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Intelligent Medical Technologies and Biomedical Engineering: Tools and Applications

Book Description

Intelligent Medical Technologies and Biomedical Engineering: Tools and Applications helps young researchers and developers understand the basics of the field while highlighting the various developments over the last several years. Broad in scope and comprehensive in depth, this volume serves as a base text for any project or work into the domain of medical diagnosis or other areas of medical engineering.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
  5. 1. Clinical Decision Support System to Prevent Toxicity in Patients Treated With Digoxin
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Neural Networks in Clinical Medicine
      2. Applications in clinical Medicine
      3. Aiding Clinical Diagnosis
      4. Modelling and Prediction
      5. Analysis Laboratory
      6. Medical Images Analysis
      7. Monitoring and Intensive Care
    3. NEURAL NETWORKS OVERVIEW IN HEALTH SCIENCES
    4. MULTIVARIATE PREDICTION MODEL OF DIGITALIS TOXICITY
    5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF MULTIVARIATE MODELS DEVELOPED TO PREDICT DIGITALIS TOXICITY
      1. Web Computer Application to Clinical Decision Support
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  6. 2. Master and Slave Transluminal Endoscopic Robot (MASTER) for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Clinical Status of Notes
      2. Barriers to Clinical Practice
      3. Approaches to Target Organ
      4. Access Techniques
      5. Closure Techniques
        1. Suture-Based Techniques
        2. Clip-Based Technique
        3. Stapler-Based Technique
        4. Comparison Studies
      6. Mechanical System for Notes
    3. 'MASTER' FOR NOTES
      1. Slave Manipulator
      2. Master Console
      3. Actuator Housing
      4. Microprocessor System
      5. Animal Trials
    4. ESD WITH MASTER
    5. NOTES WITH MASTER
      1. Navigation System for Notes
      2. Work Flow of INS
      3. Pre-Operative Module
      4. Intra-Operative Module
      5. Tracking system
        1. Optical
        2. Electromagnetic
        3. MR Gradient-Based
      6. Proposed INs for Notes
    6. CONCLUSION
    7. REFERENCES
    8. ADDITIONAL READING
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. 3. Electrospinning: Development and Biomedical Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. HISTORY
      1. Electrospinning Apparatus
      2. Electrospinning Mechanisms and Parameters
      3. Polymer Solution
      4. Environmental
    4. DIFFERENT FABRICATION SETUPS FOR ELECTROSPINNING
      1. Non-Woven
      2. Aligned
      3. Core-Shell
      4. Electroblowing
      5. Post-Fabrication Modification
    5. PROPERTIES OF ELETROSPUN STRUCTURES
    6. POLYMERS
      1. Natural
      2. Synthetic
    7. APPLICATIONS
      1. Tissue Engineering
      2. Drug Delivery
      3. Medical Implant Coating
      4. Wound Dressing
      5. Biosensors
    8. CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTION
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. 4. Breast Cancer: A Technological Review
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      1. Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
      2. Mammography
      3. Biopsy
      4. Clinical Follow-Up
      5. Computer-Aided Detection, Diagnosis and Medical Expert System
    3. 2 TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW IN BREAST CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
      1. 2.1 Computer Aided Mammogram
      2. 2.2 Biopsy
        1. 2.2.1 Biopsy and computer aided Diagnosis
        2. 2.2.2 Digital Mammography of Biopsy
      3. 2.3 Clinical Examination
      4. 2.4 Hybrid Intelligent Systems
      5. 2.5 Telecommunication Based systems
      6. 2.6 Nuclear Medicine Imaging
    4. 3 CONCLUSION
    5. 5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. 5. A Step Towards Characterization of Surgical Actions Involved in Mastoidectomy
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. DESIGN RATIONALE
    4. 3. EXPERIMENT, ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
      1. 3.1. Materials and Methods
        1. 3.1.1 Temporal Bones
        2. 3.1.2 Force/Torque Measurement
        3. 3.1.3 Position and Orientation Data Measurement
        4. 3.1.4 Experimental Procedure
        5. 3.1.5 Data Analysis and Labeling
      2. 3.2. Feature Processing Algorithms Used
        1. 3.2.1 Data Acquisition and Preprocessing
        2. 3.2.2 Feature Extraction and Selection of Reduced Feature Set Characterizing the Surgical Action Steps
        3. 3.2.3 Boundary Detection between Two APs
        4. 3.2.4 Identification of APs
    5. 4. RESULTS
    6. 4.1 RESULTS OF BOUNDARY DETECTION
    7. 4.2 RESULTS OF IDENTIFICATION
    8. 4.3 ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
    9. 5. DISCUSSION
    10. 6. CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
      1. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. A. APPENDIX A
    1. A Brief Overview of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
  11. B. APPENDIX B
    1. A brief overview of the bayesian Information criterion (BIc)
  12. C. APPENDIX C
    1. A brief Overview of the Artificial Neural Network (ANN)
  13. 6. ECG Data Analysis
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
      1. Basics of ECG
      2. Cardiac Electrical Activity
      3. ECG Leads
      4. Basic ECG Analysis
      5. ECG Data
      6. Initial Design Considerations
      7. ECG Acquisition Hardware
      8. ECG Statistics
      9. Spectral and Cross-Spectral Analysis of the ECG
      10. Standard Clinical ECG Features
      11. Nonstationarities in the ECG
      12. Noise and Artifact in the ECG
      13. Filtering Methods
      14. Wiener Filtering
      15. Wavelet Filtering
      16. Data-Determined Basis Functions
      17. Non-Linear Filtering
      18. Nonlinear signal Processing
      19. Introduction to EOG classification Techniques
    3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. CONCLUSION
    5. REFERENCES
    6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONs
  14. 7. Hemoglobin Level Analysis In Hemodialysis Patients Treated with Erythropoiesis Stimulating Agents: A Neural Network Approach
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. DATA COLLECTION AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
    4. NEURAL MODELS USED
      1. Multilayer Perceptron
      2. Self-Organizing Maps
    5. RESULTS
      1. Self-Organizing Maps
      2. Multilayer Perceptron
    6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
    7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    8. REFERENCES
    9. ADDITIONAL READING
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  15. 8. Venom and ECG Signal Processing
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. VENOMOUS SPECIES COMMONLY FOUND IN INDIA
    4. NATURE OF VENOM
    5. VENOM CONSTITUENTS
      1. Arachnid (spider and scorpion) venom
      2. Snake Venom
      3. Viper Venom
      4. Elapid Venom
      5. Colubridae Snake Venom
    6. EFFECTS OF OWN VENOM ON VENOMOUS SPECIES
      1. Elapid Snakes
      2. Viper Snakes
    7. EFFECTS OF VENOM ON HUMAN BEINGS
    8. EFFECTS OF VENOM ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    9. THE ECG SIGNAL
      1. The ECG Nomenclature
      2. QRS Detection
      3. T Wave Detection
      4. P Wave Detection
      5. U Wave Detection
      6. Parameter Extraction and Feature vector
      7. The Derived Features
    10. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES VENOM ON ECG
    11. RESEARCH SCENARIO
    12. CONCLUSION
    13. REFERENCES
    14. ADDITIONAL READING
    15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  16. 9. Hybrid Intelligent Systems for Medical Diagnosis
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. 1. INTRODUCTION
    3. 2. HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS
      1. 2.1 ANFIS
      2. 2.2 Ensemble
      3. 2.3 Evolutionary Artificial Neural Networks
    4. 3. METHODOLOGY
    5. 4. RESULTS
      1. 4.1 ANN with BPA
      2. 4.2 Ensemble
      3. 4.3 ANFIS
      4. 4.4 Evolutionary ANN
    6. 5. FUTURE RESERCH DIRECTIONS
    7. 6. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  17. 10. Hunting Drugs for Potent Antigens in the Silicon Valley
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      1. 1. Innate Immune Response
      2. 2. Adaptive Immunity
        1. 2.1. T Cell Training
        2. 2.2. B Cell Selection for an Antigen
          1. 2.2.1. Antibody Structure
          2. 2.2.2. Antigens
          3. 2.2.3. Antigen Processing: Exogenous Pathway
        3. 2.3. Evading Such a Trap
      3. 3. Activation of Immune system
      4. 4. Immune Related Threats
    5. 5. VACCINATION
    6. 6. BIOINFORMATICS ON A ROLE
      1. 6.1. Types of Epitopes
        1. 6.1.1. Epitope Prediction Approaches
        2. 6.1.2. Property Based Methods
          1. 6.1.2.1. Exposed Surface and Polarity Scales (1978)
          2. 6.1.2.2. Hopp and Woods (1981)
          3. 6.1.2.3. Welling et al (1985)
          4. 6.1.2.4. Karplus Method (1985)
          5. 6.1.2.5. Emini Method (1985)
          6. 6.1.2.6. Parker Method (1986)
          7. 6.1.2.7. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar Method (1990)
          8. 6.1.2.8. Pellequer Method (1993)
      2. 6.2. Epitope Database and servers
      3. 6.3. Methodology of Drug Designing
        1. 6.3.1. Protein Structure Prediction Algorithms
          1. 6.3.1.1. Ab-Initio Method
          2. 6.3.1.2. Protein Threading
          3. 6.3.1.3. Comparative Modeling
        2. 6.3.2. Model Validation
        3. 6.3.3. Docking
          1. 6.3.3.1. Conformational Complementarity
          2. 6.3.3.2. Simulation
          3. 6.3.4. Scoring and Selection
          4. 6.3.4.1. in-vitro Binding Assay
          5. 6.3.4.2. Other in-vitro and in-vivo Assays
    7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. CONCLUSION
    10. REFERENCES
    11. ADDITIONAL READING
    12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  18. 11. An Intelligent Algorithm for Home Sleep Apnoea Test Device
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Sleep Apnoea and Polysomnograms (PsG)
      2. Apnoea-ECG Database
        1. 1) Signal Processing Step
        2. 2) Feature Extraction Step
        3. Pattern Recognition Step
    4. DISCUSSION
      1. Assessment of Portable Sleep Monitor
    5. CONCLUSION
    6. REFERENCES
    7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  19. 12. Applications of Robots in Surgery
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. 1. BACKGROUND
    4. 2. APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTS IN MEDICINE
      1. 2.1 Rehabilitation Therapy
      2. 2.2 Surgery
      3. 2.3 Various Diagnostic Stages
      4. 2.4 Medical and Surgical Training
      5. 2.5 Micro-Robots and their Applications in Medicine
    5. 3. MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY
      1. 3.1 Open Surgery
      2. 3.2 Minimally Access Surgery
      3. 3.3 Laparoscopic Surgery
    6. 4. ROBOTIC SURGERY
      1. 4.1 Common Components of Surgical Robotic Systems
      2. 4.2 Surgical Robotic Systems
      3. 4-3 Limitations of Robotic Surgery
    7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    8. CONCLUSION
    9. REFERENCES
    10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  20. 13. The Evolution of the Hermite Transform in Biomedical Applications
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
      1. Properties of the Continuous Hermite Transform
      2. Applications of Continuous Hermite functions
    4. DISCRETE HERMITE TRANSFORM
      1. Properties of the Discrete Hermite Transform
      2. A fast Hermite Transform
    5. APPLICATIONS
      1. Monitoring Ischemia from Electrocardiogram
      2. Ballistocardiogram Artifact Removal in EEG-fMRI Signals
      3. Estimation of Respiration Rate
    6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. CONCLUSION
    8. REFERENCES
    9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  21. 14. Using Ontologies in eHealth and Biomedicine
    1. ABSTRACT
    2. INTRODUCTION
    3. BACKGROUND
    4. ONTOLOGY
    5. SEMANTIC WEB
      1. eHealth
      2. Occupational Health
    6. RELATED RESEARCH
    7. ONTOLOGY AND TERMINOLOGY IN EHEALTH AND BIOMEDICINE
      1. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD)
      2. Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT)
      3. Gene Ontology (GO)
      4. MeSH
      5. OpenGALEN
    8. DOMAIN REFERENCE ONTOLOGY (DRO)
      1. The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA)
    9. REPOSITORIES
      1. Unified Medical Language system (UMLS)
      2. Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO)
      3. BioPortal
    10. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF BIOMEDICAL ONTOLOGIES
      1. National center of Biomedical Ontology (NCBO)
      2. Open Biomedical Ontologies (OBO) Foundry
      3. Semantic Web for Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG)
    11. FORMALISMS AND TOOLS REPRESENTING BIOMEDICAL ONTOLOGIES
    12. SEMANTICS-BASED MODELING AND E-TRAINING FOR THE OCCUPATIONAL RISK PREVENTION - A CASE STUDY
      1. Context
    13. ONTOLOGY-BASED MODEL FOR OCCUPATIONAL RISK PREVENTION
      1. Layers for the Representation of the Occupational Risks
      2. Semantic Layer
      3. Reference Ontology
      4. Generic Upper Levels in Taxonomies
        1. Modeling Layer
        2. Building Domain-Specific Ontologies and Models
      5. Steps for the Model-Based composition and Analysis of the Training Requests (Queries)
    14. MODEL-BASED REASONING FOR THE TRAINING IN RISK PREVENTION
    15. CONCLUSION
    16. REFERENCES
    17. ADDITIONAL READING
  22. Compilation of References
  23. About the Contributors