H. Bluhm, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is an excellent tool for the investigation of the growth and reaction of thin films. Owing to the short mean free path of electrons in condensed matter, XPS is particularly well suited for the measurement of films with thicknesses of up to a few nanometers. XPS allows for the quantitative determining of the elemental composition, chemical specificity (i.e., oxidation state) and film thickness. In this chapter the basics of XPS are described, including different approaches to monitoring in situ film growth and reactions.
X-ray photoelectron ...