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International Libel and Privacy Handbook: A Global Reference for Journalists, Publishers, Webmasters, and Lawyers, 3rd Edition

Book Description

An indispensable survival guide for anyone in the media industry and the lawyers who serve them

Especially now, in an age of instant global access through digital media, it is vitally important that journalists, authors and publishers, as well as the lawyers who serve them, be fully up on the laws governing media, worldwide. The ultimate resource for all the media content providers and purveyors, this fully updated and expanded Third Edition of the critically-acclaimed handbook offers you instant access to relevant libel and privacy laws and important legal rulings in the Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas. It clearly and concisely explains risks publishers should know about prior to publication, steps they can take in order to avoid legal conflicts, and legal defences available to them in the event of a claim.

  • Offers nation-by-nation summaries of libel and privacy law written by local practitioners in an easy-to-use reference format

  • Expanded to include coverage of important emerging territories—Mexico, Israel, and Argentina, et al—as well as the latest libel and privacy rulings

  • Features new chapters on emerging media markets—including Israel, Mexico, Argentina, Jordan, and others—as well as valuable updates to the Middle East section

  • Provides updates on all major media markets and nations, along with coverage of changes in libel laws in key jurisdictions, including Australia, the UK, Hungary and Germany

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Series page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface: Understanding Media Law in the Global Context
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Introduction: How to Use This Book
  8. Part I: Americas
    1. Chapter 1: Argentina
      1. Introduction to the Argentinean Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If it is permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts have enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    2. Chapter 2: Brazil
      1. Introduction to the Brazilian Civil Code and Media Law
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as in a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases in which the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    3. Chapter 3: Canada
      1. Introduction to the Canadian Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What fault standards are applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    4. Chapter 4: Chile
      1. Introduction to the Chilean Legal System
      2. The Chilean Civil Code Tradition
      3. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      4. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      5. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      6. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      7. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel even though not named?
      8. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      9. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      10. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      11. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      12. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      13. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      14. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      15. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      16. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      17. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      18. 16. If it is permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      19. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      20. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      21. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      22. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      23. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      24. Notes
    5. Chapter 5: Mexico
      1. Introduction to the Mexican Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If it is permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    6. Chapter 6: United States
      1. Introduction to the U.S. Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
  9. Part II: Asia and Australia
    1. Chapter 7: Australia
      1. Introduction to Australian Media Law
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    2. Chapter 8: China
      1. Introduction to the Chinese Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If it is permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Appendix: Navigating Media Law in China
      24. Notes
    3. Chapter 9: Hong Kong
      1. Introduction to the Hong Kong Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If it is permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    4. Chapter 10: India
      1. Introduction to Indian Legal System
      2. 1. Please state the most widely accepted definition of libel. Please include examples of statements (with citation) that have been found to be defamatory, and if possible, cases where the speech at issue was not found to have a defamatory meaning.
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. Please describe the fault standard(s) applied to libel, particularly:
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers? (Please cite cases where applicable.)
      21. 20. If so, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    5. Chapter 11: Japan
      1. Introduction to the Japanese Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    6. Chapter 12: Korea
      1. Introduction to the Korean Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    7. Chapter 13: Malaysia
      1. Introduction to the Malaysian Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a claimant, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)? If so:
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If so, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the Courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    8. Chapter 14: Singapore
      1. Introduction to the Singapore Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    9. Chapter 15: Thailand
      1. Introduction to the Thai Legal System
      2. 1. Please describe the structure of the civil court system in your jurisdiction.
      3. 2. Please state the most widely accepted definition of libel, and if possible, include examples of statements held to be defamatory and not defamatory.
      4. 3. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the claimant?
      5. 4. May a corporation sue for libel? Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. Please describe the fault standard(s) applied to libel, particularly:
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a claimant such as a demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right to privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally), and if so:
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      22. Notes
  10. Part III: Europe
    1. Chapter 16: Belgium
      1. Introduction to the Belgium Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May Corporations Sue for Libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)? If so:
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If so, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    2. Chapter 17: England and Wales
      1. Introduction to the United Kingdom Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    3. Chapter 18: France
      1. Introduction to the French Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    4. Chapter 19: Germany
      1. Introduction to the German Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    5. Chapter 20: Italy
      1. Introduction to Italian Media Law
      2. The Structure of the Civil Court System
      3. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      4. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      5. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      6. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      7. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel even though not named?
      8. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      9. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      10. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      11. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff such as a demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      12. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      13. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      14. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding:
      15. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      16. 14. Is a right to privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)? If so:
      17. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      18. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      19. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      20. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which publishers should be aware?
      21. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers?
      22. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      23. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      24. Notes
    6. Chapter 21: Netherlands
      1. Introduction to Netherlands Media Law
      2. 1. Please state the most widely accepted definition of libel.
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. Please describe the fault standard(s) applied to libel, particularly:
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied the above law to Internet publishers (please cite cases where applicable)?
      21. 20. If so, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    7. Chapter 22: Poland
      1. Introduction to Polish Media Law
      2. 1. What is the most widely accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, alternatively, must the complained-of words alone defame the claimant?
      4. 3. May a corporation sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    8. Chapter 23: Russia
      1. Introduction to the Russian Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    9. Chapter 24: Spain
      1. Introduction to the Spanish Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    10. Chapter 25: Switzerland
      1. Introduction to the Swiss Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
  11. Part IV: Middle East
    1. Chapter 26: The Middle East
      1. Introduction to Media Law in the Middle East
      2. 1. Defamation in the Islamic Context
      3. 2. Iran
      4. 3. Iraq
      5. 4. Syria
      6. 5. Egypt
      7. 6. Lebanon
      8. 7. Saudi Arabia
      9. Notes
    2. Chapter 27: Israel
      1. Introduction to the Israeli Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
      23. Notes
    3. Chapter 28: Jordan
      1. Introduction to the Jordanian Legal System
      2. 1. What is the locally accepted definition of libel?
      3. 2. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the plaintiff?
      4. 3. May corporations sue for libel?
      5. 4. Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. What is the fault standard(s) applied to libel?
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with a government contract, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a plaintiff, such as demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding reporting on:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other prepublication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and, if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right of privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally)?
      16. 15. May reporters tape-record their own telephone conversations for note-taking purposes (not rebroadcast) without the consent of the other party?
      17. 16. If permissible to record such tapes, may they be broadcast without permission?
      18. 17. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      19. 18. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      20. 19. Has your jurisdiction applied established media law to Internet publishers?
      21. 20. If established media law has been applied to Internet publishers, are there any ways in which Internet publishers (including chat room operators) have to meet different standards?
      22. 21. Are there any cases where the courts enforced a judgment in libel from another jurisdiction against a publisher in your jurisdiction?
    4. Chapter 29: The United Arab Emirates (UAE)
      1. Introduction to Media Law in the UAE
      2. 1. Please describe the structure of the civil court system in your jurisdiction.
      3. 2. Please state the most widely accepted definition of libel, and, if possible, include examples of statements held to be defamatory and not defamatory.
      4. 3. Is libel by implication recognized, or, in the alternative, must the complained-of words alone defame the claimant?
      5. 4. May a corporation sue for libel? Is product disparagement recognized, and, if so, how does that differ from libel?
      6. 5. Must an individual be clearly identified (by name or photograph) to sue for libel? Can a group of persons sue for libel, even though not named?
      7. 6. Please describe the fault standard(s) applied to libel, particularly:
      8. 7. Is financial news about publicly traded companies, or companies involved with government contracts, considered a matter of public interest or otherwise privileged?
      9. 8. Is there a recognized protection for opinion or “fair comment” on matters of public concern?
      10. 9. Are there any requirements upon a claimant such as a demand for retraction or right of reply, and, if so, what impact do they have?
      11. 10. Is there a privilege for quoting or reporting on:
      12. 11. Is there a privilege for republishing statements made earlier by other, bona fide, reliable publications or wire services?
      13. 12. Are there any restrictions regarding:
      14. 13. Are prior restraints or other pre-publication injunctions available on the basis of libel or privacy, and if so, what are the standards for obtaining such relief?
      15. 14. Is a right to privacy recognized (either civilly or criminally), and if so:
      16. 15. Is there a recognized evidentiary privilege preventing the disclosure of confidential sources relied upon by reporters?
      17. 16. In the event that legal papers are served upon the newsroom (such as a civil complaint), are there any particular warnings about accepting service of which we should be aware?
      18. Notes
  12. Bibliography and Recommended Reading
  13. About the Editor
  14. About the Contributors
  15. Index