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Instructional Design

Book Description

Successful educational programs are often the result of pragmatic design and development methodologies that take into account all aspects of the educational and instructional experience.Instructional Design: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications presents a complete overview of historical perspectives, new methods and applications, and models in instructional design research and development. This three-volume work covers all fundamental strategies and theories and encourages continued research in strengthening the consistent design and reliable results of educational programs and models.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
    1. VOLUME I
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
    2. ASSOCIATE EDITORS
    3. EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 101: Taxonomies for Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 102: Preparing Teachers to Teach Online
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING
      3. MAIN FOCUS: A MODEL FOR PREPARING TEACHERS TO TEACH ONLINE
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 103: Reflective E-Learning Pedagogy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIVISION OF ROLES IN E-LEARNING
      5. COMMUNICATING WITH THE STUDENTS
      6. ORGANIZATION AND FACILITATOR ASSISTANCE
      7. AWARENESS OF STUDENT NEEDS
      8. TECHNICAL SUPPORT
      9. PEDAGOGICAL APPROACHES AND LEARNERS’ OWNERSHIP
      10. REFLECTION AS A MEANS OF EVALUATING A STUDENT’S GROWTH
      11. FUTURE TRENDS
      12. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 104: Higher Education’s New Frontier for the E-University and Virtual Campus
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ITALIAN UNIVERSITIES AND E-LEARNING
      3. E-LEARNING IN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES AND THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION INITIATIVES
      4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
    5. Chapter 105: Learning Activities Model
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES MODEL
      4. THE MODEL EXEMPLIFIED
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 106: What Factors Make a Multimedia Learning Environment Engaging
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. GENERAL DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 107: Quality Learning Objective in Instructional Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. LOS AND QUALITY CONCEPT
      3. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 108: Instructional Design Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN, TECHNOLOGY, AND THEORY BACKGROUND
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PROJECT MANAGEMENT
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY PROJECT MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
      6. THE APPLICATIONS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODELS
      7. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS DESIGN (ISD)
      8. THE ADDIE MODEL
      9. THE DICK AND CAREY MODEL
      10. THE RAPID PROTOTYPING MODEL
      11. R2D2
      12. THE ICARE MODEL
      13. THE ASSURE MODEL
      14. FUTURE TRENDS
      15. OBJECT-ORIENTED DISTRIBUTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      16. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
      17. COGNITIVE SCIENCE AND NEUROSCIENCE
      18. CONCLUSION
      19. APPENDIX
    9. Chapter 109: Contemporary Instructional Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SOME CLASSIC CONCEPTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND OUTCOMES
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 110: Instructional Design Methods Integrating Instructional Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 111: Using Design Patterns to Support E-Learning Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. USAGE OF DESIGN PATTERNS
      5. HOW EFFECTIVE ARE DESIGN PATTERNS?
      6. DESIGN PATTERNS USAGE IN E-LEARNING
      7. TOWARDS A PATTERN LANGUAGE FOR E-LEARNING DESIGN
      8. PROPOSED E-LEARNING DESIGN PATTERNS
      9. FIRST EVALUATION OF THE DESIGN PATTERNS
      10. FUTURE TRENDS
      11. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 112: Visual Design of Coherent Technology-Enhanced Learning Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CPM LANGUAGE
      5. REAL WORLD CASE STUDIES DESIGNED WITH THE CPM LANGUAGE
      6. CONCLUSION AND PERSPECTIVES
    13. Chapter 113: History of Distance Learning Professional Associations
      1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      2. MAIN FOCUS: DISTANCE LEARNING PROFESSIONAL
      3. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 114: Using Games to Teach Design Patterns and Computer Graphics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE USE OF GAMES IN EDUCATIONAL PROPOSALS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 115: Using Video Games to Improve Literacy Levels of Males
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORY OF USING VIDEO GAMES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL PURPOSES
      4. CURRENT USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
      5. VIDEO GAMES AND MALES
      6. MALES AND READING
      7. VIDEO GAMES AND LEARNING AND LITERACY CONNECTIONS
      8. CHALLENGES OF USING VIDEO GAMES TO IMPROVE LITERACY
      9. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR USING VIDEO GAMES TO IMPROVE LITERACY LEVELS OF MALES
      11. SUMMARY
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 201: Planning for Technology Integration
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PLAN
      4. SUMMARY
    2. Chapter 202: Bringing Reality into the Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. USING ACTIVITY THEORY AS A FRAMEWORK
      5. THE CONCEPT OF COGNITIVE TOOL
      6. THE PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
      7. THREE PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGIES
      8. TWO CASES DESCRIPTION
      9. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 203: Model-Facilitated Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. MODELS
      5. A THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
      6. PEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND ISSUES IN THE ONLINE MODEL-FACILITATED LEARNING EXPERIENCE
      7. PEDAGOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
      8. ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE TRENDS AND RESEARCH
    4. Chapter 204: Developing Learning Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SAMPLE
      6. PROCEDURE
      7. ANALYSIS
      8. RESULTS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH
    5. Chapter 205: Developing Prescriptive Taxonomies for Distance Learning Instructional Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS: INSTRUCTIONAL TAXONOMIES - WHAT THEY ARE AND WHY THEY MATTER
    6. Chapter 206: Drawing Circles in the Sand
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING CONTENT
      4. SYNERGISTIC ALIGNMENT OF GAME AND CONTENT
      5. METHODOLOGIES IN PRACTICE
      6. CASE STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 207: A Model for Knowledge and Innovation in Online Education
      1. ABSTRACT
    8. Chapter 208: A Large-Scale Model for Working with Subject Matter Experts
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. LARGE-SCALE COLLABORATION MODEL FOR SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS
      4. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 209: Instructional Challenges in Higher Education Online Courses Delivered through a Learning Management System by Subject Matter Experts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TAXONOMY AND TERMS
      4. THREE CONTEXTUAL FACTORS
      5. DATA-DRIVEN DESIGN EVOLUTION
      6. TWO CONTEXTUAL ELEMENTS
      7. THE AERO ISD
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 210: Functional Relevance and Online Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. CONCEPTS, PROBLEMS, AND SOLUTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    11. Chapter 211: Self-Regulated Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CHOICES TO TRAIN TEACHERS ABOUT EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY AND SRL
      5. LESSONS LEARNT
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 212: Individualized Web-Based Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: STRATEGIES AND GUIDELINES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS
      3. ADAPTIVE WEB-BASED INSTRUCTION AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS
      4. ADAPTIVE METHODS
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR INDIVIDUALIZED WEB-BASED INSTRUCTION
    13. Chapter 213: The Virtue of Paper
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROLOGUE
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. KNOWLEDGE WORK AND VISUAL NOTATION
      5. PAPER
      6. THE GOAL OF THE PAPERLESS OFFICE
      7. WE KNOW HOW PAPER IS USED IN OUR OWN EXPERIENCES
      8. AFFORDANCES OF PAPER FOR KNOWLEDGE WORK/DESIGN
      9. EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF PAPER SUPPORTED KNOWLEDGE WORK
      10. DRAWING AS A MEANS TO DESIGN
      11. REASONS FOR DRAWING
      12. DRAWING ON PAPER
      13. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 214: LDL for Collaborative Activities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ORIGIN AND BACKGROUND OF LDL
      4. THE IMS-LD PROPOSAL
      5. POSITIONING LDL TOWARDS BOTTURI ET AL.’S CLASSIFICATION
      6. LDL: SEVEN CONCEPTS TO BUILD A SCENARIO
      7. THE METHODOLOGY
      8. FORMALIZING THE INFORMAL SCENARIO (PART 1): IDENTIFYING THE ACTIVITIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS
      9. FORMALIZING THE INFORMAL SCENARIO (PART 2): MODELING EACH ACTIVITY
      10. APPLICATION OF THE METHODOLOGY TO AN EXAMPLE
      11. FIRST RESULTS AND CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 215: Development of Game-Based Training Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 216: Bridging Game Development and Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT GOALS
      4. DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES
      5. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 217: Lessons Learned about Designing Augmented Realities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. AUGMENTED REALITY
      5. THE HANDHELD AUGMENTED REALITY PROJECT
      6. ALIEN CONTACT! CURRICULUM
      7. FORMATIVE EVALUATION
      8. RESULTS
      9. FURTHER EVALUATION
      10. MODIFICATIONS BASED ON FORMATIVE EVALUATION
      11. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 301: Cognitive Architecture and Instructional Design in a Multimedia Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BIOLOGICALLY PRIMARY AND BIOLOGICALLY SECONDARY KNOWLEDGE
      4. HUMAN COGNITIVE ARCHITECTURE WHEN DEALING WITH BIOLOGICALLY SECONDARY KNOWLEDGE
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL CONSEQUENCES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 302: Simulating Teaching Experience with Role-Play
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. RESEARCHING A SIMULATED TEACHING EXPERIENCE
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 303: Impact of Podcasts as Professional Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND NEED
      3. THEORETICAL BASES
      4. RESEARCH METHOD
      5. FINDINGS: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      6. EDUCATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 304: Modelling Spoken Multimodal Instructional Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS
      4. HISTORY AND STATE OF THE ART
      5. COMPONENTS AND ARCHITECTURES
      6. SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND REQUIREMENTS: A SIMPLE EXAMPLE
      7. A MODEL OF INSTRUCTIONAL INTERACTION
      8. WHEN (NOT) TO USE SPEECH IN INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEMS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    5. Chapter 305: Applying the ADDIE Model to Online Instruction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANALYSIS
      4. DESIGN
      5. DEVELOPMENT
      6. IMPLEMENTATION
      7. EVALUATION
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 306: E-Learning with Wikis, Weblogs and Discussion Forums
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIAL SOFTWARE TOOLS
      5. EMPIRICAL SURVEY
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FINAL REMARKS
    7. Chapter 307: Integrating Blogs in Teacher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
    8. Chapter 308: iPods as Mobile Multimedia Learning Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IPOD RESEARCH
      4. IPODS AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES: A STUDY OF WORKING MEMORY
      5. IPODS AS MOBILE MULTIMEDIA LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    9. Chapter 309: Telementoring and Project-Based Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INQUIRY LEARNING APPROACHES AND TELEMENTORING
      4. INFORMATION LITERACY AND TELEMENTORING
      5. DIGITAL MEDIA LITERACY AND TELEMENTORING
      6. TELEMENTORING MODELS
      7. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR AN INTEGRATED TELEMENTORING MODEL
      8. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF PROJECT-BASED TELEMENTORING
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. Appendix: Selected K-12 Telementoring Programs
    10. Chapter 310: Developing Educational Screencasts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EDUCATIONAL SCREENCASTS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION AND REFLECTIONS
    11. Chapter 311: Teaching IT Through Learning Communities in a 3D Immersive World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BASIC TENET
      4. COMMUNICATION
      5. SENSE OF PRESENCE AND COPRESENCE
      6. METAPHORICAL GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACES
      7. SUPPORT
      8. LEADERSHIP
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 312: The MOT+Visual Language for Knowledge-Based Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN BASED ON VISUAL MODELING
      4. MOT+: A GENERIC VISUAL LANGUAGE AND TOOL
      5. REPRESENTING MULTI-ACTOR WORKFLOWS AND LEARNING DESIGNS
      6. MOT+OWL: A STANDARDIZED ONTOLOGY EDITOR
      7. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 313: poEML
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SEPARATION OF CONCERNS
      5. AN EXAMPLE
      6. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 314: SEAMAN
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. VISUAL LANGUAGES
      5. SYSTEM PROTOTYPE
      6. A SAMPLE APPLICATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 315: coUML
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE COUML APPROACH
      4. COUML LANGUAGE SPECIFICATION
      5. COUML APPLICATIONS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 316: Modeling Learning Units by Capturing Context with IMS LD
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODEL 1: CONNECTING A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP WITH OTHER CLASSES
      5. MODEL 2: CONSTRUCTIVIST TEACHING MODEL
      6. MODEL 3: BEHAVIORIST TEACHING MODEL
      7. MODEL 4: COGNITIVIST TEACHING MODEL
      8. MODEL 5: “TRUE STORY” LEARNING ACTIVITY
      9. SYNTHESIS AND DISCUSSION
      10. FOUR-LAYER MODEL OF DESIGN
      11. FUTURE TRENDS
      12. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 401: Wireless Computer Labs
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. ISSUES
      3. ADVANTAGES/STRENGTHS
      4. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 402: Personalised Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSONALISED LEARNING
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. COURSE DESIGN
      6. COURSE CONTENT AND LEARNING PROCESS
      7. FIRST ITERATION TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
      8. FIRST ITERATION RESEARCH RESULTS
      9. SECOND ITERATION TEACHING LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT
      10. STUDENT-LED MODULES
      11. STUDENT RESPONSE TO THE STUDENT-LED MODULES
      12. THE MORE THINGS CHANGE, THE MORE THEY STAY THE SAME
      13. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. Appendix One
    3. Chapter 403: Creating Supportive Environments for CALL Teacher Autonomy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. EVALUATION
      6. SUMMARY
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE TRENDS
      8. Appendix
    4. Chapter 404: Learning Object Based Instruction
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE TRENDS
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 405: Teaching Technology to Digital Immigrants
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BENEFITS OF TECHNOLOGY
      5. TRAINING FACULTY: A BASIC LIST OF “DO’S”
      6. DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS VS. DIGITAL NATIVES
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 406: Internet Citizenship Course Design and Delivery Using ICT
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. COURSE DESCRIPTION
      3. COURSE MANAGEMENT AND DELIVERY
      4. COURSE CONTENT AND STRUCTURE
      5. STUDENT MILESTONES, CONTRIBUTIONS, AND FEEDBACK
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 407: The Real World Buffalo*
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHANGING FIELD EXPERIENCES AND THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY
      4. A UNIQUE URBAN SCHOOL: THE KING CENTER CHARTER SCHOOL
      5. REFLECTIVE MEDIATION-IN-ACTION
      6. NEW TECHNOLOGIES BRING BOTH CHALLENGES AND PROMISE
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. Appendix A
      10. Appendix B
    8. Chapter 408: Research on the Effects of Media and Pedagogy in Distance Education
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 409: Application of E-Learning in Teaching
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
    10. Chapter 410: Asynchronous Online Foreign Language Courses
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: COMPUTER-ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING (CALL)
      3. DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING ECORE® INTERMEDIATE SPANISH I AND II
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 411: The Application of Sound and Auditory Responses in E-Learning
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN DISCUSSION: THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR THE USE OF SOUND IN INSTRUCTION SOFTWARE
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL COMMUNICATION FRAMEWORK
      5. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 412: The Influence of Visual and Temporal Dynamics on Split Attention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EYE MOVEMENTS IN SPLIT ATTENTION CONDITIONS
      5. EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC VS. STATIC VISUALIZATIONS ON SPLIT ATTENTION
      6. EFFECTS OF TIME CONSTRAINTS ON SPLIT ATTENTION
      7. THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS
      8. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    13. Chapter 413: Leveraging Libraries to Support Academic Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BLENDING LIBRARY AND INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY POSITIONS
      4. COLLABORATIVE TRAINING: BLACKBOARD
      5. ADDITIONAL FACULTY TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
      6. TECHNOLOGY COLLABORATIONS: LEARNING CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      7. INSTRUCTION BUILDER: CURRENT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONALITY
      8. ELECTRONIC RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
      9. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS
    14. Chapter 414: Student Decision Making in Technology Application
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
      4. TECHNOLOGY USE AND PERCEPTION
      5. DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY
      6. DATA COLLECTION
      7. SUBJECTS
      8. INSTRUMENT AND DATA ANALYSIS
      9. RESULTS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 415: Transforming a Pediatrics Lecture Series to Online Instruction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PROBLEM WITH THE CURRENT RESIDENCY CLASSROOM-BASED CURRICULUM AT SUNY UPSTATE
      4. THE PROPOSED PEDIATRIC ONLINE CORE CURRICULUM
      5. IMPLEMENTATION: PROCESS, BENEFITS, CHALLENGES, AND INITIAL RESULTS
      6. PLANS FOR THE FUTURE: ENHANCEMENTS, RESEARCH, CONCLUSIONS
    16. Chapter 416: A Collaborative Approach for Online Dementia Care Training
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE ONLINE DEMENTIA CARE TRAINING PROJECT
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    17. Chapter 417: Gaming and Simulation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 418: Leveraging the Affordances of an Electronic Game to Meet Instructional Goals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    19. Chapter 419: A Video Game, a Chinese Otaku, and Her Deep Learning of a Language
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIOCULTURAL THEORIES OF LEARNING
      4. CONCLUSION
    20. Chapter 420: Narrative Development and Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
    21. Chapter 421: Teacher Gamers vs. Teacher Non-Gamers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    22. Chapter 422: Dance Dance Education and Rites of Passage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION RITUALS AND RITES OF PASSAGE
      4. PURPOSE OF STUDY
      5. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      6. DANCE DANCE REVOLUTION IS NOT YOUR TYPICAL VIDEO GAME
      7. INTERVIEW-EE/INFORMANT
      8. METHODOLOGY AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      9. THEMES FOR CODING
      10. DATA COLLECTION
      11. DATA ANALYSIS
      12. INTERVIEW
      13. THE PERFORMANCE/INITIATION
      14. CONCLUSION
      15. RELEVANCE OF ANALYSIS
      16. IMPLICATIONS AND LESSONS FOR DESIGNING INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS
      17. PRINCIPLE 1: PLAY AS A SUBJUNCTIVE MODE
      18. PRINCIPLE 2: DESIRABLE ACTIVITIES
      19. PRINCIPLE 3: SPACES
      20. PRINCIPAL 4: DESIRABLE GROUPS
      21. Appendix A. Character classes
      22. Appendix B. Learning and Functional Roles for designing structured interaction and positive interdependence
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 501: Culturally Negotiating the Meanings of Technology Use
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KEY ISSUES
      5. ON THE USE OF WESTERN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES TO SERVE NON-WESTERN LEARNERS
      6. ON NON-WESTERN LEARNERS’ CULTURAL APPROPRIATION OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
      7. EXPLORING THE CULTURAL IMPACT OF WESTERN TECHNOLOGIES ON NON-WESTERN COMMUNITIES
      8. DISCUSSION/FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 502: Cross-Cultural Learning Objects (XCLOs)
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 503: Technology Integration Practices within a Socioeconomic Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOURCES OF SOCIOECONOMIC DISPARITIES
      4. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TECHNOLOGY
      5. METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLEMENTING TECHNOLOGY IN URBAN SCHOOLS
      9. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 504: Assistive Technology for Individuals with Disabilities
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN THE INCLUSIVE EDUCATION SYSTEM
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 505: Cognitive-Adaptive Instructional Systems for Special Needs Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. TOWARDS THE SOLUTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
    6. Chapter 506: Animated Computer Education Games for Students with ADHD
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE “GAME GENERATION”
      4. ADHD LEARNERS AND EDUCATIONAL GAMES
      5. EDUCATIONAL GAMES VS. EDUCATIONAL SIMULATIONS
      6. VIDEOGAME PERFORMANCE OF CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT ADHD
      7. EVALUATING INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES AND SIMULATIONS
      8. CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL GAMES AND DEVELOPING LESSON PLANS FOR THE ADHD LEARNER
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 507: Barriers to and Strategies for Faculty Integration of IT
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. PERCEIVED BARRIERS
      4. OVERCOMING BARRIERS
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 508: Social Psychology and Instructional Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCY
      5. PEOPLE AS MOTIVATED TACTICIANS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 509: Addressing Emotions within E-Learning Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DETECTING EMOTIONS WITHIN INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY DOMAIN
      4. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 510: Behaviorism and Developments in Instructional Design and Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION: THE BASICS OF BEHAVIORISM
      2. BACKGROUND: BEHAVIORISM AND LEARNING THEORIES
      3. MAIN FOCUS: BEHAVIORISM AND THE DEVELOPMENTS IN INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY
      4. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION: BEHAVIORAL TEACHING AND LEARNING
    11. Chapter 511: Harnessing the Emotional Potential of Video Games
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADAPTING CONTENT TO USERS’ PERSONALITIES CAN IMPROVE EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES
      4. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    12. Chapter 512: Students’ Attitudes toward Process and Product Oriented Online Collaborative Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX: Survey Questionnaire
    13. Chapter 513: Plagiarism and the Community College
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PLAGIARISM CONFUSION
      4. DEFINITIONS OF PLAGIARISM
      5. GROWTH OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES
      6. THE COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENT
      7. UNDERPREPARED STUDENTS
      8. FIRST GENERATION STUDENTS
      9. MINORITY STUDENTS
      10. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS
      11. ADULT LEARNERS
      12. TIME MANAGEMENT
      13. CRITICAL THINKING
      14. MORE ACCESS TO TECHNOLOGY
      15. ADJUNCT FACULTY
      16. RESEARCH ACROSS A THE CURRICULUM
      17. SOLUTIONS
      18. Active learning techniques and The Learning College
      19. PORTFOLIOS
      20. LOWER CLASS SIZE
      21. CONCLUSION
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 601: Prevention is Better than Cure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDENT PERSPECTIVE
      5. APPROACHES TO ADDRESS CHEATING
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 602: Structuring a Local Virtual Work Ecology for a Collaborative, Multi-Institutional Higher Educational Project
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. VIRTUAL TEAM STRUCTURES
      5. THE CHALLENGES OF VIRTUAL TEAMING
      6. VIRTUAL LEADERSHIP
      7. THE SELECTION OF COMPUTER MEDIATED COMMUNICATIONS (CMC) TECHNOLOGIES
      8. TECHNOLOGIES FOR INTERCOMMUNICATIONS
      9. UNDERSTANDING / NOT MISUNDERSTANDING … SILENCE
      10. SHARED MENTAL MODELS, COORDINATION, VISUALIZATION AND MODELING, AND KNOWLEDGE-SHARING AND LEARNING
      11. SOME CRITIQUES OF VIRTUAL COLLABORATION SYSTEMS
      12. THE IMPORTANCE OF TEAM CONTINUITY
      13. PATHWAYS TO PUBLIC HEALTH: THE PROJECT’S BACKGROUND
      14. IMPORTANT “PATHWAYS” PROJECT MILESTONES
      15. ELEMENTS OF A LOCAL VIRTUAL TEAM ECOLOGY
      16. LEARNING ABOUT LOCAL VIRTUAL TEAMING
      17. IT’S A WRAP: INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH
      18. CONCLUSION
      19. Appendix A
      20. Appendix B
      21. Appendix C
    3. Chapter 603: Motivation and Multimedia Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NEED FOR MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH IN MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
      4. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION: THEORIES AND APPLICATIONS TO MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
      5. ESSENTIAL ASPECTS OF MOTIVATIONAL RESEARCH IN MULTIMEDIA LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    4. Chapter 604: Making E-Training Cost Effective through Quality Assurance
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. INVESTMENT OR EXPENDITURE?
      4. WHY INVESTMENT IN TRAINING IS A MUST?
      5. Measuring Return on Investment
      6. ISO 10015: THE SOLUTION TO QUALITY IN TRAINING
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 605: Using the Interpersonal Action-Learning Cycle to Invite Thinking, Attentive, Comprehension
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: YOUR OWN THOUGHTS
      3. BACKGROUND: WHERE THE IALC COMES FROM AND HOW IT WORKS
      4. ISSUES: WHAT ROUTINELY DISRUPTS THE IALC
      5. SOLUTIONS: HOW IN PRACTICE THE IALC CAN BE SUSTAINED
      6. FUTURE TRENDS: IMPLICATIONS OF THE IALC FOR COURSE DESIGN AND ASSESSMENT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    6. Chapter 606: Synergy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE NECESSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF FIELD EXPERIENCES
      4. MAKING THE CASE: A CASE STUDY ON INTEGRATING SERVICE LEARNING
      5. SERVICE LEARNING FUNDAMENTALS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      6. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD PRACTICE
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    7. Chapter 607: Knowledge Transfer in G2G Endeavors
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER PROCESS IN G2G PROJECTS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 608: Policy Issues Regarding the Instructional and Educational Use of Videoconferencing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REAUTHORIZATION OF THE NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND ACT OF 2001 (NCLB)
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. DEDICATION
    9. Chapter 609: Improving Teachers’ Self-Confidence in Learning Technology Skills and Math Education through Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      4. Appendix
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 701: Theories and Principles for E-Learning Practices with Instructional Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. HISTORICAL AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      3. DO FIRST PRINCIPLES OF INSTRUCTION EXIST?
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTIVISM
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN AND E-LEARNING PRACTICE
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 702: Humanistic Theories that Guide Online Course Design
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. HUMANISTIC THEORIES AND ONLINE DESIGN
    3. Chapter 703: Commodity, Firmness, and Delight
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      3. BALANCE
      4. YOUR VALUES IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL MODES OF PRACTICE
      6. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN EDUCATION AND INNOVATION
      7. MEDIA FOCUS
      8. INSTRUCTIONAL MODES IN PRACTICE
      9. RETAKING THE SURVEY
      10. MOVING TO THE LEFT: TACTICS TO INFUSE AESTHETICS IN YOUR INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      11. APPLICATION
    4. Chapter 704: Performance Case Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
      4. USE CASE MODELING
      5. ADAPTING USE CASE MODELING FOR HUMAN PERFORMANCE
      6. PERFORMANCE CASE MODELING
      7. SOFTWARE TOOLS AND REPOSITORIES AND REUSE
      8. GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING PERFORMANCE CASE MODELING
    5. Chapter 705: Can Cognitive Style Predict How Individuals Use Web-Based Learning Environments?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WEB-BASED LEARNING AND HYPERTEXT ARCHITECTURE
      5. COGNITIVE STYLE, HYPERTEXT AND LEARNING
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 706: Multimedia, Cognitive Load, and Pedagogy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WORKING MEMORY, DUAL CODING AND COGNITIVE LOAD
      4. A COGNITIVE THEORY OF MULTIMEDIA
      5. MULTIMEDIA, PRINCIPLES AND PEDAGOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 707: Instructional Game Design Using Cognitive Load Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. USING 4C/ID FRAMEWORK FOR GAMING DESIGN
    8. Chapter 708: Faculty Development in Instructional Technology in the Context of Learning Styles and Institutional Barriers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CASE BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
    9. Chapter 709: On the Role of Learning Theories in Furthering Software Engineering Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: LEARNING THEORIES
      4. LEARNING THEORY-BASED CATEGORIZATION OF EXISTING APPROACHES
      5. DETAILED ANALYSIS/DESIGN/DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH IN TERMS OF LEARNING THEORIES
      6. LEARNING THEORY-CENTRIC EVALUATION
      7. SUMMARY
      8. MORE INFORMATION
    10. Chapter 710: Theoretical and Instructional Aspects of Learning with Visualizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEARNING WITH VISUALIZATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    11. Chapter 711: Teaching Social Skills
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. BACKGROUND: E-LEARNING, SOCIAL SKILLS, AND CONCEPT KEYS
      5. CURRICULUM INTEGRATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    12. Chapter 712: Conversation Design in the Electronic Discussion Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. EDUCATOR’S INTEREST IN CONVERSATION
      3. ELECTRONIC CONVERSATION COMMUNITIES: PRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES?
      4. THE PRACTICALITIES OF USING THE COGNOTE SYSTEM
    13. Chapter 713: E-Social Constructivism and Collaborative E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT SUMMARY: FROM THE LITERATURE
      5. EXPLANATORY ANALYSIS: COMPARING CATEGORIES FROM RESEARCH AND LITERATURE
      6. A THEORY OF E-SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
      7. PRINCIPLES OF E-SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVISM
      8. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 714: Ethics in Interactions in Distance Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 715: Implications of Anonymity in Cyber Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. PROTECTION AFFORDED BY POLICY
      5. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANONYMITY IN THE ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      6. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF ANONYMITY THAT IMPACT EDUCATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    16. Chapter 716: An Ontological Approach to Online Instructional Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ISSUES OF APPLYING TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODELS TO ONLINE LEARNING
      4. EPISTEMOLOGICAL AND ONTOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      5. THE NEED TO APPLY ONTOLOGICAL DESIGN TO E-LEARNING
      6. A MODEL FOR ONTOLOGICAL DESIGN IN E-LEARNING
      7. APPLYING THE ONTOLOGICAL INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN MODEL TO ONLINE LEARNING: A CASE STUDY
      8. GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING ONTOLOGICAL DESIGN TO ONLINE LEARNING
      9. SUMMARY
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH
    17. Chapter 717: Lost in Translation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TRANSITION BETWEEN DESIGN AND PRODUCTION
      4. THREE PROBLEMS IN THE TRANSITION PROCESS
      5. THE 3D-MODEL FOR SUPPORTING INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGNERS
      6. VALIDATION OF THE 3D-MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION
    18. Chapter 718: Pask and Ma Join Forces in an Elementary Mathematics Methods Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. CONVERSATION THEORY AND MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE
      4. LEARNING STRATEGIES AND CLASSROOM CONVERSATION
      5. CONVERSATION THEORY AND ASSESSMENT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    19. Chapter 719: Assessing 3D Virtual World Learning Environments with the CIMPLe System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
      4. EXPANDING THE VIEW OF THE DESIGN PHASE
      5. THEORETICAL FRAME FOR THE CIMPLE SYSTEM
      6. THE COMPLETE EVALUATION RUBRIC
      7. Appendix A: The CIMPLe System for Reproduction and Use
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 801: Contemporary Issues in Teaching and Learning with Technology
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. EDUCATORS LEARN COMPUTING: A PROBLEM OF PERSPECTIVE
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 802: New Directions in the Research of Technology-Enhanced Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FRAMEWORKS FORTEACHER KNOWLEDGE
      4. RESULTS
      5. RESEARCH DESIGNS
      6. TEACHER KNOWLEDGE
      7. STAGES OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. LIMITATIONS
      10. FINDINGS
      11. THE RESEARCH LENSES
      12. RECOMMENDATIONS
      13. Appendix A
    3. Chapter 803: Emerging Edtech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMPORTANT PRINCIPLES ABOUT LEARNING AND TEACHING
      4. METHOD
      5. RESULTS
      6. DESIGN PRINCIPLES FOR EXEMPLARY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 804: Rapid E-Learning in the University
      1. DEFINITIONS OF RAPID E-LEARNING
      2. TOOLS FOR CONTENT AUTHORING
      3. MANAGEMENT ISSUES
      4. INSTRUCTIONAL ISSUES
      5. AN EARLY ADOPTER: THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE
      6. CHALLENGES OF REL IN THE UNIVERSITY
      7. FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 805: The Innovative Production Machines and Systems Network of Excellence
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. RATIONALE FOR NETWORKS OF EXCELLENCE
      3. THE I*PROMS NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE
      4. THE CLUSTERS IN I*PROMS
      5. I*PROMS ACTIVITIES
    6. Chapter 806: Aesthetic Decisions of Instructors and Instructional Designers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AESTHETIC EXPERIENCE
      4. PROCEDURES
      5. FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR RESEARCH
      8. APPENDIX A
    7. Chapter 807: The Pervasiveness of Design Drawing in ID1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EVIDENCES OF DESIGN DRAWING IN ID
      4. ID LITERATURE SAMPLING
      5. SUMMARY OF DESIGN DRAWING IN ID