O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP

Book Description

Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet explains why the Internet Protocol (IP) has become the protocol of choice for smart object networks. IP has successfully demonstrated the ability to interconnect billions of digital systems on the global Internet and in private IP networks. Once smart objects can be easily interconnected, a whole new class of smart object systems can begin to evolve. The book discusses how IP-based smart object networks are being designed and deployed.

The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 demonstrates why the IP architecture is well suited to smart object networks, in contrast to non-IP based sensor network or other proprietary systems that interconnect to IP networks (e.g. the public Internet of private IP networks) via hard-to-manage and expensive multi-protocol translation gateways that scale poorly. Part 2 examines protocols and algorithms, including smart objects and the low power link layers technologies used in these networks. Part 3 describes the following smart object network applications: smart grid, industrial automation, smart cities and urban networks, home automation, building automation, structural health monitoring, and container tracking.

  • Shows in detail how connecting smart objects impacts our lives with practical implementation examples and case studies
  • Provides an in depth understanding of the technological and architectural aspects underlying smart objects technology
  • Offers an in-depth examination of relevant IP protocols to build large scale smart object networks in support of a myriad of new services

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. About the Authors
  7. Foreword
  8. Preface
    1. Objectives
    2. Structure of the Book
  9. Acknowledgements
    1. Special Acknowledgments
  10. PART 1: The Architecture
    1. Chapter 1. What Are Smart Objects?
      1. 1.1 Where Do Smart Objects Come From?
      2. 1.2 Challenges for Smart Objects
      3. 1.3 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 2. IP Protocol Architecture
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 From NCP to TCP/IP
      3. 2.3 Fundamental TCP/IP Architectural Design Principles
      4. 2.4 The Delicate Subject of Cross-layer Optimization
      5. 2.5 Why is IP Layering also Important for Smart Object Networks?
      6. 2.6 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 3. Why IP for Smart Objects?
      1. 3.1 Interoperability
      2. 3.2 An Evolving and Versatile Architecture
      3. 3.3 Stability and Universality of the Architecture
      4. 3.4 Scalability
      5. 3.5 Configuration and Management
      6. 3.6 Small Footprint
      7. 3.7 What are the Alternatives?
      8. 3.8 Why are Gateways Bad?
      9. 3.9 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 4. IPv6 for Smart Object Networks and the Internet of Things
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 The Depletion of the IPv4 Address Space
      3. 4.3 NAT: A (Temporary) Solution to IPv4 Address Exhaustion
      4. 4.4 Architectural Discussion
      5. 4.5 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5. Routing
      1. 5.1 Routing in IP Networks
      2. 5.2 Specifics of Routing in LLNs
      3. 5.3 Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 “Routing”
      4. 5.4 Conclusions
    6. Chapter 6. Transport Protocols
      1. 6.1 UDP
      2. 6.2 TCP
      3. 6.3 UDP For Smart Objects
      4. 6.4 TCP for Smart Objects
      5. 6.5 Conclusions
    7. Chapter 7. Service Discovery
      1. 7.1 Service Discovery in IP Networks
      2. 7.2 Service Discovery Protocols
      3. 7.3 Conclusions
    8. Chapter 8. Security for Smart Objects
      1. 8.1 The Three Properties of Security
      2. 8.2 “Security” by Obscurity
      3. 8.3 Encryption
      4. 8.4 Security Mechanisms for Smart Objects
      5. 8.5 Security Mechanisms in the IP Architecture
      6. 8.6 Conclusions
    9. Chapter 9. Web Services for Smart Objects
      1. 9.1 Web Service Concepts
      2. 9.2 The Performance of Web Services for Smart Objects
      3. 9.3 Pachube: A Web Service System for Smart Objects
      4. 9.4 Conclusions
    10. Chapter 10. Connectivity Models for Smart Object Networks
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Autonomous Smart Object Networks Model
      3. 10.3 The Internet of Things
      4. 10.4 The Extended Internet
      5. 10.5 Conclusions
  11. PART 2: The Technology
    1. Chapter 11. Smart Object Hardware and Software
      1. 11.1 Hardware
      2. 11.2 Software for Smart Objects
      3. 11.3 Energy Management
      4. 11.4 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 12. Communication Mechanisms for Smart Objects
      1. 12.1 Communication Patterns for Smart Objects
      2. 12.2 Physical Communication Standards
      3. 12.3 IEEE 802.15.4
      4. 12.4 IEEE 802.11 and WiFi
      5. 12.5 PLC
      6. 12.6 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 13. uIP — A Lightweight IP Stack
      1. 13.1 Principles of Operation
      2. 13.2 uIP Memory Buffer Management
      3. 13.3 uIP Application Program Interface
      4. 13.4 uIP Protocol Implementations
      5. 13.5 Memory Footprint
      6. 13.6 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 14. Standardization
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 The IETF
      3. 14.3 IETF Working Groups Related to IP for Smart Objects
      4. 14.4 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 15. IPv6 for Smart Object Networks — A Technology Refresher
      1. 15.1 IPv6 for Smart Object Networks?
      2. 15.2 The IPv6 Packet Headers
      3. 15.3 IPv6 Addressing Architecture
      4. 15.5 Neighbor Discovery Protocol
      5. 15.6 Load Balancing
      6. 15.7 IPv6 Autoconfiguration
      7. 15.8 DHCPv6
      8. 15.9 IPv6 QoS
      9. 15.10 IPv6 Over an IPv4 Backbone Network
      10. 15.11 IPv6 Multicast
      11. 15.12 Conclusions
    6. Chapter 16. The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer
      1. 16.1 Terminology
      2. 16.2 The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer
      3. 16.3 Conclusions
    7. Chapter 17. RPL Routing in Smart Object Networks
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 What is a Low-power and Lossy Network?
      3. 17.3 Routing Requirements
      4. 17.4 Routing Metrics in Smart Object Networks
      5. 17.5 The Objective Function
      6. 17.6 RPL: The New Routing Protocol for Smart Object Networks
      7. 17.7 Conclusions
    8. Chapter 18. The IP for Smart Object Alliance
      1. 18.1 Mission and Objectives of the IPSO Alliance
      2. 18.2 IPSO Organization
      3. 18.3 A Key Activity of the IPSO Alliance: Interoperability Testing
      4. 18.4 Conclusions
    9. Chapter 19. Non-IP Smart Object Technologies
      1. 19.1 ZigBee
      2. 19.2 Z-Wave
      3. 19.3 Conclusions
  12. PART 3: The Applications
    1. Chapter 20. Smart Grid
      1. 20.1 Introduction
      2. 20.2 Terminology
      3. 20.3 Core Grid Network Monitoring and Control
      4. 20.4 Smart Metering (NAN)
      5. 20.5 HAN
      6. 20.6 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 21. Industrial Automation
      1. 21.1 Opportunities
      2. 21.2 Challenges
      3. 21.3 Use Cases
      4. 21.4 Conclusions
    3. Chapter 22. Smart Cities and Urban Networks
      1. 22.1 Introduction
      2. 22.2 Urban Environmental Monitoring
      3. 22.3 Social Networks
      4. 22.4 Intelligent Transport Systems
      5. 22.5 Conclusions
    4. Chapter 23. Home Automation
      1. 23.1 Introduction
      2. 23.2 Main Applications and Use Cases
      3. 23.3 Technical Challenges and Network Characteristics
      4. 23.4 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 24. Building Automation
      1. 24.1 BAS Reference Model
      2. 24.2 Emerging Building Automation Applications
      3. 24.3 Existing Building Automation Systems
      4. 24.4 Building Automation Sensors and Actuator Characteristics
      5. 24.5 Emerging Smart-Object-Based BAS
      6. 24.6 Conclusions
    6. Chapter 25. Structural Health Monitoring
      1. 25.1 Introduction
      2. 25.2 Main Applications and Use Case
      3. 25.3 Technical Challenges
      4. 25.4 Data Acquisition and Analysis
      5. 25.5 Future Applications and Outlook
      6. 25.6 Conclusions
    7. Chapter 26. Container Tracking
      1. 26.1 GE CommerceGuard
      2. 26.2 IBM Secure Trade Lane
      3. 26.3 Conclusions
  13. References
  14. Index