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Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Metals: Using Multiscale Modeling to Invigorate Engineering Design with Science by Mark F. Horstemeyer

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2.7 EXPERIMENTAL EXPLORATION, CALIBRATION, AND VALIDATION AT THE MACROSCALE

Since the scientific method demands that experiments be conducted in order for a working hypothesis to become a theory and eventually a law, experiments must be a part of the multiscale modeling methodology. Figure 2.5 shows that at each length scale, there should exist a procedure in which experiments validate the model results.

Figure 2.5 Multiscale experimental procedure to validate the multiscale modeling methodology for each length scale. FEM, finite element method; RVE, representative volume element.

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At each length, there exist three possible motivations for experiments in multiscale modeling:

1. exploratory experiments,
2. model calibration/correlation experiments,
3. model validation experiments.

Exploratory experiments indicate that the mathematical representation of the model is not known yet although the conceptual model (or working hypothesis) can be considered. Essentially at a particular length scale, the structure–property relationships have not been characterized. For the smallest length scales, this is a difficult task other than using a nano-indentor or atomic force microscope (AFM) to study the elastic and plastic properties [170]. To understand the structure at the lowest length scales, we can employ a TEM. However, to gather the combined structure–property relationships is a difficult ...

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