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Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Metals: Using Multiscale Modeling to Invigorate Engineering Design with Science by Mark F. Horstemeyer

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1.3 HISTORY OF MULTISCALE MODELING

The recent surge in multiscale modeling, from the smallest scale (atoms) to full system level (e.g., autos) related to solid mechanics, that has now grown into an international multidisciplinary activity, was birthed from an unlikely source. Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national labs (Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)) started to reduce nuclear underground tests in the mid-1980s, with the last one in 1992, the idea of simulation-based design and analysis concepts emerged. After the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty of 1996 in which many countries pledged to discontinue all systems level nuclear testing, programs like the Advanced Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) were initiated within the U.S. DOE and managed by the labs. The basic premise of ASCI was to provide more accurate and precise simulation-based design and analysis tools. In essence, the numerous, large-scale systems level tests that were previously used to validate a design were no longer acceptable, thus warranting the tremendous increase in reliance upon simulation results of complex systems for design verification and validation purposes.

Because of the requirement for greater complexity in these simulations, advancing parallel computing and multiscale modeling became top priorities. With this perspective, experimental paradigms shifted from ...

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