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Information Communication Technology Standardization for E-Business Sectors: Integrating Supply and Demand Factors

Book Description

Information Communication Technology Standardization for E-Business Sectors: Integrating Supply and Demand Factors studies the nature, relevance, and quality of standards involved with ICTs and the impact they have on businesses. This Premier Reference Source discusses the dynamics and mutual impact of factors that condition demand for standards and supply.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. Preface
  4. I. Introduction
    1. I. An Integrated View of E-Business and the Underlying ICT Infrastructure
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
        1. 1.1 Motivation
      3. 2 AN INTEGRATED VIEW OF E-BUSINESS AND THE UNDERLYING ICT INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. 2.1 E-Business applications
        2. 2.2 ICT infrastructure
        3. 2.3 Strategy, Applications, and ICT - Some Earlier Research
        4. 2.4 ICT Infrastructure Impact on E-business - Some Examples
      4. 3 IN CONCLUSION
      5. 4 REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTES
  5. II. E-Business Standards and Business Models
    1. II. The Demand for E-Government Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH
      4. 3. THE NEED FOR E-GOVERNMENT STANDARDS IN VARIOUS DIMENSIONS
        1. 3.1 Service Delivery
        2. 3.2 Communication between Citizens and Governmental Organisations
        3. 3.3 Communication within the Governmental Organisation or Between Government and its Suppliers
      5. 4. SUMMARY
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    2. III. A Taxonomy of Service Standards and a Modification for E-Business
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. OBJECTIVES
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    3. IV. Business Models and the Dynamics of Supply and Demand for Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. EVOLVING ANALYTICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN STANDARDIZATION RESEARCH
        1. The producer-User problem
      3. 2. RE–EXAMINING STAKEHOLDER RELATIONSHIPS IN STANDARDIZATION
        1. 1. Relational Variables
        2. 2. Contextual Variables
        3. 3. Motivational Variables
      4. 3. STAKEHOLDER–CENTERED SCENARIOS FOR GENERATING STANDARDS DEMAND
      5. 4. USING BUSINESS MODELS TO RE–ASSESS THE NATURE OF STANDARDS DEMAND
        1. 1. Relational Variables
        2. 2. Contextual Variables
        3. 3. Motivational Variables
      6. 5. USING BUSINESS MODELS TO DESCRIBE THE EMERGENCE OF STANDARDS DEMAND
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
  6. III. Successful Standards Development
    1. V. Emergence of Standardisation Processes: Linkage with Users
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RFID: AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY
      4. 3. RFID STANDARDS
      5. 4. RFID ADOPTION IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY
        1. 4.1. The Adoption of RFID in the Automotive Industry: A Snapshot
        2. 4.2. The Role of Standards in Shaping RFID Adoption in the Automotive Industry
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. WEB SITES
      9. ENDNOTES
      10. APPENDIX: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES
    2. VI. Perceived Relation between ICT Standards' Sources and their Success in the Market
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 SOME BACKGROUND
      4. 3 THE STUDY
        1. 3.1 Background and Motivation
        2. 3.1 Some Technicalities
        3. 3.1 Hypotheses: Discussion
      5. 4 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
        1. 4.1 Summary
        2. 4.2 Conclusions
      6. 5 REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    3. VII. How to Select the Best Platform for ICT Standards Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
      3. 2 THE MARKET FOR STANDARDS
        1. 2.1 The Network of Standards Setting Bodies
        2. 2.2 The Users of Standards
      4. 3 CLASSIFYING STANDARDS SETTING BODIES
        1. 3.1 'General' Attributes
        2. 3.2 'Membership' Attributes
        3. 3.3 'Standards Setting Process' Attributes
        4. 3.4 'Output' Attributes
      5. 3.1 APPLYING THE CRITERIA TO SOME RELEVANT SSBS
        1. 3.2 Coping With Changes in the Market
      6. 4 MORE ON STANDARDS USERS
        1. 4.1 Leaders
        2. 4.2 Adopters
        3. 4.3 Observers
      7. 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
      8. 6 REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
  7. IV. Case Studies
    1. VIII. The Shaping of the IEEE 802.11 Standard: The Role of the Innovating Firm in the Case of Wi-Fi
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1 INTRODUCTION
      3. 2 THE PRECEDING DEVELOPMENT OF WIRED LOCAL AREA NETWORKS
      4. 2.1 The Three IEEE 802 Wired LAN Standards
      5. 3 THE NEED FOR A WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK4
        1. 3.1 A Different Medium: A New Institutional Player
        2. 3.2 A Layered Approach to Problem Solving
      6. 4 PURSUING AN OPEN STANDARD
        1. 4.1 NCR Taking the Lead in IEEE 802.11
        2. Centralized vs. Decentralized Architecture
        3. 4.3 Resolving the Options Introduced by the FCC
        4. 4.4 Different Perceptions on User Needs
        5. 4.5 Approval of the IEEE 802.11 Standard
      7. 5 INPUT FROM THE MARKET: THE NEED FOR INCREASED DATA RATES
        1. 5.1 Approval of the First Extensions IEEE 802.11a and 11b
      8. 6 COMPETING ACTIVITIES IN THE EUROPEAN STANDARDS ARENA
      9. 7 MAKING THE STANDARD A MARKET SUCCESS
        1. 7.1 Getting the Product: Market Combination Right
        2. 7.2 Global vs. Local Products
        3. 7.3 Security Concerns
        4. 7.4 Crossing the Chasm
        5. 7.5 The Wi-Fi Alliance
        6. 7.6 The Ultimate Success
      10. 8 NEW STANDARDS REQUIREMENTS EMERGING FROM WI-FI DEPLOYMENT
        1. 8.1Municipal Networks
        2. 8.2 Forward Momentum in IEEE 802.11
      11. 9 SUMMARY AND REFLECTIONS
        1. 9.1 Reflections from a Theoretical Perspective
        2. 9.2 Reflecting on Firm Strategy and Standards
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. TRADEMARKS
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTES
    2. IX. The Evolution of e.Business: Can Technology Supply meet the Full Business Demand?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EARLY HISTORY OF e.BUSINESS
      4. THE MESSAGE STANDARDS
      5. ENCOURAGING SUPPLY TO MEET DEMAND
      6. DEFINING REAL DEMAND AND KEEPING UP WITH SUPPLY
      7. EDIFACT
      8. SIMPL.e.BUSINESS
      9. THE WORLD WIDE WEB AND E.BUSINESS
      10. e.EXCHANGES
      11. E.CATALOGUES
      12. ALIGNING MASTER DATA AMONG VALUE CHAIN PARTICIPANTS
      13. UN e.DOCS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADING AT SITPRO
      14. S.T.E.P. STANDARDS FOR ENGINEERING
      15. COLLABORATIVE EVENT MANAGEMENT (CEM)
      16. CONCLUSION
      17. REFERENCES
      18. ENDNOTES
    3. X. China's Practice of Implementing a 3G Mobile Telecommunications Standard: A Transaction Costs Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. I INTRODUCTION
      3. II LITERATURE REVIEW: THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE CREATION AND DIFFUSION OF MOBILE TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS
      4. III A TRANSACTION COST PERSPECTIVE OF UNDERSTANDING GOVERNMENT'S ROLE IN IT STANDARDS CREATION AND DIFFUSION BASED ON NORTH'S TRANSACTION COST THEORY OF POLITICS
      5. IV CASE DESCRIPTION: DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TD-SCDMA1
        1. Origin of the Standards
        2. Becoming One of the Three International 3G Standards: Playing the National Card
        3. Formation of the TD-SCDMA Industry Alliance: Government Support of the Standard
        4. Process of Commercializing the Standards
        5. Forced Carrier of the TD-SCDMA Standards: China Mobile
        6. Value Chain Created by the TD-SCDMA Standards
      6. V CASE ANALYSIS: INTERACTION OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETS DRIVEN BY IDEOLOGY
        1. Ideology Shift: From Attracting FDI to Building an Innovative Society
        2. The Blurred Boundary Between Political and Economic Markets
      7. VI CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
    4. XI. International Framework for Collaboration between European and Japanese Standard Consortia: The Case of the Automotive LAN Protocol
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. HISTORY OF AUTOMOTIVE LAN PROTOCOL STANDARDIZATION
        1. 1-1 From Individual Protocols to a Standard Protocol
        2. 1-2 FlexRay Appears on the Market
        3. 1-3 Relations Between FRC and JasPar
      4. 2 THE THREE FEATURES OF THE COLLABORATIVE FRAMEWORK
        1. 2-1 Differentiation from High-Speed FlexRay Version
        2. 2-2 Securing Interoperability
        3. 2-3 Differences in Handling of IPR
      5. 3 COLLABORATIVE STRATEGY OF JASPAR
        1. 3-1 Trade-off Between Interoperability and universality
        2. 3-2 Constraints in Drafting Specifications
        3. 3-3 compromise Inside consortia
        4. 3-4 Difficulties in Convergence
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. WEB SITEs
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. XII. Between Supply and Demand: Coping with the Impact of Standards Change
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE VALUE OF STANDARDS
      4. 3. CATEGORIES OF STANDARDS CHANGE
      5. 4. PROBLEMS OF STANDARDS CHANGE
        1. 4.1 Switching Costs
        2. 4.2 Who Bears the Costs
        3. 4.3 salient problem Areas
      6. 5. CAUSES OF CHANGE
        1. 5.1 Innovation
        2. 5.2 Market Strategy
        3. 5.3 Standardization Factors
      7. 6. HEURISTIC MODEL
      8. 7. COPING WITH THE IMPACT OF CHANGE
        1. 7.1 Ex Post Measures
        2. 7.2 Quality of the standards process
        3. 7.3 Standards Design: Downward Compatible & Future-Proof
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. ABBREVIATIONS
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
  8. V. Policy Issues
    1. XIII. Open Standards and Government Policy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STANDARDS, STANDARDIZATION AND MARKETS
        1. ICT challenges Beyond the Industrial Age standards
      4. POLICY OF STANDARDIZATION
        1. Government Participation in Standardization
        2. Early Adoption of Open ICT Standards
        3. Conformance to Standards in Public Procurement
        4. Discrimination Against Non-compliant ICT products
      5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
        1. The Trend of the Open Standards
        2. Transitioning from Proprietary to Open Standards
        3. Managerial Implications
        4. Concluding Remarks
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
  9. VI. Additional Readings
    1. XIV. Developing Measures and Standards for the European Electronic Signatures Market
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: THE NECESSITY FOR ENHANCED SECURITY
        1. Development of a proper strategic Framework
        2. The Basic European Regulatory Initiatives
      4. STANDARDIZATION ACTIVITIES FOR ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES
        1. The Impact of standardization Activities in the sector
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    2. XV. Quality Standardization Patterns in ICT Offshore
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Quality Management and the Current Internationalization Process of the ICT Sector
        2. Quality standards in the context of the ICT Branch in Europe
      4. QUALITY STANDARDIZATION PATTERNS IN ICT OFFSHORE
        1. Preliminary Empirical Results: Quality standards and Quality Management Systems in the Internationalization of the German ICT Branch
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. XVI. An Overview of Models and Standards of Processes in the SE, SwE, and IS Disciplines
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW ON MODELS AND STANDARDS OF PROCESSES
        1. The Rationale of Models and Standards of Processes
        2. History and Aims of the Main SE, SwE and IS Models of Standards of Processes
        3. The Core Building-Block Concepts for Understanding Models and Standards of Processes: Process, Service and System
      4. INITIAL THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE IS DISCIPLINE
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. XVII. E-Business Standardization in the Automotive Sector: Role and Situation of SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOME BACKGROUND
        1. The Automotive Industry
        2. Standardization
          1. Standards Setting in General
          2. Avoid Technological Dead-Ends
          3. Reduce Dependency on Vendors
          4. Promote Universality
          5. Standards in the Automotive Industry
      4. SMES BETWEEN A ROCK AND A HARD PLACE
        1. SMEs in Standards-Setting Bodies
          1. Motivation
          2. Some Background
          3. SMEs in Standards Setting: A Small Study
        2. Electronic Marketplaces: Two Examples
          1. Introduction
        3. Example One: Covisint
        4. Example Two: SupplyOn
          1. Summary
          2. Discussion
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors