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Integrating Advanced Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Numerical Control: Principles and Implementations

Book Description

Integrating Advanced Computer-Aided Design, Manufacturing, and Numerical Control: Principles and Implementations presents basic principles of geometric modelling while featuring contemporary case studies. This comprehensive title expands beyond the traditional scope of the product development process to give a brief account on product data management (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM).

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
    1. COMPUTER AIDED TECHNOLOGIES
    2. FROM "POINT SOLUTIONS" TO A "COMPLETE SOLUTION"
    3. EXTENDING INTEGRATION IN VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL DIMENSIONS
    4. EMBRACING THE TECHNOLOGIES
    5. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
    6. WHO AND HOW TO READ THIS BOOK
    7. REFERENCES
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. About the Author
  6. I. Principles and Backgrounds
    1. I. Geometric Modelling and Computer-Aided Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO GEOMETRIC MODELLING
      3. GEOMETRIC MODELLING APPROACHES
        1. Wire-Frame Modelling
          1. Wire-Frame Entities
          2. Analytic Entities
            1. Nonparametric Representation of a Curve
            2. Parametric Representation of a Curve
          3. Synthetic Entities
        2. Surface Modelling
          1. Surfaces Used in a Geometric Model
            1. Plane Surface
            2. Ruled Surface
            3. Bézier Surface and B-Spline Surface
          2. Analytic Surface Representations
            1. Implicit Equation
            2. Explicit Equation
            3. Parametric Equation
          3. Synthetic Surface Representations
            1. Hermite Bicubic Surface
            2. Bézier Surface Patches
            3. Uniform Cubic B-Spline Surfaces
          4. Surface Manipulation
        3. Solid Modelling
          1. Boundary Representation
            1. Basic Entities and the Connectivity of B-rep
            2. Validation of a B-rep Model
          2. Constructive Solid Geometry
          3. Other Types of Representations
          4. Analytical Solid Modelling
      4. COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN
        1. CAD System Architecture
          1. CAD in its Infancy
          2. Feature-Based Design
          3. Parametric Design
          4. Variational Design
          5. History-Based and History-Free CAD
          6. Adding Intelligence to CAD
      5. COMPUTER HARDWARE FOR CAD
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. II. CAD Data Exchange and CAD Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ISSUES AT HAND
      3. CAD KERNELS
      4. DATA INTEROPERABILITY
        1. Different Types of Data Translation/Conversion
        2. Dual Kernel CAD Systems
        3. Direct Data Translators
        4. Common/Neutral Translators
          1. DXF
          2. DXF File Structure
          3. IGES
          4. PDES
          5. STEP
            1. Components of STEP
            2. STEP Methodology
            3. A STEP File
            4. Current Status of STEP
            5. An Industry Case Study
      5. DISCUSSIONS
        1. Comparing Data Exchange Methods
        2. Data Quality
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. III. Computer-Aided Process Planning and Manufacturing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. COMPUTER-AIDED PROCESS PLANNING
        1. Basic Steps in Developing a Process Plan
          1. Analysis of Part Requirements
          2. Selection of Raw Workpiece
          3. Determination of Manufacturing Operations and Their Sequences
          4. Selection of Machine Tools
          5. Selection of Cutters, Workholding Devices and Inspection Equipment
          6. Determining Machining Conditions and Manufacturing Times
            1. Minimum Cost Model
            2. Maximum Production Rate Model
            3. Manufacturing Lead Time
        2. Principal Process Planning Approaches
          1. Manual Experience-Based Planning Method
          2. Computer-Aided Process Planning Method
            1. Variant CAPP Method
            2. Generative CAPP Method
      3. COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING
        1. Computer Applications in a Manufacturing Plant
        2. Key Aspects of CAM in a Manufacturing System
        3. Manufacturing Control
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    4. IV. Feature Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. FEATURE DEFINITION
      3. FEATURE TAXONOMY
      4. FEATURE REPRESENTATION SCHEMES
      5. SURFACE FEATURES VS. VOLUMETRIC FEATURES
      6. FEATURE-BASED METHODOLOGIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. V. Feature Recognition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BASIC CONCEPTS OF FEATURE RECOGNITION
      3. CLASSIFICATION OF FEATURE RECOGNITION SYSTEMS
        1. Feature Detection
          1. Graph-Based Method
          2. Syntax-Based Method
          3. Rule-Based Method
          4. Techniques for Recognising Features from CSG Models
        2. Feature Generation
          1. Convex-Hull Algorithm
          2. Cell-Decomposition
          3. Volume Decomposition
          4. Backward Growing
          5. Entity Growing
      4. SOME ISSUES ON FEATURE RECOGNITION
        1. Concavity/Convexity of a Geometric Entity
          1. Concave/Convex Faces
          2. Concave/Convex Edges
          3. Concave/Convex Co-Edges
          4. Concave/Convex Vertices
          5. Concave/Convex Face Outer Boundaries
        2. Optimal Interpretation of Machinable Volumes
        3. Consideration of Blanks
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    6. VI. Feature Interactions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SURFACE FEATURE INTERACTIONS
        1. Surface Features
        2. Classification of Surface Feature Interactions
          1. Basic Feature Interactions
            1. Nested Features
        3. Overlapping Features
            1. Intersecting Features
          1. Complex Feature Interactions
          2. More Examples of Surface Feature Interactions
        4. Significance of Surface Feature Interactions
      3. VOLUMETRIC FEATURE INTERACTIONS
        1. Volumetric Features
          1. Interacting Patches
          2. Feature Interaction Types
        2. Significance of Feature Interactions
      4. INDIRECT FEATURE INTERACTIONS
      5. A CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    7. VII. Integrated Feature Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTEGRATION VERSUS INTERFACING
      3. INTEGRATED FEATURE RECOGNITION
        1. Machining Volumes for Different Operations
        2. Features for Finishing Operations
        3. Intermediate Workpiece
        4. Machining Requirements
          1. Surface-Targeted Operation Information
            1. Dimensional Tolerances
            2. Surface Finish (Roughness)
            3. Geometrical Tolerances
            4. Decisions on Number of Cuts
        5. Dealing with Fuzzy Information
          1. Fuzzy Variables
          2. Membership Functions
            1. Membership Functions for Dimensional Tolerances and Surface Finish
            2. Membership Functions for Geometrical Tolerances
        6. Making Decisions Based on Fuzzy Data
        7. An Example
        8. Machining Allowances for Different Cuts
        9. A Case Study
          1. Decisions on Number of Cuts
          2. Elementary Machining Volumes
          3. Features for Roughing Operations
      4. DETERMING MACHINING FEATURES FROM A FBD MODEL
        1. Mapping Design Features to Machining Features
          1. Positive Features
          2. Negative Features
            1. Slots and Cuts
            2. Holes
          3. Modification Features
            1. Rounds
            2. Chamfers
          4. Tweak Features
          5. Implicit Features
          6. Patterned Features
        2. Feature Mapping
          1. Mapping Negative Features to Machining Features
          2. Mapping Modification Features to Machining Features
          3. Mapping Positive Features to Machining Features
          4. Mapping Implicit Features to Machining Features
          5. Mapping Patterned Features to Machining Features
      5. MACHINING FEATURES AND CUTTING TOOLS
        1. Cutting Tool Classification
        2. Mapping Design Features to Cutting Tools
          1. Mapping Cut Features to Cutting Tools
          2. Mapping Slot Features to Cutting Tools
          3. Mapping Holes to Cutting Tools
          4. Mapping Rounds and Chamfers to Cutting Tools
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
    8. VIII. CNC Machine Tools
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      3. PRINCIPLES OF NUMERICAL CONTROL
      4. TYPICAL CNC MACHINE TOOLS
        1. Machining Capabilities of a CNC Machine
        2. Vertical Machining Centres
        3. Horizontal Machining Centres
      5. TOOLING FOR CNC MACHINE TOOLS
        1. Material for Cutting Tools
        2. Tooling Systems
        3. Automatic Tool Changer System
          1. Turret Head
          2. Carousel Storage with Spindle Direct Tool Changer
          3. Horizontal Storage Matrix Magazine with Pivot Insertion Tool Changer
      6. PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF A CNC MACHINE TOOL
        1. Machine Base
        2. Machine Spindles
        3. Spindle Drives
        4. Slide Drives
        5. Direct Numerical Control
      7. DESIGNATION OF AXIS AND MOTION OF CNC MACHINES
        1. Z Axis of Motion
        2. X Axis of Motion
        3. Y Axis of Motion
        4. Rotary Motions A, B and C
        5. Origin of the Standard Coordinate System
        6. Additional Axes
          1. Linear Motion
          2. Rotary Motion
        7. Direction of Spindle Rotation
      8. SOME SCHEMATICS OF CNC MACHINE TOOLS
      9. PARALLEL MACHINE TOOLS: A LITTLE "SIDETRACK"
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTE
    9. IX. Program CNCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROGRAM BASICS
        1. Program Format
        2. NC Words
          1. Preparatory Function
          2. Spindle Control
          3. Spindle Activation and Direction
          4. Spindle Range
          5. Feed-Rate
          6. Dwell
          7. Coolant
          8. Tool Changes
          9. NC Parameters
        3. Other Controllable Functions
      3. COORDINATE SYSTEM AND PROGRAM ZERO
        1. Coordinate System
        2. Plus and Minus
        3. Program Zero
        4. Absolute vs. Incremental
      4. COMPENSATIONS
        1. Offsets
        2. Organization of Offsets
        3. Wear Offsets vs. Geometry Offsets
        4. Instate an Offset
        5. Offsets and Trial Machining
        6. Tool Length Compensation
          1. The Need for Tool Length Compensation
          2. Use of Tool Length Compensation
        7. Cutter Radius Compensation
          1. Range of Cutter Sizes
          2. Adapt to Cutting Conditions
          3. Two Types of Cutter Radius Compensations
          4. Fixture Offsets
      5. PROGRAMMING METHODS FOR INTERPOLATION
        1. Linear Interpolation
        2. Circular Interpolation
        3. Parabolic Interpolation
      6. SUMMARY OF SOME COMMON NC CODES
        1. Lists of Some Common G Codes
        2. Reset States
        3. Lists of Some Common M Codes
      7. EXAMPLES OF NC PROGRAMS
        1. Programming Hole-Making Operations
        2. Programming Linear Profiles
        3. Programming Circular Profiles
          1. Circular Interpolation Commands
          2. Circular Interpolation via Direct Radius Specification
      8. CONTEMPORARY APPROACH TO PART PROGRAMMING
        1. Automatically Programmed Tools (APT)
          1. Part Definition
            1. Defining a Point
            2. Defining a Pattern
            3. Defining a Line
            4. Defining a Plane
            5. Defining a Circle
            6. Defining a Cylinder
          2. Machining Plan
            1. Point-to-point
            2. Contouring
          3. Machining Specifications
          4. APT Programs: CL files
            1. Traditional APT CL files
            2. "Full-fledged" ASCII APT CL files
            3. CAD/CAM ASCII APT CL files
        2. CAD/CAM Approach
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  7. II. Integration and Implementations
    1. X. Integration of CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MODELS OF INTEGRATING CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC
      3. A CASE STUDY OF INTEGRATING CAD/CAPP/CAM
        1. Concurrent Product Modelling in a CAD/CAM System
        2. A Bird's-Eye View of the Case Study
        3. CAD/CAM Enabling a Concurrent Environment
        4. Reflections
      4. LIMITED EFFORTS TO INTEGRATE CAM AND CNC
        1. Post-Processor: A Source of Vexation
        2. Challenges
        3. The APT Effort
        4. The BCL Effort
        5. The BNCL Effort
        6. Intermediate Languages for CNC Programming
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTE
    2. XI. Integration Based on STEP Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. DATA EXCHANGE USING STEP AND STEP-NC
        1. Data Exchange between CAD Systems
        2. Data Flow between CAD, CAPP, CAM and CNC Systems
        3. Features as a Common Thread
        4. Integration through STEP AP Harmonization
        5. Integrate CAD with CAPP
        6. Integrate CAPP with CAM
        7. Integrate CAM with CNC
        8. STEP-NC Data Model
        9. Data Access Implementation Methods
          1. Part 21 Physical File Implementation Method
          2. XML Implementation Method (Part 28 Edition 1)
          3. XML Implementation Method (Part 28 Edition 2)
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    3. XII. Function Block-Enabled Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. FUNCTION BLOCK STRUCTURE
      3. FUNCTION BLOCK-ENABLED CAD/CAPP/CAM INTEGRATION
      4. INTEGRATING CAM WITH CNC
        1. Model-View-Control Design Pattern
        2. Software Implementation: FBDK and FBRT
        3. Layered Architecture of the CNC System
        4. The Prototype CNC System
          1. Software Implementation
          2. Implementation of the MVC Design Pattern
          3. Visualisation
          4. A Test Part
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    4. XIII. Development of an Integrated, Adaptable CNC System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. TASK-LEVEL DATA VS. METHOD-LEVEL DATA
      3. GENERATE A NATIVE STEP-NC PROGRAM
      4. MODELLING NATIVE MACHINING FACILITIES
        1. STEP-NCMtDm
          1. Machine Tool General Data Set
          2. Machine Tool Component Data Set
          3. Machine Tool Capability Data Set
          4. Machine Tool Performance Data Set
          5. Machining Cost Information Data Set
          6. Kinematics Model of a Machine Tool
          7. Static and Dynamic Data
      5. AN ADAPTOR
        1. STEP-NC Pre-Processor
        2. STEP-NC Encoder
        3. Function Block Mapping Unit
      6. HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. XIV. Integrating CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC with Inspections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CLOSED-LOOP MACHINING AND ON-MACHINE INSPECTION
      3. PAST RESEARCH
      4. A DATA MODEL FOR OMI
      5. AN INTEGRATED MACHINING AND INSPECTION SYSTEM
      6. IMPLEMENTATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    6. XV. Internet-Based Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK
      3. SYSTEM MODEL
        1. Client Tier: User Interface
        2. Business Logic Tier: CAPP Server
        3. Data Tier: Data Model
      4. FRAMEWORK DEVELOPMENT
        1. Client Tier Implementation
        2. Business Logic Tier Implementation
        3. Data Tier Implementation
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    7. XVI. From CAD/CAPP/CAM/CNC to PDM, PLM and Beyond
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PDM'S CAPABILITIES
        1. Evolution of PDM Methodology
      3. BENEFITS OF PDM SYSTEMS
        1. Interdisciplinary Collaboration
        2. Reduced Product Development Cycle Time
        3. Reduced Complexity of Accessing the Information of a Company
        4. Improved Project Management
        5. Improved Lifecycle Design
        6. Supply Chain Collaboration
      4. WEB-BASED PDM
        1. Tiered-Architecture
        2. Similarities between Web-Technology and PDM Methodology
        3. Capability Improvements
          1. User-Friendliness
          2. Greater Accessibility and Applicability
          3. Effective Linking to the Supply Chain
          4. Effective Linking to Geographically Diverse Organisations
          5. Making Virtual Organisation Possible
        4. Further Challenges
      5. PDM STANDARDIZATION
      6. INTEGRATED AND EXTENDED PDM
      7. PRODUCT LIFECYCLE MANAGEMENT
        1. Definition of PLM
        2. PLM Solution Model
        3. Benefits of PLM
        4. PLM Implementation
          1. Top Management Commitment and Support
          2. Developing Appropriate Skills and Business Processes
          3. Cross-Functional Collaborative Product Development Teams
          4. Performance Measurement and Reward Systems
          5. Continuous Employee Education
          6. Eliminating Employee Resistance
        5. PLM Standardization
        6. Share-A-Space: PLM in Practice
          1. Core Features
          2. Architecture
      8. LOOKING FORWARD TO "GRAND" INTEGRATION
        1. People-Paper Technique
        2. File-Transfer Technique
        3. API Programs
        4. Distributed Objects
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    8. XVII. Key Enabling Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS
        1. Expert Systems Technology
        2. Expert Systems Development Approaches
        3. Knowledge in Product Design and Manufacturing
        4. Applications of Expert Systems
      3. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK METHODS
        1. Introduction to Neural Nets
        2. ANN Used in Feature Technologies
          1. Network Topology
          2. Input Representation
          3. Output Format
          4. Training Method
        3. ANN Used for Process Planning
          1. Network Topology
          2. Input Representation
          3. Output Representation
          4. Training Method
      4. GENETIC ALGORITHM
        1. Implementation Procedure of Genetic Algorithm
          1. Coding of Strings
          2. Fitness Function
          3. Genetic Operators
        2. Applications of Genetic Algorithm
          1. Genetic Algorithms for Macro Process Planning
          2. Genetic Algorithms for Micro Process Planning
          3. Genetic Algorithms in PDM
      5. AGENT-BASED TECHNOLOGY
        1. Basics of Agents
        2. Applications of Agent Technology
          1. Applications of Agent Technology in Engineering Design
          2. Applications of Agent Technology in Manufacturing
      6. OTHER TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Fuzzy Logic
        2. Petri Nets
        3. Ant Colony Optimization
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES