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Interactive Information Retrieval in Digital Environments

Book Description

"The emergence of the Internet allows millions of people to use a variety of electronic information retrieval systems, such as: digital libraries, Web search engines, online databases, and online public access catalogs. Interactive Information Retrieval in Digital Environments provides theoretical framework in understanding the nature of information retrieval, and offers implications for the design and evolution of interactive information retrieval systems.

Interactive Information Retrieval in Digital Environments includes the integration of existing frameworks on user-oriented information retrieval systems across multiple disciplines; the comprehensive review of empirical studies of interactive information retrieval systems for different types of users, tasks, and subtasks; and the discussion of how to evaluate interactive information retrieval systems. Researchers, designers, teachers, scholars, and professionals will gain the foundation for new research on this subject matter, and guidance to evaluate new information retrieval systems for the general public as well as for specific user groups."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. Information Retrieval (IR) Systems and Different Digital Environments
      1. IR and IR Systems
      2. Online IR Systems and Different Digital Environments
    2. The Impact of Digital Environments and the Challenges of IR
      1. Impact on IR Systems and the Challenges for Users
      2. Impact on Users and the Challenges for Users
      3. Impact on Information and the Challenges for Users
    3. The Need for an Interactive IR Framework
      1. Nature of IR as Interaction
      2. The Need for an Interactive IR Framework
    4. Overview of the Book
      1. Objective of the Book
      2. Structure of the Book
      3. Targeted Audiences
    5. References
  3. Acknowledgment
  4. I. User-Oriented IR Research Approaches
    1. The Divide between System-Oriented and User-Oriented Approaches
    2. User-Oriented Approaches
      1. Taylor's Levels of Information Need Approach
      2. Belkin's ASK Hypothesis
      3. Dervin's Sense-Making Approach
      4. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) Approach
      5. Wilson's Information Seeking Context Approach
      6. Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA)
    3. Summary
    4. References
  5. II. Interactive IR in OPAC Environments
    1. Overview of OPAC Environments
      1. History and Background
      2. Definition and Types of OPACs
      3. Current Developments
      4. Challenges for Users
    2. Research Overview
    3. Interaction Studies
      1. User Goals and their Impact
      2. Strategies/Behaviors and Affecting Factors
      3. Effect of Knowledge Structure on Search Success
      4. Evaluation Studies and Usability Testing
      5. Intermediary Studies and their Implications
      6. Research Methods for Interaction Studies
    4. Summary
    5. References
  6. III. Interactive IR in Online Database Environments
    1. Overveiw of Online Database Environments
      1. History and Background
      2. Definition of Online Databases and Major Elements of the Online Industry
      3. Current Developments
      4. Challenges for Users
    2. Research Overview
    3. Interaction Studies
      1. Tasks and their Impact
      2. Levels of Search Strategies
      3. Shifts in Search Strategies/Stages/Foci
      4. Users' Knowledge Structure
      5. Searcher Characteristics/Cognitive Styles/Search Styles
      6. Ease of Use vs. User Control
      7. Evaluation Criteria for Interactive Online IR Systems
    4. Summary
    5. References
  7. IV. Interactive IR in Web Search Engine Environments
    1. Overview of Web Search Engine Environments
      1. History and Background
      2. Definitions and Types of Web Search Engines
      3. Current Developments
      4. Challenges for Users
    2. Research Overview
    3. Interaction Studies
      1. Levels of User Goals/Tasks
      2. Usage Pattern: Patterns of Query Formulation and Reformulation
      3. Patterns of Multimedia IR
      4. Information Search Behaviors/Strategies of Different User Groups
      5. The Impact of Knowledge Structure
      6. Criteria for the Evaluation of Web Search Engines
      7. Comparison with Other Online IR Systems
    4. Summary
    5. References
  8. V. Interactive IR in Digital Library Environments
    1. Overview of Digital Library Environments
      1. History and Background
      2. Definitions and Types of Digital Libraries
      3. Current Developments
      4. Challenges for Users
    2. Research Overview
    3. Interaction Studies
      1. Tasks/Goals and their Impact
      2. Usage Patterns
      3. Online Help
      4. Usability Studies
      5. Organizational Usability
      6. Interactive Multimedia Information Retrieval
      7. Evaluation Criteria for Digital Libraries
    4. Summary
    5. References
  9. VI. TREC and Interactive Track Environments
    1. Overview of TREC
      1. History and Background
      2. Types of Tracks
    2. Overview of Interactive Track
    3. Types of Interactive Studies
      1. The Impact of Searchers' Knowledge vs. the Impact of the Dimensions of Tasks
      2. Query Formulation and Reformulation: Relevance Feedback and Query Length
        1. Relevance Feedback: Automatic Query Expansion
        2. Relevance Feedback: Term Selection
        3. Relevance Feedback: Passage Feedback
        4. Explicit Feedback vs. Passive/Implicit Feedback
        5. Query Length and its Relationship to Interaction
      3. Search Tactics and Strategies
      4. Results Organization Structure and Delivery Mechanism
        1. Organization Structure: Clustering, Ranked List, and Integration of the Two
        2. Display Methods and their Relationships with Interaction
        3. Display Methods for Relevance Judgments
      5. Comparison of Different Retrieval Models and Evaluation Methods
      6. Interactive Multilingual/Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR)
    4. Summary: Impact and Limitation of TREC Interactive Track Studies
    5. References
  10. VII. Interactive IR Models
    1. Three Major IR Models
      1. Ingwersen's Cognitive Model and Applications
        1. The Basis of the Integrated IS&R Research Framework
        2. The Integrated IS&R Research Framework
        3. Implications and Limitations of the Model
      2. Belkin's Episode Model of Interaction with Texts and Applications
        1. The Basis and Evolution of the Episode Model of Interaction with Texts
        2. The Episode Model of Interaction with Texts
        3. Implications and Limitations of the Model
      3. Saracevic's Stratified Interaction Model and Applications
        1. The Evolution and Theoretical Basis of the Stratified Interaction Model
        2. The Stratified Interaction Model
        3. Impact and Limitation of the Model
      4. Applications and Implications of the Three IR Models
      5. Limitations of the Three Models
    2. Microlevel of Interactive IR Models and Approaches
      1. Ellis' Model of Information-Seeking Behavior
      2. Bates' Berrypicking Approach
      3. Vakkari's Theory of the Task-Based IR Process
      4. Spink's Model of Interactive Feedback
      5. Hert's IR Interaction in Relation to the Information-Seeking Process
      6. Wang, Hawk, and Tenopir's Multidimensional Model of User-Web Interaction
      7. Pharo's Search Situation and Transition Method
    3. Summary: Major Components of and Limitations of Existing Macro- and Microlevel of Interactive IR Models
    4. References
  11. VIII. Interactive IR Framework
    1. Nature of IR and Interactive IR in Digital Environments
    2. Planned-Situational Interactive IR Model
      1. Overview of the Planned-Situational IR Model
      2. Levels of User Goals and Tasks and their Representation
      3. Relationships Between Levels of User Goals and Tasks
      4. Dimensions of Work Tasks and Search Tasks
      5. Personal Information Infrastructure
      6. Social-Organizational Context
      7. IR Systems
      8. Dimensions of Information-Seeking Strategies
        1. Previous Studies on Information-Seeking Strategies and their Limitations
        2. Dimensions of Interactive Intentions
        3. Dimensions of Retrieval Tactics
        4. Dimensions of Information-Seeking Strategies with Examples
      9. Information-Seeking Strategies: Products of Plans and Situations
      10. Dimensions of Plans and Situations
      11. Shifts in Current Search Goals and Information-Seeking Strategies: Determination of Situations
        1. Determination of Situations: Precursors of the Shifts
        2. Types of Current Search Goal Shifts
        3. Types of Interactive Intention Shifts
        4. Types of Retrieval Tactic Shifts
      12. Factors Affecting Shifts in Current Search Goals/Search Tasks and Information-Seeking Strategies
        1. Planned Aspects
        2. Situational Aspects
    3. Summary
    4. References
  12. IX. Illustration and Validation of the Interactive IR Framework
    1. Overview of the Empirical Study
      1. Objective of the Study
      2. Methodology
    2. Levels of User Goals and Tasks and their Representation
    3. Personal Information Infrastructure
    4. Social-Organizational Context
    5. IR Systems
    6. Types of Information-Seeking Strategies
    7. Dimensions of Plans and Situations
      1. Dimensions of Plans
      2. Dimensions of Situations
    8. Shifts in Current Search Goals and Information-Seeking Strategies
      1. Types of Current Search Goal Shifts
      2. Types of Interactive Intention Shifts
      3. Types of Retrieval Tactic Shifts
    9. Factors Affecting Shifts in Current Search Goals/Search Tasks and Information-Seeking Strategies
      1. Planned Aspects
      2. Situational Aspects
    10. Summary
    11. References
  13. X. Implications of the Planned-Situational Interactive IR Model
    1. Theoretical Implications: Understanding the Nature of IR
      1. Clarification of Important Concepts
      2. Nature of Interactive IR: Products of Plans and Situations
    2. Practical Implications: Implications for Interactive IR System Design
      1. Supporting Multiple Types of Information-Seeking Strategies
      2. Balancing Ease-of-Use and User Control: System Role and User Involvement and Feedback Mechanisms
      3. Creating Interactive Help Mechanisms
    3. Implications for Interactive IR System Evaluation: Multi-Dimensional Evaluation Framework
      1. Evaluation of Interactive IR System Performance
      2. Evaluation of Interface Usability and Organizational Usability
      3. Evaluation of the Interactive Process between Users and IR Systems
      4. Integrating Multidimensional Criteria for the Evaluation of Interactive IR Systems
    4. Summary
    5. References
  14. XI. Conclusions and Future Directions
    1. Conclusions and Contribution of the Book
    2. Unsolved Problems and Further Research Directions
      1. One-Size-Fits-All Model?
      2. The Gap between Users-Oriented Study and System-Oriented Design
      3. Complexity of Interactive Multimedia IR and CLIR
      4. The Evaluation of Interactive IR Models
    3. Further Research Directions and Related Questions
    4. References
  15. About the Editor