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Information Systems Transformation: Architecture-Driven Modernization Case Studies

Book Description

Every major enterprise has a significant installed base of existing software systems that reflect the tangled IT architectures that result from decades of patches and failed replacements. Most of these systems were designed to support business architectures that have changed dramatically. At best, these systems hinder agility and competitiveness and, at worst, can bring critical business functions to a halt.

Architecture-Driven Modernization (ADM) restores the value of entrenched systems by capturing and retooling various aspects of existing application environments, allowing old infrastructures to deliver renewed value and align effectively with enterprise strategies and business architectures.

This book provides a practical guide to organizations seeking ways to understand and leverage existing systems as part of their information management strategies. It includes an introduction to ADM disciplines, tools, and standards as well as a series of scenarios outlining how ADM is applied to various initiatives. Drawing upon lessons learned from real modernization projects, it distills the theory and explains principles, processes, and best practices for every industry.

* Acts as a one-stop shopping reference and complete guide for implementing various modernization models in myriad industries and departments.

* Every concept is illustrated with real-life examples from various modernization projects, allowing you to immediately apply tested solutions and see results.

* Authored by the Co-chair of the Object Management Group (OMG) Architecture-Driven Modernization (ADM) Task Force, which sets definitive systems modernization standards for the entire IT industry.

* A web site supports the book with up to date coverage of evolving ADM Specifications, Tutorials, and Whitepapers, allowing you to remain up to date on modernization topics as they develop.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Contributors
  3. Preface
    1. Content Overview
    2. Acknowledgments
  4. Authors’ Biographies
  5. Contributing Author Acknowledgments
  6. 1. Architecture-Driven Modernization
    1. 1. Introduction to Architecture-Driven Modernization
      1. Business and IT Challenges
        1. Greenfield Replacement Issues
        2. COTS Software Limitations
        3. Middleware Deployment Challenges
      2. Modernization Benefits
        1. IT Versus Business Value: The Real Benefits of Modernization
        2. Modernization Mitigates Risks
        3. Modernization: Augmentation or Alternative
      3. An Architectural View of Modernization
      4. Modernization Assessments
        1. Assessment Benefits
        2. Enterprise Assessment
        3. In-Depth/Project-Level Assessment
        4. Technical Assessment
        5. Architectural Assessment
        6. Functional Assessment
        7. Implementation Phase Planning
      5. Refactoring
        1. Benefits of Refactoring
        2. Program Structuring and Design Improvement
        3. Data Definition Rationalization and Standardization
        4. Software Modularization
        5. User Interface Refactoring
        6. Lift and Shift Platform and Language Migration
      6. Transformation
        1. Transformation Benefits
        2. Transformation Basics
        3. Language and Platform Transformation
        4. Data Architecture Derivation and Transformation
        5. Systems Workflow Transformation
        6. Business Rule Extraction and Transformation
        7. Architecture Transformation and Reconstruction
      7. Basic Modernization Principles
      8. Summary
      9. References
    2. 2. Modernization Technologies and Services
      1. Creating a Modernization Technology Strategy
        1. Strategy Drives Technology and Service Requirements
        2. Modernization Technology/Service Strategy Guidelines
      2. Modernization Tool Categories
        1. Modernization Workbench
        2. Refactoring and Transformation Tool Features and Functions
        3. Technology Capability/Needs Alignment
      3. Service Provider Strategy
      4. Summary
    3. 3. Modernization Standards Roadmap
      1. Modernization Standards Overview
      2. Knowledge Discovery Metamodel
      3. Abstract Syntax Tree Metamodel
      4. Pattern Recognition
      5. Structured Metrics Metamodel
      6. ADM Visualization
      7. ADM Refactoring
      8. ADM Transformation
      9. Summary
      10. References
    4. 4. Modernization Scenarios
      1. Scenarios Form Basis For Modernization Roadmaps
      2. Benefits of Scenario-Based Modernization
      3. Modernization Scenarios: Relationship to Business & IT Architecture
      4. Understanding the Use and Structure of Modernization Scenarios
        1. Attributes of a Modernization Scenario
      5. Common Modernization Scenarios
        1. IT Portfolio Management
        2. Replacement/Rewrite Scenario
        3. COTS Package Deployment Scenario
        4. Architecture Consolidation Scenario
        5. MDA Migration Scenario
        6. SOA Transformation
        7. Data Architecture Migration Scenario
        8. User Interface Refactoring Scenario
        9. Language/Platform Migration Scenario
        10. Application Improvement Scenario
        11. Language/Source Artifact Transliteration and Platform Migration Scenario
        12. Data Conversion Scenario
      6. Selecting and Combining Modernization Scenarios
        1. Getting Started with an Assessment
        2. Combining Scenarios
      7. Summary
      8. References
  7. 2. Modernization Case Studies
    1. 5. Modernization of the Eurocat Air Traffic Management System (EATMS)
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. EATMS Overall Project Objectives
      4. EATMS Modernization Pilot Project
        1. Key Findings
      5. TPM Performance Assessment Before Code Optimization
        1. Performance After Code Optimization
        2. Performance Factor
        3. Memory Utilization and Optimization
        4. Endurance Test
        5. Performance Benchmark Conclusions
        6. General Principles for Refactoring Operations
          1. Refactoring Guidelines
      6. Full EATMS Project Modernization Objectives and Constraints
        1. JFDP Wrappers Guidelines
        2. Full EATMS Modernization Approach
        3. Full EATMS Modernization Process Overview
        4. Full EATMS Project Modernization Process
        5. EATMS Transformation and Refactoring Process
        6. Refactoring Process Specifications and Plan Development
        7. Refactoring Drivers and Execution
        8. Refactoring Process Verification
          1. Example of Refactoring Operation: Elimination of DISK Global Variable
          2. Example of Refactoring Operation: Method Issued from Fake-Block
        9. EATMS Refactoring Quality Metrics
      7. JFDP Modernization Test Strategy
        1. Test Strategy Principles
        2. CSCI Tests Principles
        3. Integration tests Principles
        4. System Validation Tests
      8. EATMS Hardware Performance Evaluation
        1. JVM Evaluation
      9. Project Conclusions
        1. Acronyms and Definitions for Eurocat Systems
    2. 6. PowerBuilder/4GL Generator Modernization Pilot
      1. Introduction
        1. External Project Participants
      2. Pilot Project Overview
        1. The 4GL and PowerBuilder Challenge
        2. Modernization Benefits
        3. Migration Strategy
        4. Pilot Objectives and Constraints
        5. Application Architecture Modernization
          1. Existing High-Level Application Architecture
        6. New High-Level Application Architecture
          1. New Application Environment Components Overview
        7. Architecture Conversion
          1. Business Services Conversion
          2. Transaction Management Conversion
          3. Security Management Conversion
      3. Transformation and Refactoring Technology
        1. Standards Adherence
        2. Summary of High-Level Specification Languages
        3. Intermediate Object Model (IOM)
        4. Level of Automation
        5. Documentation Products
        6. Software Engineering Methodology Support
      4. PowerBuilder and 4GL Gateway Development
        1. The PowerBuilder Conversion
        2. Structure of a PowerBuilder Application
        3. PowerBuilder Conversion and Tooling Requirements
        4. General PowerBuilder Conversion Rules
      5. The 4GL Conversion
        1. 4GL Conversion Overview
          1. Supporting 4GL Frameworks
          2. 4GL Program Types
          3. 4GL Business Programs
          4. 4GL Data Programs
      6. On-site Packaging, Validation, and Acceptance Testing
        1. On-Site Packaging and Project Phasing
        2. Validation and Acceptance Testing
        3. Stakeholder Acceptance
      7. Summary
    3. 7. Modernization Case Study: Italian Ministry of Instruction, University, and Research
      1. Abstract
      2. The Modernization Problem
        1. Business Issues
        2. Legacy Issues
        3. The Client’s Approach
      3. How HP Addressed the Opportunity
        1. The SIDI Software Migration Journey
      4. Assessment
        1. The Transformation Strategy
          1. Replace Accounting and HR
          2. Rewrite Schools Information System from Scratch
          3. Rehost Batch COBOL
          4. Refactor and Re-Architect the Online COBOL
          5. Adopting a Common Infrastructure
      5. Refactoring and Re-Architecting Process
        1. Proof of Concept
        2. The Software Transformation Approach in Detail
        3. The Target Architecture
        4. Project Team Organization
          1. Technology Streams
      6. Project Results
      7. Summary
    4. 8. Modernization of Reliability and Maintainability Information System (REMIS) into the Global Combat Support System-Air Force (GCSS-AF) Framework
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. REMIS Increment-1
        1. REMIS COBOL to C++ and Oracle 9i Modernization
          1. Assessment Summary
          2. Transformation Summary
          3. Refactoring Summary
          4. Transformation Testing
          5. Northrop Grumman and TSRI Remote Interaction and Cooperation
        2. Details of Approach
          1. Assessment Technical Approach
          2. Transformation Technical Approach
          3. Refactoring Technical Approach
        3. REMIS-Specific Refactoring
          1. Java/C++ API Components
          2. Java/C++ API Components Approach
        4. Project Reporting
        5. Project Deliverables
          1. Assessment Deliverables
          2. Transformation Deliverables
          3. Refactoring Deliverables
          4. Project Assumptions and Obligations
        6. Project Set-Up Tasks
        7. Lessons Learned (Increment-1): northrop Grumman’s perspective
        8. Project Outcome
      4. REMIS Increment-3
        1. REMIS COBOL to J2EE and Oracle 9i Modernization
        2. Technical Approach Summary for the COBOL to Java Conversion for Increment-3
        3. Customization During Transformation and Refactoring
          1. SSO Task Handlers
          2. REMIS JUnit Test Classes
          3. REMIS Data Access Layer
          4. DAO Data Query Object Specification
          5. Task Handler Architecture
          6. REMIS Java Coding Standards Compliance
            1. If, If-else, If else-If else statements
            2. REMIS Java Naming Conventions
            3. REMIS Java Programming Practices
      5. Conclusion
        1. REMIS Modernization Summary
        2. REMIS Modernization History
        3. REMIS Modernization Benefits from Business and Technical Perspectives
    5. 9. Federal Agency Case Study: Role of Modernization in a Greenfield Replacement/COTS Project
      1. Abstract
      2. The Plan
        1. The Business Case
        2. The Roadmap
          1. Financial Architecture Project Phase One Summary
          2. Financial Architecture Project Phase Two Summary
      3. Project Phase One — Initial Assessment: Enterprise Assessment
        1. Getting started
        2. Organizational Analysis
        3. Application Architecture Analysis and Capability Mapping
        4. Enterprise Assessment: Snapshot of Findings
        5. Tool Selection
        6. Enterprise Assessment Deliverables
      4. Project Phase One — Initial Assessment: Detailed Assessment
        1. Technical Architecture Assessment
        2. Data Architecture and Interface Assessment
        3. Application Architecture Assessment
        4. Business Logic Analysis
        5. Target Financial Architecture Mapping
      5. Project Phase Two — Detailed Assessment
      6. Project Phase Two — Transition Plan and Deployment
      7. Lessons Learned
      8. Summary
    6. 10. Legacy System Modernization of the Engineering Operational Sequencing System (EOSS)
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
        1. Findings
        2. Business Problem Satisfied by the Pilot
      3. Current System and Process
        1. EOSS Technical Architecture Upgrade
      4. Description of Modernization Technology and Process
        1. LSM Technology
        2. LSM Scenarios
        3. LSM Systems Re-Engineering Process
          1. Step 1: Document the Application Portfolio
          2. Step 2: Transform the Application
          3. Step 3: Refactor the Application
          4. Step 4: – Web-Enable the Application
          5. LSM Database Conversion
      5. EOSS Architecture Conversion Overview
        1. Maintaining System Interfaces
          1. The User Interface
          2. FTP Interface
        2. Target System Architecture
          1. Data Tier (Tier A)
          2. Data Access Tier (Tier B)
          3. Business Logic Tier (Tier C)
          4. Presentation Tier (Tier D)
          5. Web Tier (Tier E)
        3. Target System Processes and Components
          1. Log-In and Business Logic Thread Instantiation Process
          2. Log-Out Process
          3. Application Database Access
          4. Screen (Terminal) Input and Output
      6. Opportunity Objectives and Analysis of Pilot Results
        1. Cost Avoidance of Re-Engineering EOSS-ACM
        2. Time Avoidance of Re-Engineering EOSS-ACM
        3. Reduction of Maintenance Costs
        4. Completely Successful Modernization of VAX BASIC To J2EE
        5. Improved Application Security
        6. Elimination of Legacy Systems
        7. Qualitative Analysis and Intangible Benefits
        8. Alignment of Pilot and Enterprise Goals
        9. Cost-Benefit Analysis and ROI
      7. Pilot Lessons Learned
        1. User Interface Modernization
        2. Preservation of Legacy Design/Methodology
        3. Preservation of Legacy Database Design
      8. Future Opportunities and Next Steps
        1. Future Opportunities for the Pilot Program
        2. Migration Strategy/Action Plan
        3. Five Failure Conditions for the LSM process
      9. Conclusion
    7. 11. Model-Driven Reverse Engineering of COBOL-Based Applications
      1. Abstract
      2. Goals
      3. Modernization Context
      4. Modernization Approach
      5. Case Study Description
      6. Reverse Engineering Method9
      7. Method Industrialization
      8. Lessons Learned
      9. Perspectives: Generalizing the Approach
      10. Conclusion
      11. References
    8. 12. Veterans Health Administration’s VistA MUMPS Modernization Pilot
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction to MUMPS
        1. What is MUMPS?
        2. The Problem with Mumps
        3. What are the Principle Features of Mumps?
        4. What is FileMan?
        5. What is VistA?
        6. VistA Modernization Challenges
      3. VistA Modernization Progress Overview
      4. Modernization Technology and Process
        1. Step 1: Assessment and Documentation
        2. Step 2: Transformation
        3. Step 3: Refactoring
        4. Step 4: Web-Enablement and Services-Oriented Architectures
      5. MUMPS Transformation Technology
        1. MUMPS Grammar System
          1. MUMPS Language Model Hierarchy Excerpt
          2. MUMPS Extended BNF Grammar Excerpt
        2. Java Grammar System
          1. Java Language Model Hierarchy Excerpt
          2. Java Language Model Grammar Excerpt
        3. MUMPS to IOM Transformation
          1. Transformation Mappings from MUMPS into the IOM Excerpt
        4. IOM to Java Transformation
        5. MUMPS to Java Code Translation Examples
          1. IOM Code
          2. Java Code
      6. MUMPS Refactoring Technology
        1. MUMPS Refactoring Challenges
          1. Dynamically Maintained Local Variable Environment
          2. Indirection of Variable Names and Various Arguments to Commands
          3. Persistent and Shared Global Variable Environment
          4. Indirection of Targets of Routine Calls and Control-Flow Branches
          5. Control-Flow Branches that Cross Routine Boundaries
          6. Execution of Dynamically Created MUMPS Source Code
        2. Brief Overview of Less Difficult-to-Translate MUMPS Language Features
        3. Overview of the MOre Difficult-to-Translate MUMPS Language Features
          1. Interpretation
          2. Handling Indirection, Qualified and Unqualified Locations
          3. Use of Dispatch Functions
          4. Additional Methods per Routine Class
          5. Main Class
          6. Additional Automated Refactoring Details
      7. VTS Pilot System Architecture and Interface
        1. Replacement of User Terminal Interfaces with Web Browser Connections
        2. System Architecture
          1. Data Tier A
          2. Data Access Tier B
          3. Business Logic Tier C
          4. Presentation Tier D
          5. Web Tier E
        3. Illustrations of Major System Processes and Components
          1. Log-in and Business Logic Thread Instantiation Process
          2. Log-Out Process
          3. Application Database Access
          4. Screen (terminal)I/O
      8. VTS Pilot Conclusion, Lessons Learned, and Recommendations
        1. Database Performance Enhancement
        2. Semi-Automated use Case Capture Automated “Use Case Modeling” Documentation
        3. Relational Data Model Enhancement
        4. SOA Enhancement
        5. HealtheVet SOA Interoperability
        6. Relational Fileman
        7. Automated Business Rule Extraction
        8. Clinical Application Modernization and RPC Broker with the HL/7 Server
        9. Integration of Applications Manually Converted to Java
      9. Aftermath
    9. 13. Delta Lloyd Deutschland Data Migration Case Study
      1. Abstract
      2. The Modernization Problem
        1. Business Issues
        2. Legacy Issues
        3. The Client’s Approach
      3. How DID Oracle Address the Opportunity?
        1. The Software Migration Journey
      4. Assessment
        1. The Transformation Strategy
      5. The Database Migration Work Stream
        1. The Target Architecture
          1. Proof of Concept
      6. The Detailed Software Transformation Approach
        1. Project Team Organization
        2. Hardware Platform Sizing
        3. Database Migration Approach
        4. Mapping of DB2 Data Types
          1. Specified Data Type Mappings
        5. Racle Schema
          1. Note on SQL Developer
        6. Efficient Data Migration
          1. EBCDIC and ASCII Character Set
        7. Application Porting
          1. DB2 ESQL Syntax
          2. DB2 Built-in Functions
          3. CICS Transaction Monitor
      7. Project Results
        1. Lessons Learned
      8. References
    10. 14. MoDisco, a Model-Driven Platform to Support Real Legacy Modernization Use Cases
      1. Abstract
      2. Introduction
      3. Genesis of a Model-Driven Legacy Modernization Approach
      4. Process and Tools for Migrating Legacy Applications
        1. The Challenge
        2. The Approach
        3. The Migration Chain
          1. Overview
          2. Initial Model Extraction
          3. Initial Model Transformation
          4. Target Source Code Generation
          5. MDA Migration
        4. The Tools
          1. The Model Discoverer
          2. The Model-to-Model Transformation Engine
          3. The Model-to-Code Generation Engine
        5. The Migration Process
          1. Preliminary Study
          2. Industrialization and Pilot Migration
          3. Reference Testing
          4. Industrial Migration
          5. Regression Testing
          6. Deployment
        6. Amadeus Hospitality: VB6 to JEE Migration
          1. The Initial Application
          2. The Transformation
          3. The Migration Project
      5. MoDisco, a New Eclipse Platform to Support Model-Driven Legacy Modernization
        1. General Presentation
        2. Discovery Principles
        3. Architecture
          1. Use Cases Layer
          2. Technology Layer
          3. Infrastructure Layer
        4. Existing Components
          1. KDM
          2. J2SE5 to Discover Java Applications
          3. CSharp to Discover C# Applications
          4. Model Browser to Discover Model Contents
        5. Analysis of an Existing J2EE Application, a Modisco use Case on a Real Application
          1. About WesternGeco
          2. Description of the Existing System
          3. Complexity of the Existing System
          4. Problem Summary
          5. Architecture Overview
          6. Solution
          7. Roadmap
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
  8. 3. A Guide to Moving Forward with Modernization
    1. 15. Launching and Sustaining Modernization Initiatives
      1. Modernization Pitfalls
      2. Guiding Principles of Modernization
      3. Setting Up a Modernization Center of Excellence
      4. Modernization Tool/Technology Strategy
      5. Modernization Service Provider Strategy
      6. Where to Start
        1. Assessing Requirements
        2. Assessing Appetite
        3. Building Support/Selling the Concept
        4. Launching the Center of Excellence
        5. Establishing a Baseline Assessment
        6. Identifying Project Opportunities
        7. Procuring Project Funding
        8. Service Provider Analysis and Procurement
        9. Tool Analysis and Procurement
        10. Rolling Out an Initial Project
      7. Modernization: What to Expect in the Future
      8. References