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Information Storage and Management: Storing, Managing, and Protecting Digital Information

Book Description

The spiraling growth of digital information makes the ISM book a "must have" addition to your IT reference library. This exponential growth has driven information management technology to new levels of sophistication and complexity, exposing a skills gap that challenge IT managers and professionals alike. The ISM book, written by storage professionals from EMC Corporation, takes an ‘open’ approach to teaching information storage and management, focusing on concepts and principles – rather that product specifics – that can be applied in all IT environments

The book enables existing and aspiring IT professionals, students, faculty, and those simply wishing to gain deeper insight to this emerging pillar of IT infrastructure to achieve a comprehensive understanding of all segments of information storage technology.

Sixteen chapters are organized into four sections. Advanced topics build upon the topics learned in previous chapters.

Section 1, "Information Storage and Management for Today’s World": Four chapters cover information growth and challenges, define a storage system and its environment, review the evolution of storage technology, and introduce intelligent storage systems.

Section 2, "Storage Options and Protocols": Six chapters cover the SCSI and Fibre channel architecture, direct-attached storage (DAS), storage area networks (SANs), network-attached storage (NAS), Internet Protocol SAN (IP-SAN), content-addressed storage (CAS), and storage virtualization.

Section 3, "Business Continuity and Replication": Four chapters introduce business continuity, backup and recovery, local data replication, and remote data replication.

Section 4, "Security and Administration": Two chapters cover storage security and storage infrastructure monitoring and management.

The book’s supplementary web site provides up-to-date information on additional learning aids and storage certification opportunities.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Editors
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Icons used in this book
  6. Foreword
  7. Introduction
    1. EMC Academic Alliance
    2. EMC Proven Professional Certification
  8. I. Storage System
    1. 1. Introduction to Information Storage and Management
      1. 1.1. Information Storage
        1. 1.1.1. Data
        2. 1.1.2. Types of Data
        3. 1.1.3. Information
        4. 1.1.4. Storage
      2. 1.2. Evolution of Storage Technology and Architecture
      3. 1.3. Data Center Infrastructure
        1. 1.3.1. Core Elements
        2. 1.3.2. Key Requirements for Data Center Elements
        3. 1.3.3. Managing Storage Infrastructure
      4. 1.4. Key Challenges in Managing Information
      5. 1.5. Information Lifecycle
        1. 1.5.1. Information Lifecycle Management
        2. 1.5.2. ILM Implementation
        3. 1.5.3. ILM Benefits
      6. 1.6. Summary
    2. 2. Storage System Environment
      1. 2.1. Components of a Storage System Environment
        1. 2.1.1. Host
          1. 2.1.1.1. Physical Components
          2. 2.1.1.2. CPU
          3. 2.1.1.3. Storage
          4. 2.1.1.4. I/O Devices
        2. 2.1.2. Connectivity
          1. 2.1.2.1. Physical Components of Connectivity
          2. 2.1.2.2. Logical Components of Connectivity
          3. 2.1.2.3. PCI
          4. 2.1.2.4. IDE/ATA
          5. 2.1.2.5. SCSI
        3. 2.1.3. Storage
      2. 2.2. Disk Drive Components
        1. 2.2.1. Platter
        2. 2.2.2. Spindle
        3. 2.2.3. Read/Write Head
        4. 2.2.4. Actuator Arm Assembly
        5. 2.2.5. Controller
        6. 2.2.6. Physical Disk Structure
        7. 2.2.7. Zoned Bit Recording
        8. 2.2.8. Logical Block Addressing
      3. 2.3. Disk Drive Performance
        1. 2.3.1. Disk Service Time
          1. 2.3.1.1. Seek Time
          2. 2.3.1.2. Rotational Latency
          3. 2.3.1.3. Data Transfer Rate
      4. 2.4. Fundamental Laws Governing Disk Performance
      5. 2.5. Logical Components of the Host
        1. 2.5.1. Operating System
        2. 2.5.2. Device Driver
        3. 2.5.3. Volume Manager
        4. 2.5.4. File System
        5. 2.5.5. Application
          1. 2.5.5.1. Block-Level Access
          2. 2.5.5.2. File-Level Access
      6. 2.6. Application Requirements and Disk Performance
      7. 2.7. Summary
    3. 3. Data Protection: RAID
      1. 3.1. Implementation of RAID
        1. 3.1.1. Software RAID
        2. 3.1.2. Hardware RAID
      2. 3.2. RAID Array Components
      3. 3.3. RAID Levels
        1. 3.3.1. Striping
        2. 3.3.2. Mirroring
        3. 3.3.3. Parity
        4. 3.3.4. RAID 0
        5. 3.3.5. RAID 1
        6. 3.3.6. Nested RAID
        7. 3.3.7. RAID 3
        8. 3.3.8. RAID 4
        9. 3.3.9. RAID 5
        10. 3.3.10. RAID 6
      4. 3.4. RAID Comparison
      5. 3.5. RAID Impact on Disk Performance
        1. 3.5.1. Application IOPS and RAID Configurations
      6. 3.6. Hot Spares
      7. 3.7. Summary
    4. 4. Intelligent Storage System
      1. 4.1. Components of an Intelligent Storage System
        1. 4.1.1. Front End
          1. 4.1.1.1. Front-End Command Queuing
        2. 4.1.2. Cache
          1. 4.1.2.1. Structure of Cache
          2. 4.1.2.2. Read Operation with Cache
          3. 4.1.2.3. Write Operation with Cache
          4. 4.1.2.4. Cache Implementation
          5. 4.1.2.5. Cache Management
          6. 4.1.2.6. Cache Data Protection
        3. 4.1.3. Back End
        4. 4.1.4. Physical Disk
          1. 4.1.4.1. Logical Unit Number
          2. 4.1.4.2. LUN Masking
      2. 4.2. Intelligent Storage Array
        1. 4.2.1. High-end Storage Systems
        2. 4.2.2. Midrange Storage System
      3. 4.3. Concepts in Practice: EMC CLARiiON and Symmetrix
        1. 4.3.1. CLARiiON Storage Array
        2. 4.3.2. CLARiiON CX4 Architecture
        3. 4.3.3. Managing the CLARiiON
        4. 4.3.4. Symmetrix Storage Array
        5. 4.3.5. Symmetrix Component Overview
        6. 4.3.6. Direct Matrix Architecture
        7. 4.3.7. Summary
  9. II. Storage Networking Technologies and Virtualization
    1. 5. Direct-Attached Storage and Introduction to SCSI
      1. 5.1. Types of DAS
        1. 5.1.1. Internal DAS
        2. 5.1.2. External DAS
      2. 5.2. DAS Benefits and Limitations
      3. 5.3. Disk Drive Interfaces
        1. 5.3.1. IDE/ATA
        2. 5.3.2. SATA
        3. 5.3.3. Parallel SCSI
      4. 5.4. Introduction to Parallel SCSI
        1. 5.4.1. Evolution of SCSI
          1. 5.4.1.1. SCSI-1
          2. 5.4.1.2. SCSI-2
          3. 5.4.1.3. SCSI-3
        2. 5.4.2. SCSI Interfaces
        3. 5.4.3. SCSI-3 Architecture
          1. 5.4.3.1. SCSI-3 Client-Server Model
          2. 5.4.3.2. SCSI Ports
          3. 5.4.3.3. SCSI Communication Model
        4. 5.4.4. Parallel SCSI Addressing
      5. 5.5. SCSI Command Model
        1. 5.5.1. CDB Structure
        2. 5.5.2. Operation Code
        3. 5.5.3. Control Field
        4. 5.5.4. Status
      6. 5.6. Summary
    2. 6. Storage Area Networks
      1. 6.1. Fibre Channel: Overview
      2. 6.2. The SAN and Its Evolution
      3. 6.3. Components of SAN
        1. 6.3.1. Node Ports
        2. 6.3.2. Cabling
        3. 6.3.3. Interconnect Devices
        4. 6.3.4. Storage Arrays
        5. 6.3.5. SAN Management Software
      4. 6.4. FC Connectivity
        1. 6.4.1. Point-to-Point
        2. 6.4.2. Fibre Channel Arbitrated Loop
          1. 6.4.2.1. FC-AL Transmission
        3. 6.4.3. Fibre Channel Switched Fabric
          1. 6.4.3.1. FC-SW Transmission
      5. 6.5. Fibre Channel Ports
      6. 6.6. Fibre Channel Architecture
        1. 6.6.1. Fibre Channel Protocol Stack
          1. 6.6.1.1. FC-4 Upper Layer Protocol
          2. 6.6.1.2. FC-2 Transport Layer
          3. 6.6.1.3. FC-1 Transmission Protocol
          4. 6.6.1.4. FC-0 Physical Interface
        2. 6.6.2. Fibre Channel Addressing
          1. 6.6.2.1. FC Address of an NL_port
        3. 6.6.3. World Wide Names
        4. 6.6.4. FC Frame
        5. 6.6.5. Structure and Organization of FC Data
        6. 6.6.6. Flow Control
          1. 6.6.6.1. BB_Credit
          2. 6.6.6.2. EE_Credit
        7. 6.6.7. Classes of Service
      7. 6.7. Zoning
        1. 6.7.1.
          1. 6.7.1.1. Types of Zoning
      8. 6.8. Fibre Channel Login Types
      9. 6.9. FC Topologies
        1. 6.9.1. Core-Edge Fabric
          1. 6.9.1.1. Benefits and Limitations of Core-Edge Fabric
        2. 6.9.2. Mesh Topology
      10. 6.10. Concepts in Practice: EMC Connectrix
        1. 6.10.1.
          1. 6.10.1.1. Connectrix Switches
          2. 6.10.2. Connectrix Directors
          3. 6.10.3. Connectrix Management Tools
      11. 6.11. Summary
    3. 7. Network-Attached Storage
      1. 7.1. General-Purpose Servers vs. NAS Devices
      2. 7.2. Benefits of NAS
      3. 7.3. NAS File I/O
        1. 7.3.1. File Systems and Remote File Sharing
        2. 7.3.2. Accessing a File System
        3. 7.3.3. File Sharing
      4. 7.4. Components of NAS
      5. 7.5. NAS Implementations
        1. 7.5.1. Integrated NAS
        2. 7.5.2. Gateway NAS
        3. 7.5.3. Integrated NAS Connectivity
        4. 7.5.4. Gateway NAS Connectivity
      6. 7.6. NAS File-Sharing Protocols
        1. 7.6.1. NFS
        2. 7.6.2. CIFS
      7. 7.7. NAS I/O Operations
        1. 7.7.1. Hosting and Accessing Files on NAS
      8. 7.8. Factors Affecting NAS Performance and Availability
      9. 7.9. Concepts in Practice: EMC Celerra
        1. 7.9.1. Architecture
          1. 7.9.1.1. Data Mover
          2. 7.9.1.2. Control Station
          3. 7.9.1.3. Storage Connectivity
        2. 7.9.2. Celerra Product Family
          1. 7.9.2.1. NS Series: Integrated
          2. 7.9.2.2. NS Series: Gateway
          3. 7.9.2.3. Celerra Management Software
      10. 7.10. Summary
    4. 8. IP SAN
      1. 8.1. iSCSI
        1. 8.1.1. Components of iSCSI
        2. 8.1.2. iSCSI Host Connectivity
        3. 8.1.3. Topologies for iSCSI Connectivity
          1. 8.1.3.1. Native iSCSI Connectivity
          2. 8.1.3.2. Bridged iSCSI Connectivity
          3. 8.1.3.3. Combining FCP and Native iSCSI Connectivity
        4. 8.1.4. iSCSI Protocol Stack
        5. 8.1.5. iSCSI Discovery
        6. 8.1.6. iSCSI Names
        7. 8.1.7. iSCSI Session
        8. 8.1.8. iSCSI PDU
        9. 8.1.9. Ordering and Numbering
        10. 8.1.10. iSCSI Error Handling and Security
      2. 8.2. FCIP
        1. 8.2.1. FCIP Topology
        2. 8.2.2. FCIP Performance and Security
      3. 8.3. Summary
    5. 9. Content-Addressed Storage
      1. 9.1. Fixed Content and Archives
      2. 9.2. Types of Archives
      3. 9.3. Features and Benefits of CAS
      4. 9.4. CAS Architecture
      5. 9.5. Object Storage and Retrieval in CAS
      6. 9.6. CAS Examples
        1. 9.6.1. Health Care Solution: Storing Patient Studies
        2. 9.6.2. Finance Solution: Storing Financial Records
      7. 9.7. Concepts in Practice: EMC Centera
        1. 9.7.1. EMC Centera Models
        2. 9.7.2. EMC Centera Architecture
        3. 9.7.3. Centera Tools
        4. 9.7.4. EMC Centera Universal Access
      8. 9.8. Summary
    6. 10. Storage Virtualization
      1. 10.1. Forms of Virtualization
        1. 10.1.1. Memory Virtualization
        2. 10.1.2. Network Virtualization
          1. 10.1.2.1. Virtual SAN (VSAN)
        3. 10.1.3. Server Virtualization
        4. 10.1.4. Storage Virtualization
      2. 10.2. SNIA Storage Virtualization Taxonomy
      3. 10.3. Storage Virtualization Configurations
      4. 10.4. Storage Virtualization Challenges
        1. 10.4.1. Scalability
        2. 10.4.2. Functionality
        3. 10.4.3. Manageability
        4. 10.4.4. Support
      5. 10.5. Types of Storage Virtualization
        1. 10.5.1. Block-Level Storage Virtualization
        2. 10.5.2. File-Level Virtualization
      6. 10.6. Concepts in Practice
        1. 10.6.1. EMC Invista
          1. 10.6.1.1. Invista Components
            1. 10.6.1.1.1. Invista Operation
            2. 10.6.1.1.2. Invista Advantages
        2. 10.6.2. Rainfinity
          1. 10.6.2.1. Rainfinity Components
            1. 10.6.2.1.1. Rainfinity Operations
            2. 10.6.2.1.2. Global Namespace Management
            3. 10.6.2.1.3. Rainfinity Advantages
      7. 10.7. Summary
  10. III. Business Continuity
    1. 11. Introduction to Business Continuity
      1. 11.1. Information Availability
        1. 11.1.1. Causes of Information Unavailability
        2. 11.1.2. Measuring Information Availability
        3. 11.1.3. Consequences of Downtime
      2. 11.2. BC Terminology
      3. 11.3. BC Planning Lifecycle
      4. 11.4. Failure Analysis
        1. 11.4.1. Single Point of Failure
        2. 11.4.2. Fault Tolerance
        3. 11.4.3. Multipathing Software
      5. 11.5. Business Impact Analysis
      6. 11.6. BC Technology Solutions
      7. 11.7. Concept in Practice: EMC PowerPath
        1. 11.7.1. PowerPath Features
        2. 11.7.2. Dynamic Load Balancing
          1. 11.7.2.1. I/O Operation without PowerPath
          2. 11.7.2.2. I/O Operation with PowerPath
        3. 11.7.3. Automatic Path Failover
          1. 11.7.3.1. Path Failure without PowerPath
          2. 11.7.3.2. Path Failover with PowerPath: Active-Active Array
          3. 11.7.3.3. Path Failover with PowerPath: Active-Passive Array
      8. 11.8. Summary
    2. 12. Backup and Recovery
      1. 12.1. Backup Purpose
        1. 12.1.1. Disaster Recovery
        2. 12.1.2. Operational Backup
        3. 12.1.3. Archival
      2. 12.2. Backup Considerations
      3. 12.3. Backup Granularity
      4. 12.4. Recovery Considerations
      5. 12.5. Backup Methods
      6. 12.6. Backup Process
      7. 12.7. Backup and Restore Operations
      8. 12.8. Backup Topologies
        1. 12.8.1. Serverless Backup
      9. 12.9. Backup in NAS Environments
      10. 12.10. Backup Technologies
        1. 12.10.1. Backup to Tape
        2. 12.10.2. Physical Tape Library
          1. 12.10.2.1. Limitations of Tape
        3. 12.10.3. Backup to Disk
        4. 12.10.4. Virtual Tape Library
      11. 12.11. Concepts in Practice: EMC NetWorker
        1. 12.11.1. NetWorker Backup Operation
        2. 12.11.2. NetWorker Recovery
        3. 12.11.3. EmailXtender
        4. 12.11.4. DiskXtender
        5. 12.11.5. Avamar
        6. 12.11.6. EMC Disk Library (EDL)
      12. 12.12. Summary
    3. 13. Local Replication
      1. 13.1. Source and Target
      2. 13.2. Uses of Local Replicas
      3. 13.3. Data Consistency
        1. 13.3.1. Consistency of a Replicated File System
        2. 13.3.2. Consistency of a Replicated Database
      4. 13.4. Local Replication Technologies
        1. 13.4.1. Host-Based Local Replication
          1. 13.4.1.1. LVM-Based Replication
          2. 13.4.1.2. Advantages of LVM-Based Replication
          3. 13.4.1.3. Limitations of LVM-Based Replication
          4. 13.4.1.4. File System Snapshot
        2. 13.4.2. Storage Array–Based Replication
          1. 13.4.2.1. Full-Volume Mirroring
          2. 13.4.2.2. Pointer-Based, Full-Volume Replication
          3. 13.4.2.3. Pointer-Based Virtual Replication
      5. 13.5. Restore and Restart Considerations
        1. 13.5.1. Tracking Changes to Source and Target
      6. 13.6. Creating Multiple Replicas
      7. 13.7. Management Interface
      8. 13.8. Concepts in Practice: EMC TimeFinder and EMC SnapView
        1. 13.8.1. TimeFinder/Clone
          1. 13.8.1.1. Clone Operation
        2. 13.8.2. TimeFinder/Mirror
          1. 13.8.2.1. TimeFinder/Mirror Operations
        3. 13.8.3. EMC SnapView
          1. 13.8.3.1. SnapView Snapshot
        4. 13.8.4. EMC SnapSure
          1. 13.8.4.1. TimeFinder/FS
      9. 13.9. Summary
    4. 14. Remote Replication
      1. 14.1. Modes of Remote Replication
      2. 14.2. Remote Replication Technologies
        1. 14.2.1. Host-Based Remote Replication
          1. 14.2.1.1. LVM-Based Remote Replication
          2. 14.2.1.2. Host-Based Log Shipping
        2. 14.2.2. Storage Array-Based Remote Replication
          1. 14.2.2.1. Synchronous Replication Mode
          2. 14.2.2.2. Asynchronous Replication Mode
          3. 14.2.2.3. Disk-Buffered Replication Mode
          4. 14.2.2.4. Three-Site Replication
          5. 14.2.2.5. Three-Site Replication—Cascade/Multi-hop
            1. 14.2.2.5.1. Synchronous + Asynchronous
            2. 14.2.2.5.2. Synchronous + Disk Buffered
          6. 14.2.2.6. Three-Site Replication—Triangle/Multi-target
        3. 14.2.3. SAN-Based Remote Replication
      3. 14.3. Network Infrastructure
        1. 14.3.1. DWDM
        2. 14.3.2. SONET
      4. 14.4. Concepts in Practice: EMC SRDF, EMC SAN Copy, and EMC MirrorView
        1. 14.4.1. SRDF Family
        2. 14.4.2. Disaster Recovery with SRDF
        3. 14.4.3. SRDF Operations for Concurrent Access
        4. 14.4.4. EMC SAN Copy
        5. 14.4.5. EMC MirrorView
          1. 14.4.5.1. MirrorView Operations
      5. 14.5. Summary
  11. IV. Storage Security and Management
    1. 15. Securing the Storage Infrastructure
      1. 15.1. Storage Security Framework
      2. 15.2. Risk Triad
        1. 15.2.1. Assets
        2. 15.2.2. Threats
        3. 15.2.3. Vulnerability
      3. 15.3. Storage Security Domains
        1. 15.3.1. Securing the Application Access Domain
          1. 15.3.1.1. Controlling User Access to Data
          2. 15.3.1.2. Protecting the Storage Infrastructure
          3. 15.3.1.3. Data Encryption
        2. 15.3.2. Securing the Management Access Domain
          1. 15.3.2.1. Controlling Administrative Access
          2. 15.3.2.2. Protecting the Management Infrastructure
        3. 15.3.3. Securing Backup, Recovery, and Archive (BURA)
      4. 15.4. Security Implementations in Storage Networking
        1. 15.4.1. SAN
          1. 15.4.1.1. SAN Security Architecture
          2. 15.4.1.2. Basic SAN Security Mechanisms
          3. 15.4.1.3. LUN Masking and Zoning
          4. 15.4.1.4. Switch-wide and Fabric-wide Access Control
          5. 15.4.1.5. Logical Partitioning of a Fabric: Virtual SAN
        2. 15.4.2. NAS
          1. 15.4.2.1. NAS File Sharing: Windows ACLs
          2. 15.4.2.2. NAS File Sharing: UNIX Permissions
          3. 15.4.2.3. Authentication and Authorization
          4. 15.4.2.4. Kerberos
          5. 15.4.2.5. Network-Layer Firewalls
        3. 15.4.3. IP SAN
      5. 15.5. Summary
    2. 16. Managing the Storage Infrastructure
      1. 16.1. Monitoring the Storage Infrastructure
        1. 16.1.1. Parameters Monitored
        2. 16.1.2. Components Monitored
          1. 16.1.2.1. Hosts
          2. 16.1.2.2. Storage Network
          3. 16.1.2.3. Storage
        3. 16.1.3. Monitoring Examples
          1. 16.1.3.1. Accessibility Monitoring
          2. 16.1.3.2. Capacity Monitoring
          3. 16.1.3.3. Performance Monitoring
          4. 16.1.3.4. Security Monitoring
        4. 16.1.4. Alerts
      2. 16.2. Storage Management Activities
        1. 16.2.1. Availability management
        2. 16.2.2. Capacity management
        3. 16.2.3. Performance management
        4. 16.2.4. Security Management
        5. 16.2.5. Reporting
        6. 16.2.6. Storage Management Examples
          1. 16.2.6.1. Example 1: Storage Allocation to a New Server/Host
          2. 16.2.6.2. Example 2: File System Space Management
          3. 16.2.6.3. Example 3: Chargeback Report
      3. 16.3. Storage Infrastructure Management Challenges
      4. 16.4. Developing an Ideal Solution
        1. 16.4.1. Storage Management Initiative
        2. 16.4.2. Enterprise Management Platforms
      5. 16.5. Concepts in Practice: EMC ControlCenter
        1. 16.5.1. ControlCenter Features and Functionality
        2. 16.5.2. ControlCenter Architecture
          1. 16.5.2.1. User Interface Tier
          2. 16.5.2.2. Infrastructure Tier
          3. 16.5.2.3. Agents
          4. 16.5.2.4. ControlCenter Monitoring through Alerts
          5. 16.5.2.5. ControlCenter Add-on Products
      6. 16.6. Summary
  12. A. Acronyms and Abbreviations
  13. Glossary