You are previewing Integrating Usability Engineering for Designing the Web Experience: Methodologies and Principles.
O'Reilly logo
Integrating Usability Engineering for Designing the Web Experience: Methodologies and Principles

Book Description

Integrating Usability Engineering for Designing the Web Experience: Methodologies and Principles provides a link between theoretical research and Web engineering, presenting a more holistic approach to Internet serviceability. Containing analysis from leading international experts, this publication offers new insights on applications that enable or facilitate the development of usable Web systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Foreword
  4. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
        1. Section 1: Integrating Usability Methods in the Web Development Process
        2. Section 2: Universal Usability
        3. Section 3: Theoretical Approaches
        4. Section 4: Usability Methods and Techniques
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. Integrating Usability Methods in the Web Development Process
    1. 1. Supporting Web Developers in Evaluating Usability and Identifying Usability Problems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCEPTUAL TOOL FOR USABILITY PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
      5. EMPIRICAL STUDY
      6. RESULTS
        1. Identifying and Reporting Usability Problems
        2. Categorization of Usability Problems
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 2. A Structured Methodology for Developing 3D Web Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. A Comparison of 3DUI Development Methodologies
      4. A METHODOLOGY FOR DEVELOPING 3D USER INTERFACES
        1. Stepl: Task and Concepts Modelling
          1. User Interface Interaction Taxonomy
          2. Task Patterns for 3DUI Modelling
            1. Navigation Pattern
            2. Select Pattern
            3. Manipulation Pattern
            4. System Control Pattern
          3. Guidelines for Task Modelling
        2. Step 2: Abstract User Interface Modelling
          1. Guidelines for Abstract User Interface Modelling
        3. Step 3: Concrete User Interface Modelling
          1. Guidelines for Concrete User Interface Modelling
        4. Step 4: Final User Interface Modelling
      5. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR AUTOMATIC USABILITY EVALUATION
      6. CONCLUSION
        1. Resources
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 3. A Case Study of Usability Engineering in the Defence Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. What Is ITAR?
        2. ITAR Administration and Compliance at BAE SYSTEMS
      4. ADDRESSING THE CORE PROBLEM
      5. DESIGNING THE ITAR SYSTEM
        1. Choice of Specific Methodology and Refining the Approach
        2. Refining the Requirements
        3. Detailed Planning
        4. User Interface Design
        5. Implementation
      6. TESTING AND EVALUATION
        1. Usability Issues
        2. Connectivity, Data Integrity and the User Experience
        3. Other Issues Affecting User Experiences
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. NOTE: BAE SYSTEMS AND SELEX
    4. 4. The Evaluation Cycle Management-Method Applied to the Evaluation of Learning Management Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND RELATED WORK
      3. EVALUATION CYCLE MANAGEMENT (ECM)
        1. What is ECM?
        2. Architecture of ECM
          1. The First Phase of ECM: Criteria Evaluation
            1. Knowledge Representation in DEX
          2. The Second Phase of ECM: Usability Evaluation
      4. VALIDATION OF ECM-CASE STUDY: SELECTION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE LEARNING MANAGAMENT SYSTEM
        1. Identification of the Problem
        2. Development of the Multi-Attribute Decision Making Model
          1. Identification, Description and Criteria Structuring
          2. Utility Function
          3. Description of Variants
          4. LMS Evaluation and Analysis
        3. Usability Evaluation of LMS CLIX 5.0.
          1. Usability Testing
            1. Participants
          2. Testing Environment
            1. Test Objectives
            2. Task Scenarios
            3. Measurements and Usability Metrics
            4. The Results of the Usability Test
        4. Analysis of Results and Findings
      5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
    5. 5. Usability Techniques for Interactive Software and Their Application in E-Commerce
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION AND INTERACTION DESIGN
      4. USABILITY
        1. Usability Definitions
        2. Usability Principles
        3. Usability of E-Commerce
          1. Usability Evaluation
        4. Heuristic Evaluation
        5. Checklist
        6. Usability Tests
        7. Think Aloud Approaches
      5. DESIGNING WITH USABILITY IN MIND
        1. User and Task Analysis
        2. Structured Walkthroughs
        3. User Experience
        4. Scenario-Based Usability
          1. Examples Illustrating the Need for Web Usability
            1. Case 1: South African Revenue Services (SARS)
            2. Case 2: The Olympic Games
            3. Case 3: A University Website
            4. Case 4: University of South Africa - School of Computing
            5. Case 4:1 paid you
          2. Focused Electronic Commerce Usability
      6. SUMMARY
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    6. 6. Development and Evaluation of a Methodology for Developing Marketing Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Problems with Websites
        2. HCI and Usability
        3. User Participation
        4. Real Interaction
      4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. CREATING THE NEW WEBSITE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGY
        1. Interview Phase
        2. Questionnaire Phase
      6. FINAL VERSION OF NEW METHODOLOGY
      7. PROPOSED FUTURE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  7. 2. Universal Usability
    1. 7. Integrating Accessibility Evaluation into Web Engineering Processes
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Accessible Web versus the Usable Web versus Using the Web
        2. Modern Web Audiences Impact on Website Use
        3. Accessible Practices for Modern Web Applications
          1. Text
          2. Images
          3. Multimedia
          4. Tables
          5. Links
          6. Headings
          7. Forms
      4. ACCESSIBILITY EVALUTION TECHNIQUES
        1. Conformance Evaluations and Accessibility Evaluations
        2. Automated Evaluation
        3. Inspection Methods
          1. Expert Checklist Review
          2. Barriers Walkthrough
        4. User Evaluation
          1. User Recruitment
          2. Task Preparation
          3. Running the Evaluation
          4. Summarize Results
      5. FUTURE TRENDS: INTEGRATING EVALUATION
        1. Web Engineering Processes
        2. Evaluation in Unified Processes for Web Engineering
        3. Evaluation in Agile Processes for Web Engineering
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    2. 8. Usability Methodologies for Spoken Dialogue Web Interfaces
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Multimodal Interaction
        2. Speech-Based Interaction
        3. Spoken Dialogue Web Interfaces and Voice Browsers
      4. USABILITY FOR SPEECH-BASED SYSTEMS
        1. Interaction Design Lifecycle (Interfaces) and Usability
        2. Typical Requirements for Real-Life Spoken Dialogue Interfaces
      5. USABILITY EVALUATION FOR SPEECH-BASED SYSTEMS
        1. Methodologies
          1. The Wizard-of-Oz Formative Evaluation
          2. The Summative Usability Testing of Voiceweb Systems
          3. Functional Assessment and Usability Testing for Deployed Systems
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 9. Website Accessibility and the Role of Accessibility Statements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Why is Website Accessibility Important?
        2. Incidence of Disability
        3. Designing an Accessible Website
        4. Accessibility of Websites in Practice
        5. Possible Reasons for Poor Accessibility in Practice
        6. What Can Be Done to Improve Website Accessibility?
      3. ACCESSIBILITY STATEMENTS AND THEIR ROLE IN WEBSITE ACCESSIBILITY
        1. What Is an Accessibility Statement?
        2. Role of the Accessibility Statement in Website Accessibility
        3. Guidance for the Development of Accessibility Statements
      4. RECOMMENDATIONS
        1. Access
        2. Content
        3. Audience, Language and Style
        4. Presentation
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
      9. APPENDIX 1
        1. Accessibility Statement from the RNIB (Royal National Institute of Blind People, UK)
        2. Site tools: Help
        3. Using the Site
        4. Audio Help
        5. Where to Start
    4. 10. Considering the Perceptual Implications of Auditory Rich Content on the Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: AUDIO ON THE WEB
        1. The Role of Speech Technology on the Web
        2. Audio & Speech in the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0 and 2.0
        3. Issues of Accessibility: Audio in Flash
      4. AUDIO-RICH WEB CONTENT: PERCEPTUAL IMPLICATIONS
        1. Auditory User-Model for Rich-Media Audio Content
        2. Model Structure: Overview
        3. Peripheral Organization of Sound: Auditory Scene Analysis
      5. THE SENSORY FILTER AND THE SCHEMA TEMPLATE
      6. THE ATTENTION MECHANISM
      7. MEMORY ENCODING: THE CHANGING STATE HYPOTHESIS
      8. USING THE AUDITORY USER MODEL IN PRACTICAL DESIGN
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. 11. A Usability Guide to Intelligent Web Tools for the Literacy of Deaf People
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Why Do We Propose the UCDM, Which Focuses on Usability?
        2. The User Centred Design Methodology
        3. A Review of E-Tools for the Literacy of Deaf PEOPLE
        4. Description
          1. Tools for Children
          2. Tools for Adults
          3. Tools for Adults and Old Children
        5. The Tools and the UCDM
      3. FUTURE WORK: TOWARDS A DEAF USER CENTRED DESIGN
        1. Know Your Users
        2. Guidelines
          1. Context of Use
          2. Definition and Analysis of the User Equirements
          3. Design and Evaluation
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
  8. 3. Theoretical Approaches
    1. 12. Social Research Methods Used in Moving the Traditional Usability Approach Towards a User-Centered Design Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Evolution of Usability Reflected in the Evolution of Design Models
        2. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods
        3. Review of Techniques and Methods
        4. Interviews
          1. When to Use Interviews
        5. Focus Groups
          1. When to Use Focus Groups
        6. Surveys
          1. When to Use Surveys
        7. Two Example of User Needs Analysis from Our Own Research Projects
          1. The Development of a Website Pattern
          2. User Needs Analysis
          3. A Short Description of Our Results
        8. User Needs Analysis for Developing an Intelligent Web Assistant
          1. A Short Description of Our Results
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    2. 13. A Theoretical Framework Measuring the Usability of Retail Sites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION - POSITIONING THE RESEARCH
        1. Establishing the Role of Social Attitude Theories in Human Computer Interaction
        2. Web Site Usability
        3. Social Attitude Theories
          1. Relevance of TAM and Diffusion of Innovations Theory in Developing a Theoretical Framework Measuring Usability
          2. Attributes Predicting Consumer Acceptance of Retail Sites
            1. Relative Advantage
            2. Compatibility with Lifestyle
            3. Learnability and the Establishment of Habit
            4. Accessibility
            5. Clarity of Communication
            6. Navigation
            7. Consistency
            8. Visual Presentation
            9. Content
            10. Credibility
            11. Affect
            12. Security and Privacy policies
      3. METHOD AND RESULTS
        1. Instrument
          1. Case Study 1
            1. Results
          2. Case Study 2
            1. Results
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. REFERENCES
    3. 14. The Influence of E-Commerce Website Colors on Usability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Definition of the Atmosphere Constructs
        2. Importance of the Visual Dimension on Internet
        3. Usability and E-Commerce
        4. Color as a Main Variable of E-Commerce Website Interfaces
        5. Color Perception Within Interfaces
        6. From Ergonomics to Memorization
        7. The Memorized Commercial Information
        8. Buying Intention
        9. Affect: A Mediating Variable
        10. The Exploratory Qualitative Analysis
          1. Participants
          2. Method
          3. Results
          4. Discussion
      3. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
        1. Research Model
        2. Research Method
        3. Participants
        4. Research Design
        5. Procedure
        6. Measures
          1. Memorization
          2. Buying Intention
          3. Emotions
          4. Moods
        7. Results
        8. Direct Effects of the Colors of the Graphic Chart Upon Memorization
        9. Direct Effects of the Colors of the Graphic Chart Upon Buying Intention
        10. The Relationship Between Memorization and Buying Intention
        11. Observation of the Mediating Effect of Emotions
        12. Observation of the Mediating Effect of Mood
      4. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
        1. Ergonomics and Design Rely on Color
      5. REFERENCES
      6. APPENDIX 1
        1. Devices and Installation Required to Conduct the Experiment Effectively
          1. Experimental Room (Fernandez-Maloigne, 2004)
          2. Participants (Lanthony, 2005)
          3. Screens
  9. 4. Usability Methods and Techniques
    1. 15. Whose Questionnaire Is It, Anyway?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNIQUE 1: MOTIVATION SYSTEMS THEORY (MST)
        1. Data Analysis Methods
          1. Pre-Test Stage
          2. During the Test
          3. Post-Test
        2. Summary of MST Based Tests
      4. TECHNIQUE 2: REPERTORY GRID TECHNIQUE
        1. Data Analysis Methods
        2. Choosing Elements and Eliciting Constructs
          1. Eliciting Constructs
        3. Reliability and Validity
          1. Reliability
          2. Validity
        4. Applications of the Repertory Grid Technique to Software Evaluation
        5. Applying the Repertory Grid Technique
          1. Ranking of Design Objectives by Importance
          2. Tabulation of Each Participant's Personal Ratings with Mean of Overall Scores for Each Participant
          3. Personal Ratings Sheet Discussion
        6. Summary of Repertory Grid Technique Applied to Software Evaluation
      5. OVERALL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
    2. 16. DEPTH: A Method and a Web-Based Tool for Designing and Executing Scenario-Based Usability Inspections of E-Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. POWERING NOVICE USABILITY EVALUATORS TO PERFORM INSPECTIONS
      3. THE ADDED VALUE OF E-SYSTEMS DESIGN PATTERNS
        1. The DEPTH Usability Method
      4. THE DEPTH TOOLKIT
      5. APPLYING AND EVALUATING THE DEPTH METHOD
        1. Scope of the Experimental Study
      6. EXPERIMENTAL PROCESS
        1. Evaluation Findings
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 17. Applying the WDP Technique to Usability Inspections in Web Development Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. The WDP Technique
        2. HxP Pairs (Heuristics x Perspective) in WDP v4
          1. Heuristics Related to the Perspective Presentation (Presentation)
            1. P.1. System status visibility
            2. P.2. Agreement between the system and the real world
            3. P.4. Consistency and standards
            4. P.5. Error Prevention
            5. P.6. Recognizing instead of remembering
            6. P.7. Flexibility and use efficiency
            7. P.8. Minimalist or aesthetical design
            8. P.9. Recognition, diagnosis and error recovery
            9. P.10. Help and Documentation
          2. Heuristics Related to the Perspective Conceptualization
            1. C.1 System status visibility
            2. C.2. Agreement between the system and the real world
            3. C.4. Consistency and standards
            4. C.9. Recognition, diagnosis, and error recovery
            5. C.10. Help and Documentation
          3. Heuristics Related to the Navigation Perspective
            1. N.3 Control and freedom to the user
            2. N.5. Error Prevention
            3. N.9. Recognition, diagnosis and error recovery
            4. N.10. Help and Documentation
      3. INSPECTION PROCESS WITH THE USE OF THE WDP TECHNIQUE
        1. Industrial Case Study
        2. Characterization of the Web Application
        3. Planning the Case Study
        4. Execution of the Usability Inspection
        5. Results Obtained
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    4. 18. Multiple-User Simultaneous Testing: Experience with Two Methods
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. What is MUST?
      4. IMPLEMENTATION OF SELF-PACED AND MODERATED MUST
        1. The Study Set Up
        2. Findings
        3. Challenges with MUST
        4. Future Opportunities for MUST Usability Studies
        5. Practical Solutions and Recommendations
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    5. Compilation of References
    6. About the Contributors