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Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication

Book Description

Whilst inkjet technology is well-established on home and small office desktops and is now having increasing impact in commercial printing, it can also be used to deposit materials other than ink as individual droplets at a microscopic scale. This allows metals, ceramics, polymers and biological materials (including living cells) to be patterned on to substrates under precise digital control. This approach offers huge potential advantages for manufacturing, since inkjet methods can be used to generate structures and functions which cannot be attained in other ways.

Beginning with an overview of the fundamentals, this bookcovers the key components, for example piezoelectric print-heads and fluids for inkjet printing, and the processes involved. It goes on to describe specific applications, e.g. MEMS, printed circuits, active and passive electronics, biopolymers and living cells, and additive manufacturing. Detailed case studies are included on flat-panel OLED displays, RFID (radio-frequency identification) manufacturing and tissue engineering, while a comprehensive examination of the current technologies and future directions of inkjet technology completes the coverage.

With contributions from both academic researchers and leading names in the industry, Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication is a comprehensive resource for technical development engineers, researchers and students in inkjet technology and system development, and will also appeal to researchers in chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science and electronics.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. About the Editors
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1: Introduction to Inkjet Printing for Manufacturing
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Materials and Their Deposition by Inkjet Printing
    3. 1.3 Applications to Manufacturing
    4. 1.4 Potential and Limitations
    5. References
  8. Chapter 2: Fundamentals of Inkjet Technology
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Surface Tension and Viscosity
    3. 2.3 Dimensionless Groups in Inkjet Printing
    4. 2.4 Methods of Drop Generation
    5. 2.5 Resolution and Print Quality
    6. 2.6 Grey-Scale Printing
    7. 2.7 Reliability
    8. 2.8 Satellite Drops
    9. 2.9 Print-Head and Substrate Motion
    10. 2.10 Inkjet Complexity
    11. References
  9. Chapter 3: Dynamics of Piezoelectric Print-Heads
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Basic Designs of Piezo-Driven Print-Heads
    3. 3.3 Basic Dynamics of a Piezo-Driven Inkjet Print-Head (Single-Degree-of-Freedom Analysis)
    4. 3.4 Design Considerations for Droplet Emission from Piezo-Driven Print-Heads
    5. 3.5 Multi-Cavity Helmholtz Resonator Theory
    6. 3.6 Long Duct Theory
    7. 3.7 Concluding Remarks
    8. References
  10. Chapter 4: Fluids for Inkjet Printing
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Print-Head Considerations
    3. 4.3 Physical Considerations in DOD Droplet Formation
    4. 4.4 Ink Design Considerations
    5. 4.5 Ink Classification
    6. 4.6 Applications in Electronic Devices
    7. References
  11. Chapter 5: When the Drop Hits the Substrate
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Stable Droplet Deposition
    3. 5.3 Unstable Droplet Deposition
    4. 5.4 Capillarity-Driven Spreading
    5. 5.5 Coalescence
    6. 5.6 Phase Change
    7. 5.7 Summary
    8. References
  12. Chapter 6: Manufacturing of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Limitations and Opportunities in MEMS Fabrication
    3. 6.3 Benefits of Inkjet in MEMS Fabrication
    4. 6.4 Chemical Sensors
    5. 6.5 Optical MEMS Devices
    6. 6.6 Bio-MEMS Devices
    7. 6.7 Assembly and Packaging
    8. 6.8 Conclusions
    9. Acknowledgements
    10. References
  13. Chapter 7: Conductive Tracks and Passive Electronics
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Vision
    3. 7.3 Drivers
    4. 7.4 Incumbent Technologies
    5. 7.5 Conductive Tracks and Contacts
    6. 7.6 Raw Materials: Ink
    7. 7.7 Raw Materials: Conductive Polymers
    8. 7.8 Raw Materials: Substrates
    9. 7.9 Printing Processes
    10. 7.10 Post Deposition Processing
    11. 7.11 Resistors
    12. 7.12 Capacitors
    13. 7.13 Other Passive Electronic Devices
    14. 7.14 Outlook
    15. References
  14. Chapter 8: Printed Circuit Board Fabrication
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 What Is a PCB?
    3. 8.3 How Is a PCB Manufactured Conventionally?
    4. 8.4 Imaging
    5. 8.5 PCB Design Formats
    6. 8.6 Inkjet Applications in PCB Manufacturing
    7. 8.7 Future Possibilities
    8. References
  15. Chapter 9: Active Electronics
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Applications of Inkjet Printing to Active Devices
    3. 9.3 Future Outlook
    4. References
  16. Chapter 10: Flat Panel Organic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED) Displays: A Case Study
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Development of Inkjet Printing for OLED Displays
    3. 10.3 Inkjet Requirements for OLED Applications
    4. 10.4 Ink Formulation and Process Control
    5. 10.5 Print Defects and Control
    6. 10.6 Conclusions and Outlook
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  17. Chapter 11: Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) Manufacturing: A Case Study
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Conventional RFID Technology
    3. 11.3 Applications of Printing to RFID
    4. 11.4 Printed Antenna Structures for RFID
    5. 11.5 Printed RFID Tags
    6. 11.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  18. Chapter 12: Biopolymers and Cells
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Printers for Biopolymers and Cells
    3. 12.3 Ink Formulation
    4. 12.4 Printing Cells
    5. 12.5 Reactive Inks
    6. 12.6 Substrates for Printing
    7. 12.7 Applications
    8. 12.8 Conclusions
    9. References
  19. Chapter 13: Tissue Engineering: A Case Study
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 A Feasibility Study of Live Cell Printing by Inkjet
    3. 13.3 3D Biofabrication by Gelation of Inkjet Droplets
    4. 13.4 2D and 3D Biofabrication by a 3D Bioprinter
    5. 13.5 Use of Inkjet Technology for 3D Tissue Manufacturing
    6. 13.6 Summary and Future Prospects
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  20. Chapter 14: Three-Dimensional Digital Fabrication
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Background to Digital Fabrication
    3. 14.3 Digital Fabrication and Jetted Material Delivery
    4. 14.4 Liquid-Based Fabrication Techniques
    5. 14.5 Powder-Based Fabrication Techniques
    6. 14.6 Research Challenges
    7. 14.7 Future Trends
    8. References
  21. Chapter 15: Current Inkjet Technology and Future Directions
    1. 15.1 The Inkjet Print-Head as a Delivery Device
    2. 15.2 Limitations of Inkjet Technology
    3. 15.3 Today's Dominant Technologies and Limitations
    4. 15.4 Other Current Technologies
    5. 15.5 Emerging Technologies
    6. 15.6 Future Trends for Print-Head Manufacturing
    7. 15.7 Future Requirements and Directions
    8. 15.8 Summary of Status of Inkjet Technology for Digital Fabrication
    9. References
  22. Index