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International GAAP 2012: Generally Accepted Accounting Practice under International Financial Reporting Standards

Book Description

International GAAP is the leading and most comprehensive guide to interpreting and implementing IFRS. For accountants and auditors globally, it delivers guidance in addressing IFRS issues as they occur, in addition to being an invaluable resource when preparing interim and annual accounts.

New for the 2012 Edition

Updated annually to reflect the new IASB standards and interpretations, and to deliver the latest guidance on the application of IFRS, International GAAP 2012 has been fully revised in order to:

  • Deal with all new and amended authoritative pronouncements, including the new standards on Consolidated Financial Statements (IFRS 10), Joint Arrangements (IFRS 11), Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities (IFRS 12) and Fair Value Measurement (IFRS 13) and revisions to standards including Financial Instruments (IFRS 9), Presentation of Financial Statements (IAS 1), Income Taxes (IAS 12), Employee Benefits (IAS 19), Separate Financial Statements (IAS 27) and Investments in Associates and Joint Ventures (IAS 28).

  • Explain the many initiatives that are currently being pursued by the IASB and IFRS Interpretations Committee and that will lead to changes in accounting requirements. In particular, projects on Revenue Recognition, Leases, Financial Statement Presentation, Financial Instruments and Insurance Contracts may all significantly change current accounting practices.

  • Provide insight and guidance on the interpretation and practical application of IFRS from a truly global perspective, based on the experience of the book's authors in dealing with recent day-to-day practical issues.

  • Present the sections relating to Financial Instruments and Insurance Contracts in a separate volume for ease of access.

The book will be published in three volumes with over 4,000 pages, consisting 53 chapters and numerous illustrative examples.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. About this book
  5. Preface
  6. TOC
  7. Abbreviations
  8. Authoritative Literature
  9. Volume 1: Chapters 1 to 21
    1. Chapter 1: International GAAP
      1. 1 Why International Financial Reporting Standards Matter
      2. 2 The IFRS Foundation and the IASB
      3. 3 The IASB’s Technical Agenda and Global Convergence
      4. 4 The Adoption of IFRS Around the World
      5. 5 Summary
      6. References
    2. Chapter 2: The IASB’s Conceptual Framework
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The IASB’S Conceptual Framework
      3. 3 Convergence and the IASB-FASB Framework Project
      4. 4 Conclusion
      5. References
    3. Chapter 3: Presentation of financial statements and accounting policies
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Purpose and Composition of Financial Statements
      3. 3 The Structure of Financial Statements
      4. 4 Accounting Policies
      5. 5 Disclosure Requirements
      6. 6 Future Developments
      7. References
    4. Chapter 4: Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued operations
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Non-Current Assets (and Disposal Groups) Held for Sale
      3. 3 Discontinued Operations
      4. 4 Comparative Information
      5. 5 Disclosure Requirements
      6. 6 Future Developments
      7. References
    5. Chapter 5: First-time adoption
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Effective Date
      3. 3 Recognition and Measurement
      4. 4 Exceptions to Retrospective Application of Other IFRSs
      5. 5 Voluntary Exemptions from the Requirements of Certain IFRSs
      6. 6 Presentation and Disclosure
      7. 7 Accounting Policies and Practical Application Issues
      8. 8 Regulatory Issues
      9. 9 Future Developments
      10. 10 A ‘Living’ Document
      11. References
    6. Chapter 6: Consolidated Financial Statements (IAS 27)
      1. 1 The Concept of a Group
      2. 2 Definitions in IAS 27
      3. 3 Requirement to Prepare Consolidated Financial Statements
      4. 4 Scope of Consolidated Financial Statements
      5. 5 Disclosure in Consolidated Financial Statements
      6. References
    7. Chapter 7: Consolidated financial statements (IFRS 10)
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Effective Date, Objective and Scope of IFRS 10
      3. 3 Control
      4. 4 Power Over an Investee
      5. 5 Exposure to Variable Returns
      6. 6 Link Between Power and Returns: Principal-Agency Situations
      7. 7 Related Parties and De Facto Agents
      8. 8 Control of Specified Assets
      9. 9 Continuous Assessment
      10. 10 Consolidation Procedures
      11. 11 Disclosure Requirements
      12. 12 Transitional Arrangements
      13. 13 Future Developments
      14. References
    8. Chapter 8: Consolidation procedures and non-controlling interests
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Consolidation Procedures
      3. 3 Changes in Ownership Interests
      4. 4 Non-Controlling Interests
      5. 5 Call and Put Options Over Non-Controlling Interests
      6. 6 IFRS 10 Requirements Relating to Consolidation Procedures and Non-Controlling Interests
      7. 7 Future Developments
      8. References
    9. Chapter 9: Separate and individual financial statements
      1. 1 Separate and Individual Financial Statements
      2. 2 Requirements of Separate Financial Statements
      3. 3 Disclosure
      4. 4 Individual Financial Statements
      5. References
    10. Chapter 10: Business combinations
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Scope of IFRS 3
      3. 3 Identifying a Business Combination
      4. 4 Acquisition Method of Accounting
      5. 5 Recognition and Measurement of Assets Acquired, Liabilities Assumed and Non-Controlling Interests
      6. 6 Recognising and Measuring Goodwill or a Gain in a Bargain Purchase
      7. 7 Consideration Transferred
      8. 8 Recognising and Measuring Non-Controlling Interests
      9. 9 Business Combinations Achieved in Stages (‘Step Acquisitions’)
      10. 10 Bargain Purchase Transactions
      11. 11 Pre-Existing Relationships: Assessing What is Part of the Exchange for the Acquiree
      12. 12 Measurement Period
      13. 13 Subsequent Measurement and Accounting
      14. 14 Reverse Acquisitions
      15. 15 Push Down Accounting
      16. 16 Disclosures
      17. 17 Effective Dates and Transitional Arrangements
      18. 18 Fair Value Measurement
      19. References
    11. Chapter 11: Common Control Business Combinations
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The IFRS 3 Exemption
      3. 3 Accounting for Business Combinations Involving Entities or Businesses Under Common Control
      4. 4 Group Reorganisations
      5. References
    12. Chapter 12: Associates
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Scope of IAS 28
      3. 3 Application of the Equity Method
      4. 4 Impairment Losses
      5. 5 Presentation and Disclosure
      6. 6 IAS 28 (2011)
      7. 7 Transitional Issues
      8. References
    13. Chapter 13: Joint ventures
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Scope of IAS 31
      3. 3 Jointly Controlled Operations
      4. 4 Jointly Controlled Assets
      5. 5 Jointly Controlled Entities
      6. 6 Transactions Between a Venturer and a Joint Venture
      7. 7 Operators of Joint Ventures
      8. 8 Variable Profit Share
      9. 9 Related Party Disclosures
      10. 10 Presentation and Disclosure
      11. 11 Transitional Issues
      12. References
    14. Chapter 14: Joint arrangements (IFRS 11)
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Effective Date, Objective and Scope of IFRS 11
      3. 3 Joint Arrangement
      4. 4 Joint Control
      5. 5 Classification of a Joint Arrangement: Joint Operations and Joint Ventures
      6. 6 Accounting for Joint Operations
      7. 7 Accounting for Joint Ventures
      8. 8 Continuous Assessment
      9. 9 Disclosures
      10. 10 Transitional Arrangements
      11. References
    15. Chapter 15: Disclosure of interests in other entities
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective, Scope and Effective Date of IFRS 12
      3. 3 Disclosure of Significant Estimates and Judgements
      4. 4 Disclosure of Interests in Subsidiaries
      5. 5 Disclosure of Interests in Joint Arrangements and Associates
      6. 6 Disclosure of Interests in Unconsolidated structured Entities
      7. 7 Future Developments
      8. References
    16. Chapter 16: Fair Value Measurement
      1. 1 Introduction and Background
      2. 2 Scope
      3. 3 Definitions
      4. 4 The Fair Value Framework
      5. 5 The Asset or Liability
      6. 6 The Principal (or most Advantageous) Market
      7. 7 Market Participants
      8. 8 The Transaction
      9. 9 The Price
      10. 10 Application to Non-Financial Assets
      11. 11 Application to Liabilities and an entity’s Own Equity
      12. 12 Financial Assets and Liabilities with Offsetting Positions
      13. 13 Fair Value at Initial Recognition
      14. 14 Valuation Techniques
      15. 15 Inputs to Valuation Techniques
      16. 16 The Fair Value Hierarchy
      17. 17 Disclosures
      18. 18 Effective Date and Transition
      19. References
    17. Chapter 17: Foreign exchange
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 IAS 21: Objective, Scope and Definitions
      3. 3 Summary of the Approach Required by IAS 21
      4. 4 Determination of An Entity’s Functional Currency
      5. 5 Reporting Foreign Currency Transactions in the Functional Currency of an Entity
      6. 6 Use of a Presentation Currency Other Than the Functional Currency
      7. 7 Change of Presentation Currency
      8. 8 Introduction of the Euro
      9. 9 Tax Effects of All Exchange Differences
      10. 10 Disclosure Requirements
      11. References
    18. Chapter 18: Hyperinflation
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Requirements of IAS 29
      3. 3 Selection Of A General Price Index
      4. 4 Analysis and Restatement of Balance Sheet Items
      5. 5 Analysis and Restatement of Items in Other Primary Financial Statements
      6. 6 Interim Reporting
      7. 7 Transition
      8. 8 Translation to a Different Presentation Currency
      9. 9 Disclosures
      10. References
    19. Chapter 19: Intangible assets
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 38
      3. 3 Recognition and Measurement
      4. 4 Separate Acquisition
      5. 5 Acquisition as Part of a Business Combination
      6. 6 Acquisition By Way of Government Grant
      7. 7 Exchanges of Assets
      8. 8 Internally Generated Intangible Assets
      9. 9 Recognition of an Expense
      10. 10 Measurement After Initial Recognition
      11. 11 Amortisation of Intangible Assets
      12. 12 Disclosure
      13. 13 Practical Issues
      14. 14 Transitional Arrangements
      15. 15 Future Developments
      16. References
    20. Chapter 20: Property, plant and equipment
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Requirements of IAS 16
      3. 3 Recognition
      4. 4 Measurement at Recognition
      5. 5 Measurement After Recognition: Cost Model
      6. 6 Measurement After Recognition: Revaluation Model
      7. 7 Derecognition and Disposal
      8. 8 IAS 16 Disclosure Requirements
      9. References
    21. Chapter 21: Investment property
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Definitions and Scope
      3. 3 Recognition
      4. 4 Initial Measurement
      5. 5 Measurement After Initial Recognition
      6. 6 The Fair Value Model
      7. 7 The Cost Model
      8. 8 IFRS 5 and Investment Property
      9. 9 Transfer of Assets into or from Investment Property
      10. 10 Disposal of Investment Property
      11. 11 Interim Reporting and IAS 40
      12. 12 The Disclosure Requirements of IAS 40
      13. 13 Future Developments
  10. Volume 2: Chapters 22 to 41
    1. Chapter 22: Impairment of fixed assets and goodwill
      1. 1 The Theory Behind the Impairment Review
      2. 2 The Requirements of IAS 36
      3. 3 Fair Value Less Costs to Sell
      4. 4 Determining Value in Use (VIU)
      5. 5 Impairment of Goodwill
      6. 6 Reversing Impairment Losses
      7. 7 Disclosures Required by IAS 36
      8. 8 Testing for Impairment: Group Issues
      9. References
    2. Chapter 23: Capitalisation of borrowing costs
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Requirements of IAS
      3. 3 Practical Issues
      4. References
    3. Chapter 24: Inventories
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Scope of IAS 2
      3. 3 Measurement
      4. 4 Real Estate Inventory
      5. 5 Recognition in Profit or Loss
      6. 6 Disclosure Requirements of IAS 2
      7. References
    4. Chapter 25: Construction contracts
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Combination and Segmentation of Contracts
      3. 3 Contract Revenue, Costs and Expenses
      4. 4 Disclosure Requirements of IAS 11
      5. References
    5. Chapter 26: Leases
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 What Is A Lease?
      3. 3 SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS OF IAS 17
      4. 4 ACCOUNTING FOR FINANCE LEASES
      5. 5 ACCOUNTING FOR OPERATING LEASES
      6. 6 Modifying the Terms of Leases
      7. 7 Sale and Leaseback Transactions
      8. 8 Sub-Leases and Back-to-Back Leases
      9. 9 Disclosures Required by IAS 17
      10. 10 Updating Lease Accounting: Exposure Draft – Leases
      11. References
    6. Chapter 27: Government grants
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Requirements of IAS 20
      3. 3 Presentation of Grants
      4. 4 Disclosures
      5. References
    7. Chapter 28: Service Concession Arrangements
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Scope of Ifric 12
      3. 3 The Control Model
      4. 4 Accounting for the Infrastructure Asset: the Financial Asset and Intangible Asset Models
      5. 5 Revenue and Expenditure During the Operations Phase of the Concession Agreement
      6. 6 Current Disclosure Requirements: SIC-29
      7. References
    8. Chapter 29: Provisions, contingent liabilities and contingent assets
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 37
      3. 3 Recognition
      4. 4 Measurement
      5. 5 Specific Examples of Provisions and Contingencies
      6. 6 Disclosure Requirements
      7. 7 Future Developments
      8. References
    9. Chapter 30: Revenue Recognition
      1. 1 The Nature of Revenue
      2. 2 The Timing of Revenue Recognition
      3. 3 The Requirements of IAS 18
      4. 4 Revenue Recognition Under US GAAP
      5. 5 The IASB/FASB Joint Revenue Recognition Project
      6. 6 Practical Issues
      7. References
    10. Chapter 31: Income Taxes
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 12
      3. 3 Definitions
      4. 4 Scope
      5. 5 Current Tax
      6. 6 Deferred Tax – Tax Bases and Temporary Differences
      7. 7 Deferred Tax – Recognition
      8. 8 Deferred Tax – Measurement
      9. 9 Uncertain Tax Positions
      10. 10 Allocation of Tax Charge or Credit
      11. 11 Consolidated Tax Returns and Offset of Taxable Profits and Losses Within Groups
      12. 12 Business Combinations
      13. 13 Presentation
      14. 14 Disclosure
      15. 15 Possible Future Developments
      16. References
    11. Chapter 32: Share-based payment
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Objective and Scope of IFRS 2
      3. 3 General Recognition Principles
      4. 4 Equity-Settled Transactions – Overview
      5. 5 Equity-Settled Transactions – Cost of Awards
      6. 6 Equity-Settled Transactions – Allocation of Expense
      7. 7 Equity-Settled Transactions – Modification, Cancellation and Settlement
      8. 8 Equity-Settled Transactions – Valuation
      9. 9 Cash-Settled Transactions
      10. 10 Transactions with Cash Alternatives
      11. 11 Replacement Share-Based Payment Awards Issued in A Business Combination
      12. 12 Group Share Schemes
      13. 13 Disclosures
      14. 14 Taxes Related to Share-Based Payment Transactions
      15. 15 Other Practical Issues
      16. 16 First-Time Adoption and Transitional Provisions
      17. References
    12. Chapter 33: Employee benefits
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 19
      3. 3 Pensions and Other Post-Employment Benefits – Defined Contribution and Defined Benefit Plans
      4. 4 Defined Contribution Plans
      5. 5 Defined Benefit Plans
      6. 6 Other Employee Benefits
      7. 7 Disclosure Requirements
      8. 8 IAS 19(2011) for Periods Beginning on or After 1 January 2013
      9. 9 Possible Future Developments
      10. References
    13. Chapter 34: Operating segments
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IFRS 8
      3. 3 Identifying a Single Set of Operating Segments
      4. 4 Measurement
      5. 5 Information to be Disclosed about Reportable Segments
      6. 6 Transitional Provisions
      7. References
    14. Chapter 35: Earnings per share
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 33
      3. 3 The Basic Eps
      4. 4 Changes in Outstanding Ordinary Shares
      5. 5 Matters Affecting the Numerator
      6. 6 Diluted Earnings Per Share
      7. 7 Presentation, Restatement and Disclosure
      8. 8 Future Developments
      9. References
    15. Chapter 36: Events after the reporting period
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Requirements of IAS 10
      3. 3 Practical Issues
    16. Chapter 37: Related party disclosures
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Requirements of IAS 24
      3. 3 Future Developments
      4. References
    17. Chapter 38: Statement of cash flows
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 7
      3. 3 Cash and Cash Equivalents
      4. 4 Presentation of the Statement of Cash Flows
      5. 5 Additional IAS 7 Considerations for Groups
      6. 6 Additional IAS 7 Considerations for Financial Institutions
      7. 7 Requirements of Other Standards
      8. References
    18. Chapter 39: Interim Financial Reporting
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope of IAS 34
      3. 3 Components, Form and Content of an Interim Financial Report Under IAS 34
      4. 4 Disclosures in Condensed Financial Statements
      5. 5 Periods for Which Interim Financial Statements are Required to Be Presented
      6. 6 Materiality
      7. 7 Disclosure in Annual Financial Statements
      8. 8 Recognition and Measurement
      9. 9 Examples of the Recognition and Measurement Principles
      10. 10 Use of Estimates
      11. 11 Restatement of Previously Reported Interim Periods
      12. 12 Effective Dates and Transitional Rules
      13. 13 Future Developments
      14. References
    19. Chapter 40: Agriculture
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective, Definitions and Scope
      3. 3 Recognition and Measurement Principles
      4. 4 Determining Fair Value Less Costs to Sell
      5. 5 Disclosure
      6. References
    20. Chapter 41: Extractive industries
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Mineral Reserves and Resources
      3. 3 IFRS 6 – Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources
      4. 4 Practical Issues in the Extractive Industries
      5. 5 Practical Issues in the Oil and Gas Industry
      6. 6 Practical Issues in the Mining Industry
      7. References
  11. Volume 3: Chapters 42 to 53
    1. Chapter 42: Financial instruments: Introduction
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 How Financial Instruments are Dealt With in Chapters 42 to 52
      3. 3 Evolution of A Full Fair Value Accounting Model
      4. 4 Adoption of IFRS in The European Union
      5. 5 Impact of the Financial Crisis on Accounting for Financial Instruments
      6. References
    2. Chapter 43: Financial instruments: Definitions and scope
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 What is a Financial Instrument?
      3. 3 SCOPE
      4. 4 Contracts to Buy or Sell Commodities and Other Non-Financial Items
      5. 5 Future Developments
      6. References
    3. Chapter 44: Financial instruments: Derivatives and embedded derivatives
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Definition of A Derivative
      3. 3 Examples of Derivatives
      4. 4 Embedded Derivatives
      5. 5 Embedded Derivatives: The Meaning of ‘Closely Related’
      6. 6 Identifying The Terms of Embedded Derivatives and Host Contracts
      7. 7 Reassessment of Embedded Derivatives
      8. 8 Linked and Separate Transactions and ‘Synthetic’ Instruments
      9. References
    4. Chapter 45: Financial instruments: Financial liabilities and equity
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Objective and Scope
      3. 3 Definitions
      4. 4 Classification of Instruments
      5. 5 Contracts Settled by Delivery of the Entity's Own Equity Instruments
      6. 6 Compound Financial Instruments
      7. 7 Settlement of Financial Liability with Equity Instrument
      8. 8 Interest, Dividends, Gains and Losses
      9. 9 Treasury Shares
      10. 10 Contracts Over Own Equity Instruments
      11. 11 Transitional Provisions
      12. 12 Possible Future Developments
      13. References
    5. Chapter 46: Financial instruments: Classification (IAS 39)
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Assets and Liabilities at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss
      3. 3 Held-to-Maturity Investments
      4. 4 Loans and Receivables
      5. 5 Available-for-Sale Assets
      6. 6 Reclassifications
      7. 7 Classification of Financial Instruments in a Business Combination
      8. 8 Future Developments
      9. References
    6. Chapter 47: Financial instruments: Classification (IFRS 9)
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Classifying Financial Assets: an Overview
      3. 3 Classifying Financial Liabilities: an Overview
      4. 4 Financial Assets: The ‘Business Model’ Test
      5. 5 Financial Assets: The ‘Contractual Characteristics’ Test
      6. 6 Designation at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss
      7. 7 Designation of Equity Investments at Fair Value Through Other Comprehensive Income
      8. 8 Reclassification of Financial Assets
      9. 9 Effective Date and Transition
      10. References
    7. Chapter 48: Financial Instruments: Recognition and Initial Measurement
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Recognition
      3. 3 Initial Measurement
      4. 4 Effective Dates and Transitional Provisions
      5. References
    8. Chapter 49: Financial instruments: Subsequent measurement
      1. 1 Overview
      2. 2 Subsequent Measurement and Recognition of Gains and Losses (IAS 39)
      3. 3 Subsequent Measurement and Recognition of Gains and Losses (IFRS 9)
      4. 4 Fair Value Measurement Considerations
      5. 5 Amortised Cost and the Effective Interest Method
      6. 6 Impairment
      7. 7 Foreign Currencies
      8. 8 Effective Dates and Transitional Provisions
      9. 9 Future Developments
      10. References
    9. Chapter 50: Financial instruments: Derecognition
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Development of IFRS
      3. 3 Derecognition – Financial Assets
      4. 4 Practical Application of the Derecognition Criteria
      5. 5 Accounting Treatment
      6. 6 Derecognition – Financial Liabilities
    10. Chapter 51: Financial instruments: Hedge accounting
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Hedging Instruments and Hedged Items
      3. 3 Types of Hedging Relationships
      4. 4 Accounting for Effective Hedges
      5. 5 Qualifying Conditions for Hedge Accounting
      6. 6 Portfolio (or Macro) Hedging
      7. 7 Future Developments
    11. Chapter 52: Financial instruments: Presentation and disclosure
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 Scope of IFRS 7
      3. 3 Structuring the Disclosures
      4. 4 Significance of Financial Instruments for an Entity’s Financial Position and Performance
      5. 5 Nature and Extent of Risks Arising from Financial Instruments
      6. 6 Transfers of Financial Assets
      7. 7 Presentation on the Face of the Financial Statements and Related Disclosures
      8. 8 Effective Dates and Transitional Provisions
      9. 9 Future Developments
    12. Chapter 53: Insurance contracts
      1. 1 Introduction
      2. 2 The Objectives and Scope of IFRS 4
      3. 3 The Definition of an Insurance Contract
      4. 4 Embedded Derivatives
      5. 5 Unbundling of Deposit Components
      6. 6 Discretionary Participation Features
      7. 7 Selection of Accounting Policies
      8. 8 Changes in Accounting Policies
      9. 9 Insurance Contracts Acquired in Business Combinations and Portfolio Transfers
      10. 10 Disclosure
      11. 11 Future Developments in Insurance Contract Accounting
  12. Index of extracts from financial statements
  13. Index of standards
  14. Index