NSAP Address Fields
              2. End-System NSAPs
          3. OSI Protocols Transport Layer
          4. OSI Protocols Session Layer
          5. OSI Protocols Presentation Layer
          6. OSI Protocols Application Layer
            1. Common-Application Service Elements
            2. Specific-Application Service Elements
            3. OSI Protocols Application Processes
        3. Review Questions
      2. 35. Internet Protocols
        1. Background
        2. Internet Protocol
          1. IP Packet Format
          2. IP Addressing
            1. IP Address Format
            2. IP Address Classes
            3. IP Subnet Addressing
            4. IP Subnet Mask
            5. How Subnet Masks Are Used to Determine the Network Number
              1. Logical AND Operation
        3. Address Resolution Protocol Overview
        4. Internet Routing
          1. IP Routing
        5. Internet Control Message Protocol
          1. ICMP Messages
          2. ICMP Router-Discovery Protocol
        6. Transmission Control Protocol
          1. TCP Connection Establishment
          2. Positive Acknowledgment and Retransmission
          3. TCP Sliding Window
          4. TCP Packet Format
          5. TCP Packet Field Descriptions
        7. User Datagram Protocol
        8. Internet Protocols Application Layer Protocols
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
      3. 36. IPv6
        1. Description of IPv6 Packet Header
        2. Hexadecimal “Hex”
        3. Addressing Description
        4. Broadcasting Methods
          1. Unicast
          2. Multicast
          3. Anycast
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      4. 37. NetWare Protocols
        1. Background
        2. NetWare Media Access
        3. Internetwork Packet Exchange Overview
        4. IPX Encapsulation Types
        5. Service Advertisement Protocol
          1. SAP Filters
        6. NetWare Transport Layer
        7. NetWare Upper-Layer Protocols and Services
          1. NetWare Application Layer Services
        8. IPX Packet Format
        9. Summary
        10. Review Questions
      5. 38. AppleTalk
        1. Introduction
        2. AppleTalk Network Components
          1. Sockets
          2. Nodes
          3. Networks
            1. Nonextended Networks
            2. Extended Networks
          4. Zones
        3. AppleTalk Physical and Data Link Layers
          1. EtherTalk
            1. EtherTalk Link Access Protocol
              1. ELAP Data Transmission Process
          2. LocalTalk
            1. LocalTalk Link Access Protocol
            2. Regulating Node Access to the Physical Media
            3. Acquiring Node Addresses
            4. TokenTalk
            5. TokenTalk Link Access Protocol
          3. FDDITalk
            1. FDDITalk Link Access Protocol
        4. Network Addresses
          1. Network Address Assignment
        5. AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
          1. Address Mapping Table
          2. Address Gleaning
          3. AARP Operation
        6. Datagram Delivery Protocol Overview
          1. DDP Transmission Process
        7. AppleTalk Transport Layer
          1. Routing Table Maintenance Protocol Overview
            1. RTMP Routing Tables
          2. Name Binding Protocol Overview
            1. Name Binding
          3. AppleTalk Update-Based Routing Protocol
            1. AURP Encapsulation
          4. AppleTalk Transaction Protocol
          5. AppleTalk Echo Protocol
        8. AppleTalk Upper-Layer Protocols
          1. AppleTalk Data Stream Protocol
          2. Zone Information Protocol
          3. AppleTalk Session Protocol
          4. Printer Access Protocol Overview
          5. AppleTalk Filing Protocol
        9. AppleTalk Protocol Suite
          1. DDP Packet Format
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
        12. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      6. 39. IBM Systems Network Architecture Protocols
        1. Background
        2. Traditional SNA Environments
          1. IBM SNA Architecture
          2. IBM SNA Physical Entities
          3. IBM SNA Data Link Control
          4. IBM Network Addressable Units
          5. IBM SNA Nodes
        3. IBM Peer-Based Networking
          1. APPN Components
          2. IBM APPN Node Types
          3. IBM APPN Services
            1. IBM APPN Configuration Services
            2. IBM APPN Directory Services
            3. IBM APPN Topology and Routing Services
            4. IBM APPN Session Services
        4. Basic Information Unit Format
          1. BIU Fields
        5. Path Information Unit Format
          1. PIU Fields
        6. Summary
        7. Review Questions
        8. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      7. 40. DECnet
        1. Introduction
        2. DECnet Phase IV Digital Network Architecture
          1. Phase IV DNA Layers
          2. Phase IV DECnet Addressing
        3. DECnet/OSI Digital Network Architecture
          1. DECnet/OSI DNA Implementations
        4. DECnet Media Access
        5. DECnet Routing
        6. DECnet End Communications Layer
          1. Network-Services Protocol
        7. DECnet/OSI Transport Layer
        8. DECnet Phase IV Upper Layers
          1. User Layer
          2. Network Management Layer
          3. Network Application Layer
          4. Session Control Layer
        9. DECnet/OSI Upper Layers
          1. Application Layer
          2. Presentation Layer
          3. Session Layer
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
    12. VII. Routing Protocols
      1. 41. Border Gateway Protocol
        1. Introduction
        2. BGP Attributes
          1. Weight Attribute
          2. Local Preference Attribute
          3. Multi-Exit Discriminator Attribute
          4. Origin Attribute
          5. AS_path Attribute
          6. Next-Hop Attribute
          7. Community Attribute
        3. BGP Path Selection
        4. Review Questions
        5. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      2. 42. Enhanced IGRP
        1. Enhanced IGRP Capabilities and Attributes
        2. Underlying Processes and Technologies
        3. Routing Concepts
          1. Neighbor Tables
          2. Topology Tables
          3. Route States
          4. Route Tagging
        4. Enhanced IGRP Packet Types
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      3. 43. IBM Systems Network Architecture Routing
        1. Background
        2. IBM SNA Session Connectors
        3. IBM SNA Transmission Groups
        4. IBM SNA Explicit and Virtual Routes
        5. IBM SNA Class of Service
          1. COS in Subarea Routing
          2. COS in APPN Routing
        6. IBM SNA Subarea Routing
        7. IBM Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking Routing
          1. IBM APPN Node Type 2.1 Routing
          2. Intermediate Session Routing
            1. High-Performance Routing
          3. IBM APPN DLUR/S Routing
          4. IBM APPN Connection Network
          5. IBM APPN Border Node
        8. Review Questions
      4. 44. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
        1. Background
        2. IGRP Protocol Characteristics
          1. Stability Features
          2. Timers
        3. Summary
        4. Review Questions
        5. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      5. 45. Internet Protocol Multicast
        1. Background
        2. Multicast Group Concept
        3. IP Multicast Addresses
          1. IP Class D Addresses
          2. Reserved Link Local Addresses
          3. Globally Scoped Address
          4. Limited Scope Addresses
          5. Glop Addressing
          6. Layer 2 Multicast Addresses
          7. Ethernet MAC Address Mapping
        4. Internet Group Management Protocol
          1. IGMP Version 1
          2. IGMP Version 2
        5. Multicast in the Layer 2 Switching Environment
          1. Cisco Group Management Protocol
          2. IGMP Snooping
        6. Multicast Distribution Trees
          1. Source Trees
          2. Shared Trees
        7. Multicast Forwarding
          1. Reverse Path Forwarding
            1. RPF Check
        8. Protocol-Independent Multicast
          1. PIM Dense Mode
          2. PIM Sparse Mode
          3. Sparse-Dense Mode
        9. Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol
        10. Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
          1. Anycast RP—Logical RP
          2. Multicast Address Dynamic Client Allocation Protocol
          3. Multicast-Scope Zone Announcement Protocol
          4. Reliable Multicast—Pragmatic General Multicast
        11. Review Questions
        12. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      6. 46. NetWare Link-Services Protocol
        1. Background
        2. NLSP Hierarchical Routing
          1. Hierarchical Routing Efficiencies
          2. NLSP Adjacencies
            1. Establishing a New WAN Adjacency
            2. Maintaining Adjacencies over LANs
          3. Sending LAN Hello Packets
        3. NLSP Operation
        4. NLSP Hierarchical Addressing
        5. NLSP Hello Packets
          1. WAN Hello Packet
            1. WAN Hello Packet Fields
          2. NLSP LAN Hello Packets
            1. Level 1 LAN Hello Packet Fields
        6. Review Questions
      7. 47. Open Shortest Path First
        1. Background
        2. Routing Hierarchy
        3. SPF Algorithm
        4. Packet Format
        5. Additional OSPF Features
        6. Review Questions
      8. 48. Open System Interconnection Routing Protocols
        1. OSI Networking Terminology
        2. Overview of OSI Routing Operation
        3. ES-IS
          1. ES-IS Configuration
          2. ES-IS Addressing Information
        4. IS-IS
          1. Integrated IS-IS
          2. IS-IS Routing Architecture Support
          3. Packet Types
          4. TLVS
          5. Metrics Defined in IS-IS
        5. IS-IS LSP Processing
          1. IS-IS DIS Election
          2. Avoiding Black Holes with IS-IS
          3. Route Leaking
          4. MPLS Traffic Engineering
        6. IDRP
          1. IDRP Terminology
          2. IDRP Routing
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      9. 49. Routing Information Protocol
        1. Background
        2. Routing Updates
        3. RIP Routing Metric
        4. RIP Stability Features
        5. RIP Timers
        6. Packet Formats
          1. RIP Packet Format
          2. RIP 2 Packet Format
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      10. 50. Resource Reservation Protocol
        1. Background
        2. RSVP Data Flows
          1. RSVP Data Flows Process
        3. RSVP Quality of Service
        4. RSVP Session Startup
        5. RSVP Reservation Style
          1. Wildcard-Filter Style
          2. Fixed-Filter Style
          3. Shared-Explicit Style
            1. RSVP Reservation Style Implications
        6. RSVP Soft State Implementation
        7. RSVP Operational Model
          1. General RSVP Protocol Operation
          2. RSVP Tunneling
            1. Weighted Fair-Queuing Solution
        8. RSVP Messages
          1. Reservation-Request Messages
          2. Path Messages
          3. Error and Confirmation Messages
          4. Teardown Messages
        9. RSVP Packet Format
          1. RSVP Message Header Fields
          2. RSVP Object Fields
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
        12. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
      11. 51. Simple Multicast Routing Protocol
        1. Introduction
        2. SMRP Multicast Transport Services
          1. SMRP Multicast Address Management
          2. SMRP Multicast Transaction Protocol
          3. SMRP Node Management
          4. SMRP Multicast Routes
          5. SMRP Multicast Group Management
          6. Forwarding Multicast Datagrams
          7. Handling SMRP Topology Changes
            1. Disappearing Member Endpoints
            2. Stranded Groups
        3. SMRP Transaction Example
        4. SMRP Packet Format
        5. Review Questions
    13. VIII. Network Management
      1. 52. Security Technologies
        1. Why Is Network Security Important?
        2. Security Threats
          1. Unauthorized Access
          2. Weak Authentication
          3. Passwords
          4. Packet Sniffers
          5. Application Layer
          6. Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
          7. IP Spoofing
          8. Denial of Service
        3. Security Policy
        4. Defense-in-Depth Security Solution
        5. Threat Mitigation
        6. Security Tools
        7. Summary
        8. Review Questions
        9. For More Information
          1. Websites
            1. Bibliography
          2. Books
            1. Bibliography
          3. Mailing Lists and Newsletters
            1. Bibliography
        10. Glossary Terms
      2. 53. Directory-Enabled Networking
        1. Object-Oriented Information Modeling
          1. Data Models Are Bound to Specific Types of Repositories
          2. Realization of the Information Model
            1. The Common Information Model
            2. DEN, an Extension of CIM
        2. A Brief Introduction to Directories
          1. Directories and Directory Services
            1. What Is a Directory?
            2. Characteristics of a Directory
            3. What Is a Directory Service?
          2. Current Uses of the Directory
          3. Motivation for DEN and Intelligent Networking
          4. Distributing Intelligence in Networked Applications
          5. Use of the Directory in Intelligent Networking
          6. Challenges of Current Directory Services
        3. An Overview of DEN
          1. Networks and DEN
          2. Directory Service and Network Management
          3. The Extended Schema and Other Device Schemata
          4. Network Applications Integrated with the Directory and Other Network Protocols
          5. Benefits of Using DEN
        4. How DEN Is Used in Cisco Products
          1. The Directory-Enabled Networking Vision
        5. Summary
        6. Review Questions
        7. For More Information
      3. 54. Network Caching Technologies
        1. Introduction
        2. Network Caching
          1. How Web Caching Works
          2. The Benefits of Localizing Traffic Patterns
          3. Network-Integrated Caches
            1. Existing Caching Solutions
          4. Proxy Servers
          5. Standalone Caches
          6. Browser-Based Client Caching
          7. WCCP Network Caching
            1. Network-Based Shared Caching
            2. Transparent Network Caching
            3. Hierarchical Deployment
            4. Scalable Clustering
            5. Fault Tolerance and Fail Safety
            6. WCCP Multihome Router Support
            7. Overload Bypass
            8. Dynamic Client Bypass
              1. Dynamic Client Bypass Function
            9. Reverse Proxy Caching
          8. Reverse Proxy Caching Function
        3. Ensuring Fresh Content
          1. HTTP Caching Standards
          2. Cache Engine Content Freshness Controls
          3. Browser Freshness Controls
          4. Summary
        4. Review Questions
      4. 55. Storage Networking
        1. What Is a SAN?
        2. Fibre Channel Protocol
          1. Fibre Channel Topologies
            1. Point-to-Point Topology
            2. Arbitrated-Loop Topology
            3. Private Loops
            4. Switched-Fabric Topology
          2. Fibre Channel Port Types
          3. Fibre Channel Communication Model
          4. Fibre Channel Addressing
          5. Fibre Channel Frame Format
          6. Fibre Channel Classes of Service
          7. Fibre Channel Fabric Routing
          8. Fibre Channel Flow Control
          9. Fibre Channel Distributed Fabric Services
            1. Directory Services
            2. Zone Services
            3. Management Services
            4. State Change Notification Services
        3. The iSCSI Protocol
          1. iSCSI Communication Model
          2. iSCSI Frame Format
          3. iSCSI Services
            1. Directory Services
            2. Authentication Services
            3. iSCSI Boot Services
        4. Summary
        5. Review Questions
        6. For More Information
          1. Books
            1. Bibliography
          2. URLs
            1. Bibliography
      5. 56. IBM Network Management
        1. Background
        2. IBM Network-Management Functional Areas
          1. IBM Configuration Management
          2. IBM Performance and Accounting Management
          3. IBM Problem Management
          4. IBM Operations Management
          5. IBM Change Management
        3. IBM Network-Management Architectures
          1. Open-Network Architecture
          2. SystemView
        4. IBM Network-Management Platforms
          1. NetView
          2. LAN Network Manager
          3. Simple Network Management Protocol
        5. Review Questions
      6. 57. Remote Monitoring
        1. Background
        2. RMON Groups
        3. Review Questions
      7. 58. Simple Network Management Protocol
        1. SNMP Basic Components
        2. Basic SNMP Commands
        3. SNMP Management Information Base
        4. SNMP and Data Representation
        5. SNMP Version 1
          1. SNMPv1 and the Structure of Management Information
            1. SNMPv1 and ASN.1 Data Types
            2. SNMPv1 and SMI-Specific Data Types
            3. SNMP MIB Tables
          2. SNMPv1 Protocol Operations
        6. SNMP Version 2
          1. SNMPv2 and the Structure of Management Information
          2. SMI Information Modules
          3. SNMPv2 Protocol Operations
          4. Security Considerations
        7. SNMP Version 3
          1. Security Threads
          2. Modular Architecture
          3. Security Architecture
          4. User-Based Security Model (USM)
          5. View-Based Access Control Model (VACM)
        8. SNMP Management
        9. SNMP Reference: SNMP Message Formats
          1. SNMP Message Header
          2. SNMP PDU
          3. GetBulk PDU Format
          4. Trap PDU Format
        10. Summary
        11. Review Questions
      8. 59. Quality of Service Networking
        1. Introduction
        2. QoS Concepts
        3. Basic QoS Architecture
        4. QoS Identification and Marking
          1. Classification
        5. QoS Within a Single Network Element
          1. Congestion Management
          2. Queue Management
          3. Link Efficiency
          4. Traffic Shaping and Policing
        6. QoS Management
        7. End-to-End QoS Levels
        8. Modular QoS Command-Line Interface (MQC)
        9. QoS Architectures
          1. Integrated Services Architecture
          2. Differentiated Services Architecture
          3. Differentiated Services Byte
            1. Classification—Identifying Flows
          4. QoS Policy Setting with Policy-Based Routing
          5. CAR: Setting IP Precedence
            1. 7500 Platform
          6. NBAR: Dynamic Identification of Flows
        10. Congestion-Management Tools
          1. FIFO: Basic Store-and-Forward Capability
          2. PQ: Prioritizing Traffic
          3. CQ: Guaranteeing Bandwidth
          4. Flow-Based WFQ: Creating Fairness Among Flows
            1. Cooperation Between WFQ and QoS Signaling Technologies
              1. 7500 Platform
            2. Class-Based WFQ: Ensuring Network Bandwidth
              1. 7500 Platform
        11. Queue Management (Congestion-Avoidance Tools)
          1. WRED: Avoiding Congestion
          2. WRED Cooperation with QoS Signaling Technologies
          3. Flow RED: RED for Non-TCP-Compliant Flows
            1. 7500 Platform
        12. Traffic-Shaping and Policing Tools
          1. CAR: Managing Access Bandwidth Policy and Performing Policing
          2. GTS: Controlling Outbound Traffic Flow
          3. FRTS: Managing Frame-Relay Traffic
        13. Link Efficiency Mechanisms
          1. LFI: Fragmenting and Interleaving IP Traffic
          2. RTP Header Compression: Increasing Efficiency of Real-Time Traffic
          3. RSVP: Guaranteeing QoS
        14. QoS Management
        15. QoS on Ethernet
        16. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS): Allowing Flexible Traffic Engineering
          1. QoS Policy Control
        17. SNA ToS
        18. QoS for Packetized Voice
        19. QoS for Streaming Video
        20. Automated QoS
        21. Summary
          1. QoS Looking Forward
        22. Review Questions
        23. For More Information
          1. Bibliography
    14. IX. Appendix
      1. A. Answers to Review Questions
        1. Chapter 1
        2. Chapter 2
        3. Chapter 3
        4. Chapter 4
        5. Chapter 5
        6. Chapter 6
        7. Chapter 7
        8. Chapter 8
        9. Chapter 9
        10. Chapter 10
        11. Chapter 11
        12. Chapter 12
        13. Chapter 13
        14. Chapter 14
        15. Chapter 15
        16. Chapter 16
        17. Chapter 17
        18. Chapter 18
        19. Chapter 19
        20. Chapter 20
        21. Chapter 21
        22. Chapter 22
        23. Chapter 23
        24. Chapter 24
        25. Chapter 25
        26. Chapter 26
        27. Chapter 27
        28. Chapter 28
        29. Chapter 29
        30. Chapter 30
        31. Chapter 31
        32. Chapter 32
        33. Chapter 33
        34. Chapter 34
        35. Chapter 35
        36. Chapter 36
        37. Chapter 37
        38. Chapter 38
        39. Chapter 39
        40. Chapter 40
        41. Chapter 41
        42. Chapter 42
        43. Chapter 43
        44. Chapter 44
        45. Chapter 45
        46. Chapter 46
        47. Chapter 47
        48. Chapter 48
        49. Chapter 49
        50. Chapter 50
        51. Chapter 51
        52. Chapter 52
        53. Chapter 53
        54. Chapter 54
        55. Chapter 55
        56. Chapter 56
        57. Chapter 57
        58. Chapter 58
        59. Chapter 59
      2. B. Early Technologies
        1. Token Ring/IEEE 802.5
          1. Physical Connections
          2. Token Ring Operation
          3. Priority System
          4. Fault-Management Mechanisms
          5. Frame Format
            1. Token Frame Fields
            2. Data/Command Frame Fields
          6. Summary
        2. Xerox Network Systems
          1. Background
          2. XNS Hierarchy Overview
          3. Media Access
          4. Network Layer
          5. Transport Layer
          6. Upper-Layer Protocols
          7. Summary
        3. Banyan VINES
          1. Background
          2. Media Access
          3. Network Layer
            1. VINES Internetwork Protocol
            2. Routing Table Protocol
            3. Address Resolution Protocol
            4. Internet Control Protocol
          4. Transport Layer
          5. Upper-Layer Protocols
          6. Summary
          7. For More Information
            1. Bibliography