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Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet

Book Description

Networking and wireless engineers and researchers with functions or titles that include communication engineer, network architect, network designer, systems engineer, network operator, network engineer, as well as product managers and service companies to CEOs, CIOs, etc.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. About the Authors
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. Objectives
    2. Structure of the Book
  5. Acknowledgements
    1. Special acknowledgments
  6. 1. The Architecture
    1. 1. What Are Smart Objects?
      1. 1.1. Where Do Smart Objects Come From?
        1. 1.1.1. Embedded Systems
        2. 1.1.2. Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing
        3. 1.1.3. Mobile Telephony
        4. 1.1.4. Telemetry and Machine-to-machine Communication
        5. 1.1.5. Wireless Sensor and Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
        6. 1.1.6. Mobile Computing
        7. 1.1.7. Computer Networking
      2. 1.2. Challenges for Smart Objects
        1. 1.2.1. Node-level Challenges
        2. 1.2.2. Network-level Challenges
        3. 1.2.3. Standardization
        4. 1.2.4. Interoperability
      3. 1.3. Conclusions
    2. 2. IP Protocol Architecture
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. From NCP to TCP/IP
      3. 2.3. Fundamental TCP/IP Architectural Design Principles
      4. 2.4. The Delicate Subject of Cross-layer Optimization
      5. 2.5. Why is IP Layering also Important for Smart Object Networks?
      6. 2.6. Conclusions
    3. 3. Why IP for Smart Objects?
      1. 3.1. Interoperability
      2. 3.2. An Evolving and Versatile Architecture
      3. 3.3. Stability and Universality of the Architecture
      4. 3.4. Scalability
      5. 3.5. Configuration and Management
      6. 3.6. Small Footprint
      7. 3.7. What are the Alternatives?
      8. 3.8. Why are Gateways Bad?
        1. 3.8.1. Inherent Complexity
        2. 3.8.2. Lack of Flexibility and Scalability
      9. 3.9. Conclusions
    4. 4. IPv6 for Smart Object Networks and the Internet of Things
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. The Depletion of the IPv4 Address Space
        1. 4.2.1. Current IPv4 Address Pool Exhaustion Rate
      3. 4.3. NAT: A (Temporary) Solution to IPv4 Address Exhaustion
      4. 4.4. Architectural Discussion
      5. 4.5. Conclusions
    5. 5. Routing
      1. 5.1. Routing in IP Networks
        1. 5.1.1. IP Routing and QoS
        2. 5.1.2. IP Routing and Network Reliability
      2. 5.2. Specifics of Routing in LLNs
        1. 5.2.1. What Makes the Routing in LLNs Different?
      3. 5.3. Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 “Routing”
        1. 5.3.1. Where Should Path Computation Be Performed?
      4. 5.4. Conclusions
    6. 6. Transport Protocols
      1. 6.1. UDP
        1. 6.1.1. Best-effort Datagram Delivery
        2. 6.1.2. The UDP Header
      2. 6.2. TCP
        1. 6.2.1. Reliable Stream Transport
        2. 6.2.2. The TCP Header
        3. 6.2.3. TCP Options
        4. 6.2.4. Round-trip Time Estimation
        5. 6.2.5. Flow Control
        6. 6.2.6. Congestion Control
        7. 6.2.7. TCP States
          1. 6.2.7.1. Opening a Connection
          2. 6.2.7.2. Closing a Connection
      3. 6.3. UDP for Smart Objects
      4. 6.4. TCP for Smart Objects
      5. 6.5. Conclusions
    7. 7. Service Discovery
      1. 7.1. Service Discovery in IP Networks
      2. 7.2. Service Discovery Protocols
        1. 7.2.1. SLP
        2. 7.2.2. Zeroconf, Rendezvous, and Bonjour
        3. 7.2.3. UPnP
      3. 7.3. Conclusions
    8. 8. Security for Smart Objects
      1. 8.1. The Three Properties of Security
        1. 8.1.1. Confidentiality
        2. 8.1.2. Integrity
        3. 8.1.3. Availability
      2. 8.2. “Security” by Obscurity
      3. 8.3. Encryption
      4. 8.4. Security Mechanisms for Smart Objects
        1. 8.4.1. Security Policies for Smart Objects
        2. 8.4.2. Link Layer Encryption
      5. 8.5. Security Mechanisms in the IP Architecture
        1. 8.5.1. IPsec
        2. 8.5.2. TLS
      6. 8.6. Conclusions
    9. 9. Web Services for Smart Objects
      1. 9.1. Web Service Concepts
        1. 9.1.1. Common Data Formats
        2. 9.1.2. Representational State Transfer
      2. 9.2. The Performance of Web Services for Smart Objects
        1. 9.2.1. Implementation Complexity
        2. 9.2.2. Performance
      3. 9.3. Pachube: A Web Service System for Smart Objects
        1. 9.3.1. Interaction Model
        2. 9.3.2. Pachube Data Formats
        3. 9.3.3. HTTP Requests
        4. 9.3.4. HTTP Return Codes
        5. 9.3.5. Authentication and Security
        6. 9.3.6. Triggers
      4. 9.4. Conclusions
    10. 10. Connectivity Models for Smart Object Networks
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. Autonomous Smart Object Networks Model
      3. 10.3. The Internet of Things
      4. 10.4. The Extended Internet
        1. 10.4.1. The Role of Proxy Engines and the Application Overlay Networks
      5. 10.5. Conclusions
  7. 2. The Technology
    1. 11. Smart Object Hardware and Software
      1. 11.1. Hardware
        1. 11.1.1. Communication Device
        2. 11.1.2. Microcontroller
        3. 11.1.3. Sensors and Actuators
        4. 11.1.4. Power Sources
        5. 11.1.5. Outlook: Systems on a Chip, Printed Electronics, and Claytronics
      2. 11.2. Software for Smart Objects
        1. 11.2.1. Operating Systems for Smart Objects
          1. 11.2.1.1. Contiki Operating System
          2. 11.2.1.2. TinyOS Operating System
          3. 11.2.1.3. The FreeRTOS Operating System
        2. 11.2.2. Multi-threaded Versus Event-driven Programming
        3. 11.2.3. Memory Management
        4. 11.2.4. Outlook: Macroprogramming, Java
      3. 11.3. Energy Management
        1. 11.3.1. Radio Power Management Mechanisms
        2. 11.3.2. Asynchronous Duty Cycling
        3. 11.3.3. Synchronous Duty Cycling
        4. 11.3.4. Examples of Radio On-times
      4. 11.4. Conclusions
    2. 12. Communication Mechanisms for Smart Objects
      1. 12.1. Communication Patterns for Smart Objects
        1. 12.1.1. One-to-one Communication
        2. 12.1.2. One-to-many Communication
        3. 12.1.3. Many-to-one Communication
      2. 12.2. Physical Communication Standards
      3. 12.3. IEEE 802.15.4
        1. 12.3.1. 802.15.4 Addresses
        2. 12.3.2. The 802.15.4 Physical Layer
        3. 12.3.3. MAC Layer
        4. 12.3.4. The 802.15.4 Frame Format
        5. 12.3.5. Power Consumption
      4. 12.4. IEEE 802.11 and WiFi
        1. 12.4.1. Network Topology and Formation
        2. 12.4.2. Physical Layer
        3. 12.4.3. MAC Layer
        4. 12.4.4. Low-power WiFi
      5. 12.5. PLC
        1. 12.5.1. Physical Layer
        2. 12.5.2. MAC Layer
        3. 12.5.3. Power Consumption
      6. 12.6. Conclusions
    3. 13. uIP — A Lightweight IP Stack
      1. 13.1. Principles of Operation
        1. 13.1.1. Input Processing
          1. 13.1.1.1. ICMP Input Processing
          2. 13.1.1.2. UDP Input Processing
          3. 13.1.1.3. TCP Input Processing
        2. 13.1.2. Output Processing
        3. 13.1.3. Periodic Processing
        4. 13.1.4. Packet Forwarding
      2. 13.2. uIP Memory Buffer Management
      3. 13.3. uIP Application Program Interface
        1. 13.3.1. The Event-driven API
          1. 13.3.1.1. Retransmitting Data
          2. 13.3.1.2. Closing Connections
          3. 13.3.1.3. Reporting Errors
          4. 13.3.1.4. Listening Ports
          5. 13.3.1.5. Opening Connections
      4. 13.4. uIP Protocol Implementations
        1. 13.4.1. IP Fragment Reassembly
        2. 13.4.2. TCP
          1. 13.4.2.1. Sliding Window
          2. 13.4.2.2. Retransmissions and RTT Estimation
          3. 13.4.2.3. Flow Control
          4. 13.4.2.4. Congestion Control
          5. 13.4.2.5. Urgent Data
        3. 13.4.3. Checksum Calculations
      5. 13.5. Memory Footprint
      6. 13.6. Conclusions
    4. 14. Standardization
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. The IETF
        1. 14.2.1. The IETF Mission
        2. 14.2.2. The IETF Organization
        3. 14.2.3. IETF Standard Tracks
          1. 14.2.3.1. Level of Maturity of Standard Track Documents
          2. 14.2.3.2. Non-standard Track Specifications
          3. 14.2.3.3. The Best Current Practice Series
        4. 14.2.4. The IETF Standard Process
        5. 14.2.5. The IAB
          1. 14.2.5.1. IRTF
      3. 14.3. IETF Working Groups Related to IP for Smart Objects
        1. 14.3.1. The IPv6 over Low-power WPAN Working Group
        2. 14.3.2. The ROLL Working Group
          1. 14.3.2.1. The Formation of a New Working Group: ROLL
      4. 14.4. Conclusions
    5. 15. IPv6 for Smart Object Networks — A Technology Refresher
      1. 15.1. IPv6 for Smart Object Networks?
      2. 15.2. The IPv6 Packet Headers
        1. 15.2.1. IPv6 Fixed Header
        2. 15.2.2. Extended Headers
        3. 15.2.3. The Hop-by-hop Option Header
        4. 15.2.4. The Routing Header
        5. 15.2.5. The Fragment Header
        6. 15.2.6. The Destination Option Header
        7. 15.2.7. The No Next Header
      3. 15.3. IPv6 Addressing Architecture
        1. 15.3.1. Notion of Unicast, Anycast, and Multicast
        2. 15.3.2. Representation of IPv6 Addresses
        3. 15.3.3. Unicast Addresses
          1. 15.3.3.1. Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses
          2. 15.3.3.2. Local Unicast IPv6 Addresses
            1. 15.3.3.2.1. Unique Local Unicast Addresses
        4. 15.3.4. Anycast Addresses
        5. 15.3.5. Multicast Addresses
          1. 15.3.5.1. Flags
      4. 15.4. The ICMP for IPv6
        1. 15.4.1. ICMPv6 Error Messages
        2. 15.4.2. ICMP Informational Messages
      5. 15.5. Neighbor Discovery Protocol
        1. 15.5.1. The Neighbor Solicitation Message
        2. 15.5.2. The NA Message
        3. 15.5.3. The Router Advertisement Messages
          1. 15.5.3.1. Options Prefixes Advertised in the RA Messages
          2. 15.5.3.2. Recursive DNSS Option Advertised in the RA Messages
        4. 15.5.4. The Router Solicitation Message
        5. 15.5.5. The Redirect Message
        6. 15.5.6. Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD)
      6. 15.6. Load Balancing
      7. 15.7. IPv6 Autoconfiguration
        1. 15.7.1. Building the Link-local Address
        2. 15.7.2. The Stateless Autoconfiguration Process
          1. 15.7.2.1. Building Unicast IPv6 Addresses
          2. 15.7.2.2. DAD Process
          3. 15.7.2.3. Optimistic DAD
          4. 15.7.2.4. Creation of the Unicast Global and Site-local Addresses
        3. 15.7.3. Privacy Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in IPv6
      8. 15.8. DHCPv6
        1. 15.8.1. Stateful Autoconfiguration
        2. 15.8.2. Stateless DHCP
      9. 15.9. IPv6 QoS
        1. 15.9.1. The Diffserv Model
        2. 15.9.2. The IntServ Model
      10. 15.10. IPv6 Over an IPv4 Backbone Network
      11. 15.11. IPv6 Multicast
        1. 15.11.1. IPv6 Multicast Addressing
      12. 15.12. Conclusions
    6. 16. The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer
      1. 16.1. Terminology
      2. 16.2. The 6LoWPAN Adaptation Layer
        1. 16.2.1. The Mesh Addressing Header
        2. 16.2.2. Fragmentation
        3. 16.2.3. 6LoWPAN Header Compression
          1. 16.2.3.1. Header Compression Using LOWPAN_HC1 and LOWPAN_HC2
            1. 16.2.3.1.1. The HC1 Compression Technique
          2. 16.2.3.2. The HC_UDP Compression Technique (HC2 Byte)
          3. 16.2.3.3. The 6LoWPAN Improved Compression Technique and Stateful Shared Context-based Compression
          4. 16.2.3.4. The Context Identifier (CID)
          5. 16.2.3.5. The IPv6 Next Header Compression
          6. 16.2.3.6. Compression of the UDP Header Using LOWPAN_NHC
          7. 16.2.3.7. Header Compression of Multicast Address
        4. 16.2.4. Stateless Configuration
      3. 16.3. Conclusions
    7. 17. RPL Routing in Smart Object Networks
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. What is a Low-power and Lossy Network?
      3. 17.3. Routing Requirements
      4. 17.4. Routing Metrics in Smart Object Networks
        1. 17.4.1. Aggregated Versus Recorded Routing Metrics
        2. 17.4.2. Local Versus Global Metrics
        3. 17.4.3. The Routing Metrics/Constraints Common Header
        4. 17.4.4. The Node State and Attributes Object
        5. 17.4.5. Node Energy Object
        6. 17.4.6. Hop-count Object
        7. 17.4.7. Throughput Object
        8. 17.4.8. Latency Object
        9. 17.4.9. Link Reliability Object
        10. 17.4.10. Link Colors Attribute
      5. 17.5. The Objective Function
      6. 17.6. RPL: The New Routing Protocol for Smart Object Networks
        1. 17.6.1. Protocol Overview
        2. 17.6.2. Use of Multiple DODAG and the Concept of RPL Instance
        3. 17.6.3. RPL Messages
          1. 17.6.3.1. DIO Messages
            1. 17.6.3.1.1. Use of the Rank for DODAG Parent Selection
          2. 17.6.3.2. DAO Messages
          3. 17.6.3.3. DIS Messages
        4. 17.6.4. RPL DODAG Building Process
          1. 17.6.4.1. A Step-by-step Example
        5. 17.6.5. Movements of a Node Within and Between DODAGs
        6. 17.6.6. Populating the Routing Tables Along the DODAG Using DAO Messages
          1. 17.6.6.1. Use of the Reverse Route Stack in DAO Message
          2. 17.6.6.2. Routing Table Maintenance
        7. 17.6.7. Loop Avoidance and Loop Detection Mechanisms in RPL
          1. 17.6.7.1. Loop Avoidance
          2. 17.6.7.2. RPL Loop Detection Mechanism
        8. 17.6.8. Global and Local Repair
        9. 17.6.9. Routing Adjacency with RPL
        10. 17.6.10. RPL Timer Management
        11. 17.6.11. Simulation Results
          1. 17.6.11.1. Control Traffic
          2. 17.6.11.2. Routing Table Size
          3. 17.6.11.3. Path Efficiency
          4. 17.6.11.4. Failure Handling
      7. 17.7. Conclusions
    8. 18. The IP for Smart Object Alliance
      1. 18.1. Mission and Objectives of the IPSO Alliance
      2. 18.2. IPSO Organization
      3. 18.3. A Key Activity of the IPSO Alliance: Interoperability Testing
      4. 18.4. Conclusions
    9. 19. Non-IP Smart Object Technologies
      1. 19.1. ZigBee
        1. 19.1.1. ZigBee Device Types
        2. 19.1.2. Layers in the ZigBee Stack
        3. 19.1.3. PHY and MAC Layers
        4. 19.1.4. NWK
        5. 19.1.5. APS Sublayer
        6. 19.1.6. AF
        7. 19.1.7. Network Setup
        8. 19.1.8. ZigBee Is Migrating to IP
      2. 19.2. Z-Wave
      3. 19.3. Conclusions
  8. 3. The Applications
    1. 20. Smart Grid
      1. 20.1. Introduction
        1. 20.1.1. How Can We Define the Smart Grid?
      2. 20.2. Terminology
      3. 20.3. Core Grid Network Monitoring and Control
        1. 20.3.1. Use Case 1: Secondary Substation Monitoring and control
        2. 20.3.2. Use Case 2: Substation CBM
        3. 20.3.3. Use Case 3: Line Dynamic Rating
        4. 20.3.4. Technical Characteristics and Challenges
          1. 20.3.4.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 20.3.4.2. Traffic Flows and Network Topologies
            1. 20.3.4.2.1. Substation Monitoring and Control
            2. 20.3.4.2.2. CBM Applications
            3. 20.3.4.2.3. Dynamic Ratings
          3. 20.3.4.3. Smart Object and Link Characteristics
          4. 20.3.4.4. Quality of Service and Network Reliability
          5. 20.3.4.5. Scalability
          6. 20.3.4.6. Reliability requirement
          7. 20.3.4.7. Mobility
          8. 20.3.4.8. Security
          9. 20.3.4.9. Network management
      4. 20.4. Smart Metering (NAN)
        1. 20.4.1. Applications and Use Cases
        2. 20.4.2. Technical Challenges and Network Characteristics
          1. 20.4.2.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 20.4.2.2. Traffic Flows and Network Topologies
          3. 20.4.2.3. Smart Object and Link Characteristics
          4. 20.4.2.4. Quality of Service and Network Reliability
          5. 20.4.2.5. Scalability
          6. 20.4.2.6. Mobility
          7. 20.4.2.7. Security
          8. 20.4.2.8. Longevity
      5. 20.5. HAN
        1. 20.5.1. Applications and Use Cases
          1. 20.5.1.1. The role of Smart Objects
            1. 20.5.1.1.1. Home Energy Management
            2. 20.5.1.1.2. Demand-Response
        2. 20.5.2. Technical Challenges and Network Characteristics
          1. 20.5.2.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 20.5.2.2. Traffic Flows and Network Topologies
          3. 20.5.2.3. Smart Object and Link Characteristics
          4. 20.5.2.4. Quality of Service and Network Reliability
          5. 20.5.2.5. Scalability
          6. 20.5.2.6. Mobility
          7. 20.5.2.7. Security
          8. 20.5.2.8. Network Management
        3. 20.5.3. Summary of the Technical Challenges
      6. 20.6. Conclusions
    2. 21. Industrial Automation
      1. 21.1. Opportunities
      2. 21.2. Challenges
      3. 21.3. Use Cases
        1. 21.3.1. Condition Monitoring
        2. 21.3.2. Wireless Control
        3. 21.3.3. Mobile Workforce
      4. 21.4. Conclusions
    3. 22. Smart Cities and Urban Networks
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Urban Environmental Monitoring
        1. 22.2.1. Urban Ecosystem Monitoring
          1. 22.2.1.1. Resource Management
        2. 22.2.2. Natural Hazards Monitoring and Early Detection
        3. 22.2.3. Technical Characteristics and Challenges
          1. 22.2.3.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 22.2.3.2. Traffic Flows and Network Topologies
          3. 22.2.3.3. Smart Object and Link Characteristics
          4. 22.2.3.4. QoS and Network Reliability
          5. 22.2.3.5. Scalability
          6. 22.2.3.6. Mobility
          7. 22.2.3.7. Security
          8. 22.2.3.8. Network Management
      3. 22.3. Social Networks
        1. 22.3.1. Extension of Web-based SNSs
        2. 22.3.2. Monitoring the Elderly and Kids
        3. 22.3.3. Technical Characteristics and Challenges
          1. 22.3.3.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 22.3.3.2. Traffic Flows and Network Topologies
          3. 22.3.3.3. Smart Objects and Link Characteristics
          4. 22.3.3.4. QoS
          5. 22.3.3.5. Scalability
          6. 22.3.3.6. Reliability Requirement
          7. 22.3.3.7. Mobility
          8. 22.3.3.8. Security
          9. 22.3.3.9. Network Management
      4. 22.4. Intelligent Transport Systems
        1. 22.4.1. Traffic Monitoring and Controlling
          1. 22.4.1.1. Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence
          2. 22.4.1.2. Traffic Condition Monitoring and Control
          3. 22.4.1.3. Vehicle Coordination Calculating and Sharing
          4. 22.4.1.4. Parking Lot Monitoring
        2. 22.4.2. Automatic Charging and Fining
          1. 22.4.2.1. Automatic Road Enforcement
          2. 22.4.2.2. Automatic Congestion Pricing for Cordon Zones
        3. 22.4.3. Technical Characteristics and Challenges
          1. 22.4.3.1. The Networking Environment
          2. 22.4.3.2. QoS and Network Reliability
          3. 22.4.3.3. Scalability
          4. 22.4.3.4. Reliability Requirement
          5. 22.4.3.5. Mobility
          6. 22.4.3.6. Security
          7. 22.4.3.7. Network Management
      5. 22.5. Conclusions
    4. 23. Home Automation
      1. 23.1. Introduction
      2. 23.2. Main Applications and Use Cases
        1. 23.2.1. Lighting Control
        2. 23.2.2. Safety and Security
        3. 23.2.3. Comfort and Convenience
        4. 23.2.4. Energy Management
        5. 23.2.5. Remote Home Management
        6. 23.2.6. Aging Independently and Assisted Living
      3. 23.3. Technical Challenges and Network Characteristics
        1. 23.3.1. Type of Topology and Traffic Matrix
        2. 23.3.2. Number of Devices
        3. 23.3.3. Degree of Mobility
        4. 23.3.4. Robustness and Reliability
        5. 23.3.5. Requirements for Quality of Service
        6. 23.3.6. Battery Operation
        7. 23.3.7. Operating Environment
        8. 23.3.8. Security
        9. 23.3.9. Ease of Installation and Setup
      4. 23.4. Conclusions
    5. 24. Building Automation
      1. 24.1. BAS Reference Model
      2. 24.2. Emerging Building Automation Applications
        1. 24.2.1. Occupancy and Shutdown
        2. 24.2.2. Energy Management
        3. 24.2.3. Demand Response
        4. 24.2.4. Fire and Smoke Abatement
        5. 24.2.5. Evacuation
      3. 24.3. Existing Building Automation Systems
        1. 24.3.1. Existing Control Protocols
          1. 24.3.1.1. BACnet
          2. 24.3.1.2. LON
          3. 24.3.1.3. DALI
      4. 24.4. Building Automation Sensors and Actuator Characteristics
        1. 24.4.1. Area Control
          1. 24.4.1.1. Area Controller Communications
        2. 24.4.2. Zone Control
        3. 24.4.3. Building Control
      5. 24.5. Emerging Smart-Object-Based BAS
        1. 24.5.1. Emerging Sensors, Actuators, and Protocols
          1. 24.5.1.1. EnOcean
        2. 24.5.2. IP-based Enterprise Protocols
          1. 24.5.2.1. Peer-to-peer Controller Communication
          2. 24.5.2.2. Enterprise Communication
      6. 24.6. Conclusions
    6. 25. Structural Health Monitoring
      1. 25.1. Introduction
      2. 25.2. Main Applications and Use Case
      3. 25.3. Technical Challenges
        1. 25.3.1. Autoconfiguration
        2. 25.3.2. Multicast Support
        3. 25.3.3. Routing
          1. 25.3.3.1. Coupling with Radio Resource Management (RRM)
        4. 25.3.4. Network Topology
        5. 25.3.5. Network Scalability
        6. 25.3.6. Degree of Mobility
        7. 25.3.7. Link and Device Characteristics
        8. 25.3.8. Traffic Profile
        9. 25.3.9. Quality of Service
        10. 25.3.10. Security
        11. 25.3.11. Deployment Environment
      4. 25.4. Data Acquisition and Analysis
      5. 25.5. Future Applications and Outlook
      6. 25.6. Conclusions
    7. 26. Container Tracking
      1. 26.1. GE CommerceGuard
      2. 26.2. IBM Secure Trade Lane
      3. 26.3. Conclusions
  9. References