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International Business: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications

Book Description

Business transactions and partnerships across borders have become easier than ever due to globalization and global digital connectivity. As part of this shift in the business sphere, managers, executives, and strategists across industries must acclimate themselves with the challenges and opportunities for conducting business globally. International Business: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents the latest research innovations focusing on cross-cultural communications and training, international relations, multinational enterprises, outsourcing, international business strategies, and competitive advantage in the global marketplace. This publication is an exhaustive multi-volume work essential to academic and corporate libraries who serve researchers, scholars, business executives and professionals, and graduate-level business students.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: An Overview of E-Government Technological Divide in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. E-GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. THE TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE
      6. CHALLENGES OF E-GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      7. BRIDGING THE E-GOVERNMENT TECHNOLOGICAL DIVIDE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Global Market Trends
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAJOR TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKETS
      4. BENEFITS OF ACCESSING THE GLOBAL MARKET
      5. COSTS OF ACCESSING THE GLOBAL MARKET
      6. THE CHANGING PATTERN OF GLOBAL TRADE
      7. WHAT PRODUCTS DO COUNTRIES TRADE IN THE GLOBAL MARKET?
      8. PRODUCT COMPOSITION AND TRENDS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES’ EXPORTS
      9. IS THE GLOBAL MARKET RIGGED AGAINST NEW ENTRANTS?
      10. WHICH COUNTRIES TRADE MORE AND WHY? A DISCUSSION BEYOND THE GRAVITY MODEL
      11. WHICH COUNTRIES ARE TRADING MORE TODAY AND WHY?
      12. WHAT FACTORS HAVE LIMITED MOST DEVELOPING FROM ACCESSING AND BENEFITING FROM THE GLOBAL MARKET?
      13. WAYS OF INCREASING GLOBAL MARKET ACCESS TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: Contextual Factors Influencing Information Seeking Behavior of Social Scientists
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH TRADITIONS AND THE PUBLICATION PATTERNS AND FORMATS
      4. CONDITIONS INFLUENCE INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIORS OF SCHOLARS IN NON-WESTERN, DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Examining Tacit Knowledge Acquisition and Opportunity Recognition in International Buyer-Supplier Collaborations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONAL BUYER-SUPPLIER COLLABORATIONS
      4. THE CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE
      5. THE ACQUISITION OF TACIT KNOWLEDGE
      6. RELATIONAL ELEMENTS INFLUENCING TACIT KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: Foreign Direct Investment in Land Acquisitions in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DRIVERS OF FOREIGN LAND ACQUISITIONS
      4. SMALLHOLDERS AND LAND ACQUISITIONS
      5. LAND ACQUISITIONS AND INDIAN EXPERIENCES
      6. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES AND LAND ACQUISITIONS
      7. CONCLUSION AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Russia's Foreign Trade in Agricultural Commodities in Its Transition to Liberalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN PRODUCTION IN RUSSIA: POTENTIALS AND BARRIERS
      6. RECENT REFORMS RELATED TO GREEN PRODUCTION: CASES OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AND RUSSIA
      7. FUTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE IN GREEN PRODUCTS IN RUSSIA: LIBERALIZATION VS. PROTECTIONISM
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: B2B E-Commerce Success among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 8: Achieving Standardization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
      4. 3. RESEARCH APPROACH
      5. 4. E-CUSTOMS STANDARDS AND INTEROPERABILITY
      6. 5. A TAXONOMY OF E-CUSTOMS STANDARDS IMPLEMENTATION DEVIATION
      7. 6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Significance of Innovation Policies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Ambient Learning Conceptual Framework for Bridging Digital Divide in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RELATED FRAMEWORKS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FRAMEWORK
      7. RESULTS: CASE STUDIES
      8. CROSS CASE ANALYSIS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Global Accreditation for a Knowledge-Oriented Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REGIONAL EFFORTS AT ACCREDITATION
      5. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT
      6. CURRENT GLOBAL ACCREDITATION EFFORTS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND THE FUTURE OF GLOBAL ACCREDITATION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Fair Share of Supply Chain Responsibility for Low Carbon Manufacturing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OVERVIEW OF CARBON ABATEMENT PRACTICES
      5. CARBON IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR CHINA’S EXPORT AND ECONOMY WITH SCENARIO
      6. RESULTS
      7. SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Integration and Foreign Investment in Latin America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE OVERVIEW
      4. THE FACTS
      5. THE CONTEXT: THE COMPETING TRADING BLOCS
      6. SPECIFICATION AND ESTIMATION OF THE ECONOMETRIC MODEL
      7. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 14: Globalization, Consumer's Preference, and Welfare in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND MARKET STRUCTURE
      5. THE GENERAL FORMULATION
      6. SOCIAL ACCOUNTING MATRIX
      7. STRUCTURE OF BENCHMARK CGE MODEL UNDER PERFECT COMPETITION
      8. INCLUSION OF MARKET IMPERFECTIONS INTO CGE MODEL
      9. DATABASE AND CALIBRATION
      10. SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS
      11. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      12. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. REFERENCES
      14. END NOTES
    15. Chapter 15: Supply Chain System and Barriers of Exporting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 16: Internationalization Process of Innovative SMEs in Lebanon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMEs: A LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 2. THE CONCOMITANT BETWEEN INNOVATION AND SMEs INTERNATIONALIZATION
      5. 3. CONSTRUCTION OF A FRAMEWORK STYLISED OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF LEBANESE SMEs
      6. 4. EMPIRICAL VALIDATION AND TESTING RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. LIMITS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
      13. APPENDIX 1: FIGURES 3-6
      14. APPENDIX 2: REFERENCE
    17. Chapter 17: Climate Change, Trade Competitiveness, and Opportunity for Climate Friendly Goods in SAARC and Asia Pacific Regions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CFG TRADE ANALYSIS AND ITS IMPORTANCE
      5. DATA AND ANALYSIS OF TRADE PERFORMANCE OF CFG
      6. EVALUATION OF COMPETITIVENESS
      7. POTENTIAL TRADE OPPORTUNITY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 18: Barriers to Information Access for Specialized Scholars
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. BARRIERS TO INFORMATION ACCESS
      5. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY SOCIAL SCIENCE FACULTY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      6. BARRIERS TO INFORMATION ACCESS IN LIS EDUCATION
      7. PATTERNS OF INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF SOCIAL SCIENTISTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      8. INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES VERSES DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
      9. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      15. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 19: Effect of National Culture on Development of International Business in the Sultanate of Oman
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CULTURE IS LEARNED
      5. CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
      6. THE SULTANATE OF OMAN
      7. OMAN CULTURAL OVERVIEW
      8. OMAN BUSINESS OVERVIEW
      9. A SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATEGY IN 1975
      10. NATIONAL CULTURE OF OMAN AND INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 20: Doing It Different
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FTAs AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY: THE FUSION
      4. TRIPS-PLUS FTAs FOR AFRICA? SETTING THE STAGE
      5. THE NEW AFRICAN IP LANDSCAPE
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 21: Entrepreneurship, Firm Internationalization and Regional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE FIRM
      4. INTERNATIONALIZATION THEORIES: STAGE MODEL VS NEW INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
      5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP, INTERNATIONALIZATION, AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 22: An Effective Methodology for Road Accident Data Collection in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ACCIDENT DATA COLLECTION MECHANISM IN DEVELOPING NATIONS
      4. NGO BASED DATA COLLECTION - KARACHI CASE STUDY
      5. SUCCESS STORIES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCEs
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 23: Ontology Development and the Role of Knowledge in E-Government Project Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSIGHTS FROM THE LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. ZIMBABWEAN E-GOVERNMENT CONTEXT
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 24: Knowledge Absorptive Capacity for Technological Innovation Capabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT BACKGROUND
      4. KNOWLEDGE ABSORPTIVE CAPACITY (KAC): CONCEPTUAL FRAMWORKS
      5. TECHNOLOGICAL LEARNING PROCESS MODELS IN KOREA
      6. EMPLOYED METHODS
      7. PROPOSED MODEL
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 25: E-Government Development in Botswana
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 26: Using Information Technology to Spread Awareness about Communicable Diseases
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES AGAINST CURBING THE SPREAD OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
      4. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AS A DELIVERY MECHANISM
      5. PREVENTING THE SPREAD OF WRONG/FALSE INFORMATION THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS
      6. RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH UTILIZING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND SUGGESTIONS TO MINIMIZE THESE RISKS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 27: The Business Value of Information System-Enabled E-Collaboration Capabilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. 3. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      5. 4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. 6. DISCUSSION
      8. 7. IMPLICATION FOR EXECUTIVES AND INDUSTRY
      9. 8. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      10. 9. LIMITATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      11. 10. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 28: Strategic Advantage in Web Tourism Promotion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITRETURE REVIEW
      4. WEBSITE INTERACTION AND EVALUATION
      5. INFORMATION QUALITY
      6. ELECTRONIC SERVICE QUALITY (E-SQ)
      7. TRUST AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERFACE
      8. MODEL OF TRUST FOR ELECTRONIC COMMERCE (MOTEC)
      9. TRUST INDUCING DESIGN FRAMEWORK – A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL
      10. THE ROLE OF WEB 2.0
      11. INFORMATION LITERACY INITIATIVES
      12. LITRETURE SUMMARY
      13. METHODOLOGY
      14. RESULTS
      15. REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS
      16. STRATEGY
      17. DISCUSSION
      18. REFERENCES
      19. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 29: ICT Adoption by Virtual Organizations in the Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 30: Culture, Tradition and Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE AND TRADITION AND DIGESTION OF TECHNOLOGY
      4. TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURE
      5. ACADEMIC LIBRARIES AND INTEGRATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES
      6. DIGITAL AND INFORMATION DIVIDE: SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT
      7. LIBRARIES FACING TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOCRACY
      8. DISCOVERY, CHANGE AND REINVENTION
      9. IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON LIBRARIES
      10. CHALLENGES OF THE DIGITAL REVOLUTION
      11. ORAL TRADITIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 31: The Use of Mobile Technology in Management and Risk Control in the Supply Chain
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHOD
      5. THE CASE OF A BRAZILIAN BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FINAL REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 32: Adoption of E-Government in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT STATUS IN AFRICA
      4. STUDY AIM AND OBJECTIVES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
      7. BENEFITS OF E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
      8. E-GOVERNMENT DELIVERY MODELS
      9. BENCHMARKING E-GOVERNMENT
      10. E-GOVERNMENT READINESS
      11. E-Government Initiatives in Africa
      12. Africa’s E-Government Readiness
      13. Challenges and Barriers to E-Government Adoption
      14. THE ROLE OF LIBRARIES IN E-GOVERNMENT
      15. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 33: The Importance of Information and Communication Technologies in Establishing Healthcare Services with a Universal Coverage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNIVERSALISM IN HEALTHCARE SERVICES
      4. TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTHCARE SERVICES
      5. E-HEALTH
      6. E-HEALTH APPLICATION TOOLS
      7. INTERNET
      8. MOBILE PHONES
      9. COMMON PROBLEMS IN E-HEALTH APPLICATIONS
      10. E-HEALTH IN TURKEY
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 34: Perceptions and Viability of Launching LIS E-Learning Programs in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 35: Empirical Study of Barriers to Electronic Commerce Uptake by SMEs in Developing Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REASONS FOR E-COMMERCE ADOPTION
      4. BARRIERS TO E-COMMERCE TO CONSUMERS AND ORGANISATIONS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. PROFILE OF SMES
      7. INSTRUMENT
      8. RESEARCH CONDUCT
      9. INFORMATION ANALYSIS AND THEME DERIVATION
      10. DERIVATION OF THEMES
      11. STUDY FINDINGS
      12. BARRIERS TO E-COMMERCE ADOPTION AMONG SMES IN NIGERIA
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. RECOMMENDATIONS
      15. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 36: Electronic Government and Rural Development in Anglophone West Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN MEANINGFUL CONTEXT
      4. THE NATURE AND CHARACTER OF RURAL AREAS IN ANGLOPHONE WEST AFRICA
      5. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES OF E-GOVERNMENT IN ANGLOPHONE WEST AFRICA
      6. AN ASSESSMENTS OF E-GOVERNMENT AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ANGLOPHONE WEST AFRICA
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 37: Sustainable Energy and the Growth of Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 38: Wired for Change?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GOVERNANCE, GOVERNMENT AND ICTS: A CONCEPTUAL EXPLORATION
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. URBAN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION REFORM AND ICTS: THE INDIAN EXPERIENCE
      6. PROPERTY TAX AND E-GOVERNMENT IN INDIA: THE CASE OF KARNATAKA STATE
      7. COMPUTERISING PROPERTY TAX: THE NIRMALA NAGARA PROJECT
      8. CHALLENGES TO EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION
      9. RUBBER HITS ROAD: THE PROPERTY TAX INFORMATION SYSTEM IN FIGURES
      10. DISCUSSION: AN OVERVIEW OF KEY RESULTS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 39: ICT4D and its Potential Role in the Detection, Surveillance, and Prevention of Novel Zoonotic Disease Outbreaks for Global, National, and Local Pandemic Prevention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POSSIBLE NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF ICT4D FOR PANDEMIC PREVENTION
      4. DEVELOPING ICT4D INTUITIONS: SOME POSSIBLE ICT4D TOOL AFFORDANCES THAT MAY BE USED IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PANDEMIC PREVENTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 40: Enabling Instruments for Digital Access and e-Government in Zimbabwe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STRATEGIES FOR ENABLING DIGITAL ACCESS AND E-GOVERNMENT
      5. THE ROLE OF PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN E-GOVERNEMNT
      6. PUBLIC LIBRARIES AND E-GOVERNMENT IN ZIMBABWE
      7. WAY FORWARD
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 41: The Level of E-Government Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
      4. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. RESULTS FOR DATA ANALYSIS
      7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 42: Open Source Software Adaptation in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE OVERVIEW
      4. OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE ADAPTATION
      5. OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PRACTICE IN AFRICA
      6. CONTEXT AND METHODS
      7. HYPOTHESIS VALIDATION AND DISCUSSIONS
      8. OVERAL FINDINGS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX
    18. Chapter 43: Telecentres as a Medium for Good Governance in Rural India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: GOOD GOVERNANCE
      3. GOOD GOVERNANCE IN THE INDIAN CONTEXT
      4. E-GOVERNANCE AND E-GOVERNMENT
      5. E-GOVERNANCE FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE
      6. TELECENTRES AS A MEDIUM FOR E-GOVERNMENT SERVICES
      7. TELECENTRE CONCEPTS
      8. SUSTAINABILITY OF TELECENTRES
      9. E-GOVERNMENT AND TELECENTRES IN INDIA
      10. IMPACT OF TELECENTRES IN INDIA IN RELATION TO GOOD GOVERNANCE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      15. ENDNOTES
    19. Chapter 44: Understanding the Weak Performance of Technology in Urban Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LAND INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE 1980S: CONTEXT AND PROBLEMS
      4. CONCEPTUAL AND METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORKS
      5. THE URBAN LAND REGISTRY ‘AT WORK’: THE MULTIPLE-CASE STUDY
      6. DISCUSSION: FINANCIAL, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL INTERFERENCES IN THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 45: International Business Initiatives of the Turkish Enterprises in Global Trade
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF ENTERPRISES
      6. TRADE POLICIES OF THE TURKISH ENTERPRISES AND THE IMPACTS ON THE TURKISH ECONOMY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF OUTSOURCING THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 46: Testing Random Walk Hypothesis in Turkish Foreign Exchange Market
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DATA
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 47: A Comparison of the Information Needs and Information Seeking Behavior of Entrepreneurs in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Developing and Developed Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STUDIES OF INFORMATION NEEDS OF SMES IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      4. TYPES OF INFORMATION NEEDED AND SOURCES USED
      5. BARRIERS TO INFORMATION
      6. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 48: A Structurationist Analysis of Differing Policies Oriented to the Pharmaceutical Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DIFFERING STATE STRATEGIES SPECIFIC TO THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: HOBSON’S APPROACH
      4. PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, AND STRUCTURATIONIST APPROACH: BRAZIL AND TURKEY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 49: A Comparison between International Trade and R&D Collaboration Networks in the European Aerospace Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES
      5. THE ANALYSIS THROUGH AGGREGATE AND BOTTOM-UP INDEXES
      6. CORE-PERIPHERY ANALYSIS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 50: An International Trade Comparison of Two Supposedly Different Sectors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
      4. AEROSPACE TRADE WEB
      5. COMMON EARTH MATERIALS RADE WEB
      6. TOPOLOGICAL SIMILARITY
      7. SCALE-FREE AND SMALL-WORLD PROPERTIES
      8. ASSORTATIVITY AND CORE-PERIPHERY ANALYSIS
      9. A STRAIGHT COMPARISON
      10. SYNTHETIC EVALUATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
      14. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 51: Factors Determining Foreign Direct Investment Inflow to Nigeria during Pre-Financial Crisis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE
      4. METHODOLOGY AND DATA
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX
    8. Chapter 52: A Case Study on Cross-Cultural Differences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
      6. 5. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    9. Chapter 53: Reverse Innovation and the Bottom of the Pyramid Proposition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REVERSE INNOVATION AND THE BOP IN INDIA
      5. FOUR-STAGE MODEL OF REVERSE INNOVATION FROM THE BOP
      6. APPLYING THE FOUR STAGES MODEL TO THE INDIAN BOP CASES
      7. SOCIAL IMPACTS OF REVERSE INNOVATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 54: The Impact of Exchange Rate on Tourism Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. DATA, METHOD, AND ANALYSIS
      5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREIGN EXCHANGE RATE AND TOURISM DEMAND
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 55: Romania's Foreign Trade and of Other Former Communist Countries in 2003-2012
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE BALANCE EVOLUTIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 56: A Comparative Analysis of the Human Resource Development Systems of Turkey and Uganda
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. OVERVIEW OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      5. CHAOS AND COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
      6. AN OVERVIEW OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEMS
      7. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY AND UGANDA
      8. DEVELOPING HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY
      9. IDENTIFICATION OF HUMAN RESOURCE NEEDS
      10. JOB ANNOUNCEMENT, HANDLING OF APPLICATIONS, INTERVIEWING AND RATING OF APPLICANTS
      11. APPOINTMENT AND POSTING OF SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES
      12. EMPLOYEE REMUNERATION
      13. JOB DESCRIPTION, INDUCTION AND ORIENTATION OF NEW EMPLOYEES
      14. SUPERVISION AND EVALUATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING EMPLOYEES
      15. EMPLOYEE RECORDS MANAGEMENT
      16. REWARDING EMPLOYEES
      17. PUNISHING EMPLOYEES
      18. TRANSFER OF EMPLOYEES
      19. EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
      20. UPGRADING AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEES
      21. CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND MANAGEMENT OF EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS
      22. EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT MANAGEMENT
      23. LESSONS FOR UGANDA’S HRM SYSTEM
      24. FUTURE TRENDS
      25. CONCLUSION
      26. REFERENCES
      27. ADDITIONAL READING
      28. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      29. APPENDIX
    13. Chapter 57: Commitment-Trust Dynamics in the Internationalization Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONALIZATION
      4. NETWORK-BASED VIEW OF INTERNATIONALIZATION
      5. MARKET ORIENTATION
      6. CUSTOMER ORIENTATION
      7. RELATIONSHIP ORIENTATION
      8. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS
      9. CASE STUDY
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 58: Impact of International Students on Interactive Skills and College Outcomes of Domestic Students in U.S. Colleges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
      4. RESEARCH METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 59: Japanese Cultural Traditions and International Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURAL TRADITIONS
      4. THE IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING THE JAPANESE CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 60: Initial Adoption vs. Institutionalization of E-Procurement in Construction Firms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. ANALYTICAL APPROACH AND THE RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
      8. IMPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. APPENDIX A
      13. APPENDIX B
    4. Chapter 61: E-Learning Implementation in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 62: The Roles of International Entrepreneurship and Organizational Innovation in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 63: The Roles of Sports Sponsorship and Brand Management in Global Sports Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROLES OF SPORTS SPONSORSHIP AND BRAND MANAGEMENT IN THE GLOBAL SPORTS MARKETING
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 64: Taxpayers' Attitudes towards Tax Evasion in Latin American Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN TAX STATISTICS IN LATIN AMERICA COUNTRIES
      4. TAX COMPLIANCE MODELS
      5. THE ROLE OF TAX MORALE IN SHAPING TAX COMPLIANCE BEHAVIOR
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 65: Institutional Reform and Export Competitiveness of Central and Eastern European Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ECONOMIC TRANSITION IN THE CEEs: BACKGROUND
      4. INSTITUTIONAL REFORM AND EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS
      5. EFFECTS OF INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS ON EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS
      6. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. Key Terms & Definitions
      9. APPENDIX: DEFINITION OF MEASURES AND SCORES USED IN TABLES 2 AND 3
    9. Chapter 66: Citizens' Voice and Adoption of Pakistani E-Government Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT ADOPTION
      4. ADOPTED RESEARCH MODEL
      5. EMPIRICAL STUDY AND RESULTS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 67: Foreign Trade in Russia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RUSSIA’S EXPORT: CURRENT STATE AND INFLUENCES OF TRADE INTEGRATION
      4. REGIONAL IMPACTS OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION: GRAVITY MODEL ANALYSIS AND BOUNDARY EFFECT ESTIMATION
      5. EFFECTS OF TRADE LIBERALIZATION: ESTIMATIONS FOR STAVROPOL REGION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 68: The Influence of National Culture and Organizational Culture on the Success of an Expatriate Overseas Assignment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 69: The Implication of Multinational Corporations in Poverty Eradication in Cameroon
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION BY MNCS
      4. BUSINESS STRATEGIES TOWARDS POVERTY ALLEVIATION BY MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN CAMEROON
      5. ALLEVIATING POVERTY THROUGH COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN CAMEROON
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 70: The Role and Challenges of Consumer Research in the Dynamic Economic and Social Environment of Latin America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE LATIN AMERICAN CONSUMER AND MARKETPLACE
      4. MARKETING RESEARCH IN THE LATIN AMERICAN CONTEXT
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      7. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 71: International Student Mobility Trends between Developed and Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHOD
      4. GLOBAL MOBILITY TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS
      5. COMPARISONS OF MOBILITY TRENDS BETWEEN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOBILITY TRENDS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 72: A Cross-National Effect of Ethnocentrism on Purchase Intention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    16. Chapter 73: Multinational Corporations and Social Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INITIAL SITUATION AND PROBLEM
      3. 2. BASIC THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES
      4. 3. SURVEY METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS
      5. 4. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ACTION
      6. 5. DISCUSSION AND OTHER AREAS OF RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    17. Chapter 74: Ethos, Pathos, and Logos of Doing Business Abroad
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MARKETING, ADVERTISING, AND GLOBAL BRANDING
      4. GEERT HOFSTEDE: FIVE DIMENSIONS OF NATIONAL CULTURE
      5. TRANSCULTURAL CONSUMERS’ BEHAVIOR
      6. CRITIQUE OF THE FIFTH DIMENSION
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 75: Introduction to Labor and Health Economics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SHORTAGE OF MEDICAL DOCTORS, MIGRATION & GLOBAL HEALTH SYSTEMS
      4. NEW ECONOMICS OF MIGRATION OF MEDICAL DOCTORS: THE CASE OF EU, ECE AND MENA COUNTRIES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 76: Protecting Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources by Corporate Social Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS
      4. PROTECTING TK ASSOCIATED WITH GRs BY THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPRs) REGIME
      5. THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS’ RESPONSES FOR PROTECTING TK ASSOCIATED WITH GRs
      6. PPPs AND CSR
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 77: Business Management Education in Reality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. QUALITY EDUCATION SUPPORT
      4. CAREER ORIENTED EDUCATION
      5. COMPETENCY BASED EDUCATION
      6. QUALITY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS
      7. BUSINESS EDUCATION STAKEHOLDERS AND THEIR UNDERSTANDINGS
      8. PERCEPTION OF THE QUALITY OF THE BUSINESS EDUCATION ACROSS CULTURES
      9. PERCEPTION OF QUALITY OF BUSINESS EDUCATION: SOME PERSONAL VIEWS
      10. FINAL THOUGHTS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 78: Economic Models of Migration of Skilled Labor and Preliminary Empirical Evidence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. I. LITERATURE REVIEW ON MIGRATION OF SKILLED LABOR
      4. II. METHODS & MODELS OF INVESTIGATION
      5. III. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX
    5. Chapter 79: Indigenous Management and Bottom of Pyramid Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND THE TRADITIONAL GLOBAL TRIAD
      4. HIGH INCOME VS. LOW INCOME BOP ECONOMIES
      5. INCLUDING BOP COUNTRIES IN GLOBAL COMPETITION FRAMEWORKS
      6. ANGLO-SAXON, COMMUNITARIAN, EMERGING/DEVELOPING/BOP
      7. DEVELOPED VS. BOTTOM OF PYRAMID COUNTRIES
      8. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 80: A Perspective of Cross-Cultural Psychological Studies for Global Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PHANTOM IN THE 19 CENTURY
      4. ARE EASTERNERS LESS LOGICAL?
      5. RECIPES FOR REVISING THE NAÏVE THEORY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 81: Expatriate Selection and Retention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS (MNCS)
      4. HOTEL INDUSTRY: CHINA
      5. IDENTIFYING AND ASSESSING THE OTHER CHARACTERSITCS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH AND DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 82: Communication (Intercultural and Multicultural) at Play for Cross Cultural Management within Multinational Corporations (MNCs)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMMUNICATION
      4. DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE IN MULTICULTURAL CORPORATIONS (MNCS)
      5. DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION
      6. DIMENSIONS OF LANGUAGE IN (LANGUAGE) DIVERSITY
      7. THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF LANGUAGE USE AND COMMUNICATION
      8. COMMUNICATION AND LANGUAGE USE IN CHINA
      9. GEERT HOFSTEDE: THE FIFTH DIMENSION (NATIONAL CULTURE)
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH AND RECOMMENDATION
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      15. ENDNOTE
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 83: Globalization of Latecomer Asian Multinationals and Theory of Multinational Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON MNES
      4. 3. CONTRIBUTIONS OF EEMNES TO MNE THEORIES
      5. 4. ILLUSTRATIONS OF MNES FROM MAINLAND CHINA AND TAIWAN
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX: CASE STORIES
    2. Chapter 84: Economic Crisis and its Impact on Regionalism and Globalism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE ECONOMIC REGIONALISM
      4. DATA AND OVERVIEW
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 85: Forecasting Exchange Rates
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RELATED WORK
      4. 3. PROBLEM DEFINITION
      5. 4. A PROPOSED METHOD BASED ON CHAOS THEORY
      6. 5. CASE STUDY AND DATASET
      7. 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 86: Steering E-Government Projects from Failure to Success
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT CASE STUDY
      4. METHOD
      5. DESIGN-REALITY GAP ANALYSIS
      6. DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 87: The Need for Policies to Overcome eGov Implementation Challenges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SYRIA PAST AND PRESENT
      4. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 88: What's in a Game?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CENTRAL RESEARCH QUESTIONS
      5. UNDERSTANDING ACTOR BEHAVIOUR
      6. PROPERTY TAX: DEFINITION AND SCOPE
      7. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK: THE ECOLOGY OF GAMES
      8. ASSESSING PROJECT OUTCOME: A DISCUSSION OF THE DESIGN-ACTUALITY GAP MODEL
      9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      10. DIGITISING PROPERTY TAX RECORDS IN BANGALORE, INDIA: EXAMINING ACTOR ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS
      11. IDENTIFYING GAMES THAT IMPACT THE PLANNING AND UPTAKE OF ICTS IN DEVELOPING WORLD BUREAUCRACIES
      12. WORKPLACE ORGANISATION, STRUCTURE AND POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS:
      13. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. REFERENCES
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 89: Foreign Direct Investment from China and Latin America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CHINA AND ITS ROLE AS SOURCE OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
      4. 3. THE EXPANSION OF CHINESE OFDI
      5. 4. CHINESE FDI IN LATIN AMERICA
      6. 5. A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE MOTIVES AND OBSTACLES OF CHINESE FDI IN LATIN AMERICA
      7. 6. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AS POSSIBLE REASON FOR LACK OF CHINESE FDI IN LATIN AMERICA
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 90: The Region-of-Origin Effect
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND RESEARCH ON THE PLACE OF ORIGIN EFFECT
      4. THE STUDY
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 91: Climate Change, Human Health and Some Economic Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES, HUMAN HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE
      4. INFRASTRUCTURE, HUMAN HEALTH AND CLIMATE CHANGE
      5. CLIMATE CHANGE, HUMAN HEALTH AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE
      6. MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION OF SEVERAL POLICIES, HUMAN HEALTH, AND CLIMATE CHANGE
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH AGENDA
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 92: Postharvest Management Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AGRICULTURE AND THE FOOD VALUE CHAIN
      4. APPROPRIATE POSTHARVEST TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES TO MEET CHALLENGES OF CLIMATE CHANGE
      5. AGRICULTURE, BIO-FUEL, AND RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
      6. VALUE-ADDED PROCESSING
      7. KEY POSTHARVEST STRATEGIES-HARNESSING OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH APPROPRIATE POLICY FRAMEWORKS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 93: Using ERG Theory as a Lens to Understand the Sharing of Academic Tacit Knowledge
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THEORETICAL FRAME
      5. RESEARCH METHOD
      6. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. FINDINGS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 94: Effect of Globalization on Multicultural Consumer Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURE
      4. CULTURE
      5. CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER RESEARCH (CCCR) VS. CROSS-NATIONAL CONSUMER RESEARCH (CNCR)
      6. EXISTING CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF CCCB AND CNCB
      7. GROWING TRENDS
      8. ILLUSTRATION OF CMCR: MULTICULTURAL CONSUMER CULTURES OF UNITED ARAB EMIRATES AND SINGAPORE
      9. ILLUSTRATION OF SMCR: MULTICULTURAL CONSUMER CULTURES OF THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES – DUBAI VS. AL AIN
      10. CONCLUSION AND CONTRIBUTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 95: Exploring the Food Security Strategy and Scarcity Arguments in Land Grabbing in Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATIONS
      5. FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN AFRICA AND LAND GRABBING
      6. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF LAND GRABBING IN AFRICA
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 96: Currency Crisis in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. BACKGROUND
      4. 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. 3. EMPERICAL REVIEW
      6. 4. FORECASTING CURRENCY CRISES AND EWSs
      7. 5. COSTS OF CURRENCY CRISES
      8. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. 7. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 97: Scalability and Sustainability of M-Government Projects Implementation in Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT: A DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PERSPECTIVE
      4. E-GOVERNMENT TO M-GOVERNMENT: A DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PERSPECTIVE
      5. E-GOVERNMENT MATURITY MODELS
      6. SCALABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: AN M-GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVE
      7. CHALLENGES FOR M-GOVERNMENT SCALABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
      8. M-GOVERNMENT PROJECTS’ SCALABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
      9. ENVISAGING SCALABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
      10. FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGES OF SCALABILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 98: Exploring the Roles of Entrepreneurship and Internationalization in Global Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXPLORING THE ROLES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INTERNATIONALIZATION IN GLOBAL BUSINESS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 99: Towards an Interactive E-Government System in Sub-Saharan Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: A CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW
      4. PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF E-GOVERNMENT IN AFRICA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 100: The Changing Nature of Information Behavior and the Information Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES: THE KEY THEMES
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 101: The Internationalization of the Space Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ESTABLISHING THE SPACE INDUSTRY IN DEVELOPING AND NEWLY INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 102: Skilled Human Resources in the Health Sectors and Impacts of New Health Technologies on Health Workforce in Developing Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. I. GLOBAL TRENDS IN WORLD HUMAN RESOURCES & HEALTH SYSTEMS
      4. II. THE MAJOR FACTORS AFFECTING THE HEALTH WORKFORCE IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES
      5. III. CONSTRAINTS TO HEALTH & IMPACTS ON THE HEALTH WORKFORCE IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 103: Dynamic Relationship between Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in Emerging Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FRAGILE FIVE
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. DATA
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. EMPIRICAL RESULTS
      8. CONCLUSION AND REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 104: The Challenge of International Market Segmentation in Emerging Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION
      4. 3. THE JUNGLE OF EMERGING MARKETS
      5. 4. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION IN EMERGING MARKETS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. AUTHOR’S NOTE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 105: Towards a New Model of SMEs' Internationalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES
      4. INTERNATIONALIZATION MODELS
      5. THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN ROOTS OF RESOURCES AND DIRECTION OF THEIR DEVELOPMENT FOR INTERNATIONALIZATION STRATEGIES
      6. SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES INTERNATIONALIZATION: GRADUAL VS. RAPID GROWTH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 106: Technology-Intensive Suppliers as a Key Element for Structural Change in Latin America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 107: Assessing the Financial Vulnerability of Emerging Markets
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 108: New Perspectives of Mobile Payment Platform for Developing Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS MODEL OF M-PAYMENT
      4. THE GENERAL ARCHITECTURE OF ECOPAY PLATFORM
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS