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Information Technology Governance and Service Management: Frameworks and Adaptations

Book Description

Information Technology Governance and Service Management: Frameworks and Adaptations provides an in-depth view into the critical contribution of IT service management to IT governance, and the strategic and tactical value provided by effective service management. This work is a must-have resource for academics, students, and practitioners in fields affected by IT in organizations.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Foreword
    1. ENDNOTES
  3. Preface
    1. STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
    2. BOOK DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
    3. DISCLAIMERS
  4. Acknowledgment
  5. I. Reviews of IT Governance Research
    1. I. The Current State of Information Technology Governance Literature
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IT GOVERNANCE DEFINITION
      4. IT GOVERNANCE STANDARDS
      5. FIVE KEY FOCUS AREAS OF IT GOVERNANCE
        1. Strategic Alignment of Business and IT
        2. Delivery of Value from IT Systems
        3. Risk Management of IT Systems
        4. Management of IT Resources
        5. Measurement of the Performance of IT Systems
      6. THE CURRENT STATE OF ITG LITERATURE
        1. Strategic Alignment of Business and IT Research
        2. Delivery of Value from IT Systems Research
        3. Risk Management of IT Systems Research
        4. Management of IT Resources Research
        5. Measurement of the Performance of IT Systems
      7. POSSIBLE FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN IT GOVERNANCE RESEARCH
        1. Strategic Alignment of Business and IT Research
        2. Delivery of Value from IT Systems
        3. Risk Management of IT Systems
        4. Management of IT Resources
        5. Measurement of the Performance of IT Systems
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    2. II. IT Governance–Based IT Strategy and Management: Literature Review and Future Research Directions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. The Origin of ITG
        2. It Governance Definitions
        3. Research Topics Addressed
        4. Timeline Research
        5. Unit of Analysis
        6. Research Methodology
        7. IT Governance Framework
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    3. III. IT Governance: A Critical Review of the Literature
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. IT Governance as a Framework or an Audit Process
        2. IT Governance as IT Decision-Making
        3. IT Governance as a Branch of Corporate Governance
        4. Board Control of IT Projects
        5. The Business Case
        6. Project Management Methodologies
        7. Post-Implementation Reviews
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. THE OUTLOOK FOR IT GOVERNANCE
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
  6. II. IT Governance Case Studies
    1. IV. Adoption and Implementation of IT Governance: Cases from Australian Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Corporate and IT Governance
        2. Previous Research in IT Governance Implementation
        3. International Standards and Commercially Available Frameworks for IT Governance and Management
        4. Emergent Framework of IT Governance Mechanisms and Focus Areas
        5. IT Governance in Australian Institutions of Higher Education
      4. RESEARCH QUESTION AND METHODOLOGY
      5. THE CASE STUDY INSTITUTIONS
      6. IT GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES
        1. Institution A
        2. Institution B
      7. IT GOVERNANCE PROCESSES
        1. Institution A
        2. Institution B
      8. IT GOVERNANCE RELATIONAL MECHANISM
        1. Institution A
        2. Institution B
      9. FINDINGS
        1. A Comparison Between Institutions A and B
        2. The Relationship Between Structures, Processes and Relational Mechanisms
        3. The Five Focus Areas of IT Governance
      10. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE WORK
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    2. V. Tailoring COBIT for Public Sector IT Audit: An Australian Case Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. IT-Related Frameworks Including COBIT
        2. COBIT
        3. Previous COBIT Studies
        4. Study Aims and Setting
      4. METHODOLOGY
        1. Research Design and Data Collection
        2. Analysis
          1. Deriving Audit Measures
          2. Audit Procedure
          3. Instrument Evaluation
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Conduct of Audits and Assigning Maturity Levels
        2. DS5 Ensure Systems Security
        3. DS4 Ensure Continuous Service
        4. P01 Define the Strategic Information Technology Plan
        5. DS11 Manage Data
        6. DS12 Manage Facilities
        7. A16 Manage Changes
        8. P08 Compliance with External Requirements
        9. Comparison with Previous Studies
        10. Evaluation of Audit Instrument
        11. Limitations
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX A: AUDIT MEASURES INCLUDED IN THE AUDIT INSTRUMENT
        1. DS5 Ensure Systems Security
        2. DS4 Ensure Continuous Support
        3. DS11 Manage Data
        4. DS12 Manage Facilities
        5. P01 Define a Strategic Information Technology Plan
        6. P08 Ensure Compliance with External Requirements
        7. A16 Manage Changes
    3. VI. Comprehensive Architecture Rationalization and Engineering
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODCUTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPREHENSIVE MODEL
        1. Design Tenets
          1. Business Principles
          2. Technical Principles
          3. Application Principles
          4. Data Principles
          5. Change Management Principles
        2. Conceptual Model
      5. CARE FRAMEWORK
        1. Technology Grid for Data Collection
        2. Reverse-Engineering
        3. Technology Assessment
        4. Technical Recommendations
          1. Refatoring
          2. Reengineering
          3. Rearchitecting
        5. Action Plan for Rationalization
        6. Applying the Framework in Application Portfolio Management
        7. Current-State Data Collection
        8. Reverse-Engineering
        9. Technology Assessment
        10. Technology Recommendations
          1. Refactoring
          2. Reengineering
          3. Rearchitecting
        11. Action Plan for Rationalization
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. VII. A Comparative Case Study of Three Korean Firms: Applying an IT Governance Framework
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
        1. Corporate Governance
        2. IT Governance
        3. Previous ITG Case Studies
        4. Linking ITG to CG
      4. PROPOSED ITG FRAMEWORK
        1. ITG Decision Areas
        2. IT Activities
        3. IT Control
      5. CASE STUDY METHODOLOGY
      6. ANALYSIS: COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY
        1. Strategic Alignment
          1. IT Planning Phase
          2. IT Operational Phase
        2. IT Resource Management
          1. IT Planning Phase
          2. IT Development Phase
          3. IT Operation Phase
        3. IT Investment Management
          1. IT Planning Phase
          2. IT Development Phase
          3. IT Operational Phase
        4. IT Performance Management
          1. IT Planning Phases
          2. IT Operational Phases
        5. IT Risk Management
          1. IT Planning Phase
          2. IT Operational Phase
      7. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE COMPANIES
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. VIII. The Impact of ICT Governance within Australian Companies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CURRENT IT GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORKS
      5. COBIT
      6. ITIL
      7. IT GOVERNANCE IN AUSTRALIA
        1. Principles of the Corporate Governance of ICT AS8015 Standard
      8. BASIC PRINCIPLES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. OVERVIEW SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS
      10. OUTCOME OF INTERVIEW FINDINGS AND COMPARISON
        1. IT Governance General Recommendations
        2. General Recommendation One
        3. General Recommendation Two
        4. ICT Governance Specific Recommendations
          1. Principle 1-Establish Clearly Understood Responsibilities for ICT
            1. Recommendation: Clearly Define the Areas where Decisions should be Made
            2. Recommendation: Discuss and Determine Who is Accountable for each Area of Decision Making
            3. Recommendation: Implement an Exception Process
          2. Principle 2—Plan ICT to Best Support the Organization
            1. Recommendation: Bring in External Board Members to Address Lack of IT Knowledge
            2. Recommendation: Allow IT Representatives to Address the Board Regularly
          3. Principle 3-Acquire ICT Validly
          4. Principle 4-Ensure that ICT Performs Well, whenever Required
            1. Recommendation: Ensure that there are Tools that Provide Accurate Reporting on IT Performance
          5. Principle 5-Ensure ICT Conforms with Formal Rules
            1. Recommendation: Ensure that Decisions Follow the Specified Framework to Ensure Accountability
          6. Principle 6-Ensure ICT Use Respects Human Factors
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    6. IX. Improving ICT Governance: A Radical Restructure Using COBIT and ITIL
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ACTIONS TAKEN
        1. Implementation of New Structure
        2. Measurement
        3. Management Structure
      5. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  7. III. IT Governance: Its Relationship to Business and Other Frameworks
    1. X. Managing IT Security Relationships within Enterprise Control Frameworks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTROL FRAMEWORKS
        1. Defense in Depth
        2. CobiT Security Process
        3. ITIL Security Process
        4. Security Process Linkages
      4. THE MANAGERIAL PROBLEM
      5. WORKING SOLUTIONS
      6. MANAGERIAL TACTICS
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    2. XI. Unexplored Linkages between Corporate Governance and IT Governance: An Evaluation and Call to Research
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON THE INCREASING INTEREST IN GOVERNANCE
      4. A FRAMEWORK FOR GOVERNANCE AND LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. INTERNAL GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS
        1. Boards of Directors
        2. Senior Executive Team
        3. Key Asset Governance: Governance of Financial Assets
        4. Key Asset Governance: Governance of IT Assets
      6. EXTERNAL GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS
        1. Legal Environment
        2. Capital Markets
        3. Takeover Market
        4. Labor Markets for Directors and Managers
        5. Product Markets
        6. Auditors
      7. BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN CORPORATE AND IT GOVERNANCE RESEARCH
      8. CHAPTER SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
    3. XII. I–Fit: Optimizing the Fit between Business and IT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO I-FIT PROJECT AND ITS OBJECTIVES
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. Information Quality
        2. Teleological Perspective
        3. Causal Perspective
        4. Strategic Alignment
        5. IT Governance Defined
          1. Effective IT Governance Leads to Successful Alignment Processes
        6. Business Performance
      4. ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS FOR I-FIT PROJECT
        1. Addressing Information Quality
          1. Issue: Linking Information Quality to Business Objectives
        2. Solution: Measuring Information Quality
        3. Addressing Strategic Alignment
          1. Issue: Alignment as a Process: Driver, Lever, and Impact
        4. Solution: Alignment and Organizational Effectiveness
        5. Addressing Business Performance
          1. Issue: Frameworks for Organizational, Process, and Network Performance
      5. I-FIT MODEL: COMBINED BUILDING BLOCKS
        1. Cases to be Assessed in the I-Fit Project
      6. CONCLUSION: FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
        1. Next Steps to Determine Information Quality
        2. Next Steps to Determine Alignment and Governance
        3. Next Steps to Determine Business Performance
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. XIII. Competence of Information Technology Professionals in Internet–Based Ventures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IT COMPETENCIES IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNET-BASED VENTURES
        1. Contextual Particularities of Young Businesses in the Net Economy
        2. A Competence Model for IT Professionals in the Net Economy
        3. Factors Influencing the Value Propositions of the Competence Dimensions
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. XIV. The Role of Maturity Models in IT Governance: A Comparison of the Major Models and Their Potential Benefits to the Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Literature Review
        2. Overview of Key Frameworks
      3. BASELINE TAXONOMY OF MATURITY MODELS
      4. EXTENDED TAXONOMY OF MATURITY MODELS
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX: LIST OF EXTENDED MATURITY MODELS
        1. IT Governance/Program-Project-Portfolio Management
        2. Data Architecture/Storage Management
        3. Enterprise Architecture
        4. Security/Security Architecture
        5. Design/Development/Application Architecture
        6. QA/Testing/Support
        7. Service Management/Configuration Management
    6. XV. Governance of Software Development: The Transition to Agile Scenario
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GOVERNANCE MODEL
        1. Scoping Authority over Subjects
        2. Goals of Governance
        3. Governance Mechanisms
        4. Governance Points and Observables
        5. Governance Solutions and the Governance Process
        6. Systems of Governance Solutions
      4. TRANSITION TO AGILE SCENARIO: A GOVERNANCE PERSPECTIVE
        1. Team Velocity
        2. Retrospective Process
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. XVI. The Governance Implications When it is Outsourced
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. IT GOVERNANCE
      5. IT OUTSOURCING RISKS
      6. GOVERNANCE METHODS AND MODELS
      7. ASSESSING OUTSOURCING DECISIONS
      8. THE WIDER IT GOVERNANCE IMPLICATIONS OF OUTSOURCING
        1. Outsourcing Outcomes Almost Always Involve Trade-Offs
        2. Many Business Cases Supporting the Outsourcing Decision are Inadequate
        3. Many Purchaser Firms Underestimate the Impact of Loss of Knowledge and Expertise
        4. Firms Must Identify, and Plan to Avoid "Vendor Lock In"
      9. FUTURE TRENDS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    8. XVII. IT Portfolio Management: A Pragmatic Approach to Implement IT Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS
        1. Opening Case
        2. Need for IT Governance
        3. Defining IT Governance
          1. COBIT® defines IT Governance as follows:
        4. How Do the Methodologies Fit?
        5. IT Portfolio Management: Concept
        6. Portfolio Management: Definition
        7. Illustration of Portfolio Management
      4. PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
        1. Evaluation of IT Investments
          1. Developing an Evaluation Criteria
          2. Strategic Alignment
          3. Financial Worth
          4. Risks Assessment
          5. Investment Evaluation: Summary
        2. Monitoring the Progress of IT Investments
        3. Investment Monitoring: Summary
        4. Benefits Realization
        5. Benefits Realization: Summary
      5. CASE STUDY: SOUTH AUSTRALIAN IT INVESTMENT, PLANNING AND PORTFOLIO GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORKS
        1. Creation of Office of CIO
        2. ICT Portfolio Governance Life Cycle
        3. Investment Prioritisation and Budgeting
          1. Strategic Alignment
          2. Value Assessment
          3. Risk Evaluation
        4. Case Study: Summary
      6. SUMMARY AND FUTURE TRENDS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTE
      9. APPENDIX: IT BENEFITS REGISTER
    9. XVIII. Applying Organizational Theories to Realize Adaptive IT Governance and Service Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RISE OF IT GOVERNANCE
      4. THE ORGANIZATION AS A SYSTEM
      5. INFRASTRUCTURE, INTEGRATION, AND ALIGNMENT
      6. THE VALUE VIEWPOINT
      7. A CONTINGENCY MODEL
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  8. IV. IT Service Management Frameworks
    1. XIX. Implementing IT Service Management: Lessons Learned from a University IT Department
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. IT Service Management and ITIL
        2. Process Change
        3. The IT Department
        4. The Process Change Method
        5. Enabling Technology
      4. BEST PRACTICE AND ACTUAL IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Incident Management
          1. Workflow
          2. Roles, Rules, and Resources
          3. Comparing Actual Implementation with ITIL Reference Process
        2. Change Management
          1. Workflow
          2. Roles, Rules, and Resources
          3. Comparing Actual Implementation with ITIL Reference Process
      5. LESSONS LEARNED
        1. Success Factors
          1. The Needs for Improvement Were Strongly Recognized
          2. Openness
          3. Training and Expertise
          4. Broad Participation
          5. A Standard but Flexible Methodology for Process Change
          6. Deliverables Were Produced Only at Group Meetings
          7. Short Timeline
        2. An Assessment After Two Years
          1. Incident Management
          2. Change Management
        3. Cultural Change
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. XX. A Model for IT Service Strategy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SERVICE-CENTRIC IT MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
      5. IT STRATEGY AND IT SERVICE STRATEGY
      6. THE CASE FOR A SERVICE STRATEGY
      7. THE SERVICE STRATEGY MODEL
        1. Context: Organizing IT around the Businesses Customer Facing Services
        2. Content: IT Service Strategy as a Portfolio of Services
        3. Process: Developing an IT Service Strategy
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. XXI. An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW ON MODELS AND STANDARDS OF PROCESSES
        1. The Rationale of Models and Standards of Processes
        2. History and Aims of the Main SE, SwE and IS Models of Standards of Processes
        3. The Core Building-Block Concepts for Understanding Models and Standards of Processes: Process, Service and System
      4. INITIAL THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE IS DISCIPLINE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. XXII. Perspectives of IT–Service Quality Management: A Concept for Life Cycle Based Quality Management of IT–Services
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENTS IN IT-SERVICE MANAGEMENT
      4. LIFE CYCLE BASED APPROACHES FOR IT-SERVICE MANAGEMENT
        1. Life Cycle Model of Physical Products
        2. IT-lnfrastructure Library (ITIL)
        3. Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (CobiT)
        4. Nonpublic Domain IT Service Management Methods
        5. The Integrated Information Management Model
        6. IT-Service Life Cycle Model
        7. Conclusion for the Life Cycle Concepts
      5. OVERVIEW OF SELECTED QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS FOR IT-SERVICES
        1. Quality and Quality Management
        2. Total Quality Management (TQM)
        3. The ISO 9000 Standard for Quality Management
        4. Service Quality Concepts
        5. The ISO 20000 Standard for IT-Service Quality Management
        6. Conclusions for Quality Management Concepts
      6. MODEL FOR A LIFE CYCLE BASED IT-SERVICE QUALITY MANAGEMENT
        1. Mapping of Quality Factors
        2. Mapping of Quality Management Methods
          1. Quality Management Methods for the Life Cycle Phase 1
          2. Quality Management Methods for the Life Cycle Phase 2
          3. Quality Management Methods for the Life Cycle Phase 3
          4. Quality Management Methods for the Life Cycle Phase 4
          5. Quality Management Methods for the Life Cycle Phase 5
        3. Conclusion for Life Cycle Based IT-Service Quality Management
      7. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK
      8. REFERENCES
    5. XXIII. Measuring Return on Investment from Implementing ITIL: A Review of the Literature
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW METHOD
      4. ITIL SERVICE MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK
      5. WHY MEASURE RETURN ON INVESTMENT FOR ITIL IMPLEMENTATION?
      6. REVIEW OF AVAILABLE MEASUREMENT METHODS
      7. PROPOSED MEASUREMENT MODEL
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX A. RESEARCH ARTICLES BY KEYWORD AND ONLINE LIBRARY
      11. APPENDIX B. SUMMARY OF KEY RESEARCH ARTICLES
    6. XXIV. Integrated Product Life Cycle Management for Software: CMMI1, SPICE, and ISO/IEC 20000
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Wall Between Software Development and Service Delivery
        2. Standards for Software Development and Service Delivery
      4. CMMI INTEGRATION PERSPECTIVE
        1. CMMI Basics
        2. Process Capability vs. Organization Maturity
        3. The Constellation Approach
        4. Shared Process Areas
          1. Causal Analysis and Resolution
          2. Configuration Management
          3. Decision Analysis and Resolution
          4. The IPPD Addition (Integrated Product and Process Development)
          5. Integrated Project Management + IPPD
          6. Measurement and Analysis
          7. Organizational Innovation and Deployment
          8. Organizational Process Definition + IPPD
          9. Organizational Process Focus
          10. Organizational Process Performance
          11. Organizational Training
          12. Project Monitoring and Control
          13. Project Planning
          14. Process and Product Quality Assurance
          15. Quantitative Project Management
          16. Requirements Management
          17. Risk Management
        5. Acquisition Process Areas
          1. Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development
          2. Acquisitions Management
          3. Acquisition Requirements Development
          4. Acquisition Technical Management
          5. Acquisition Validation
          6. Acquisition Verification
        6. Development Process Areas
          1. Product Integration
          2. Requirements Development
          3. Supplier Agreement Management
          4. Technical Solution
          5. Validation
          6. Verification
        7. Service Process Areas
          1. Capacity and Availability Management
          2. Incident and Request Management
          3. Organizational Service Management*
          4. Problem Management
          5. Service Continuity*
          6. Service Delivery
          7. Service System Development*
          8. Service Transition
          9. Supplier Agreement Management
        8. CMMI Process Categories
        9. Constellation Based Maturity Levels
        10. ACMMI Based, Integrated Product Life Cycle
      5. SPICE/ISO 20000 INTEGRATION PERSPECTIVE
        1. SPICE Basics
          1. Primary Life Cycle Processes
          2. Organizational Life Cycle Processes
          3. Supporting Life Cycle Processes
        2. ISO 20000 Basics
        3. Interfaces Between SPICE and ISO 20000
        4. Integration of SPICE and ISO 20000
        5. A Combined PRM for SPICE and ISO 20000
        6. A Combined PAM for ISO 20000 and SPICE
      6. COMPARISON OF BOTH APPROACHES
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
        1. Using Integrated Models
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  9. Compilation of References
  10. About the Contributors