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Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Metals: Using Multiscale Modeling to Invigorate Engineering Design with Science by Mark F. Horstemeyer

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1.2 THE APPLICATION OF MULTISCALE MATERIALS MODELING VIA ICME

Although this book is dedicated primarily to the application of ICME principles to the design and manufacture of structural materials with nonlinear behavior, the integrated circuits industry provides an analogy of the progress achieved in modeling components and systems with different modeling accuracies and utilizing multilevel simulation tools. Even with the huge advancements in parallel computing power, it is simply impractical to model a complete system that accommodates all possible application conditions (e.g., test conditions) with the highest-accuracy physics. However, these highly accurate physics models are able to capture the phenomena under various extreme conditions and thereby provide the basis for more abstract models (e.g., current-voltage model of transistors), which are more computationally efficient. These transistor models become the basis for an even higher level of abstraction (e.g., switch level or logic gate level), which in turn becomes the basis for simulating logic blocks or subsystems over the greater range of test conditions with the environmental conditions already being validated by the lower level modeling. Often the systems are simulated using simply input–output logic signals with various degrees of timing delays determined from lower level simulations. Tools have evolved which support concurrent multilevel simulations (e.g., different logic blocks are simulated with different levels ...

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