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In Situ Characterization of Thin Film Growth

Book Description

Advanced techniques for characterizing thin film growth in situ help to develop improved understanding and faster diagnosis of issues with the process. In situ characterization of thin film growth reviews current and developing techniques for characterizing the growth of thin films, covering an important gap in research.

Part one covers electron diffraction techniques for in situ study of thin film growth, including chapters on topics such as reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and inelastic scattering techniques. Part two focuses on photoemission techniques, with chapters covering ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry for characterization of thin film growth. Finally, part three discusses alternative in situ characterization techniques. Chapters focus on topics such as ion beam surface characterization, real time in situ surface monitoring of thin film growth, deposition vapour monitoring and the use of surface x-ray diffraction for studying epitaxial film growth.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, In situ characterization of thin film growth is a standard reference for materials scientists and engineers in the electronics and photonics industries, as well as all those with an academic research interest in this area.

  • Chapters review electron diffraction techniques, including the methodology for observations and measurements
  • Discusses the principles and applications of photoemission techniques
  • Examines alternative in situ characterisation techniques

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Chapter 1: Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for in situ characterization of thin film growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 1.1 Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD)
    3. 1.2 Basic principles of RHEED
    4. 1.3 Analysis of typical RHEED patterns: the influence of surface disorder
    5. 1.4 Crystal growth: kinetics vs thermodynamics
    6. 1.5 Variations of the specular intensity during deposition
    7. 1.6 Kinetical growth modes and the intensity response in RHEED
    8. 1.7 RHEED intensity variations and Monte Carlo simulations
    9. 1.8 Conclusions
    10. 1.9 Acknowledgements
  7. Chapter 2: Inelastic scattering techniques for in situ characterization of thin film growth: backscatter Kikuchi diffraction
    1. Abstract:
    2. 2.1 Introduction
    3. 2.2 Kikuchi patterns
    4. 2.3 Kikuchi lines in reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) images
    5. 2.4 Dual-screen RHEED and Kikuchi pattern collection
    6. 2.5 Lattice parameter determination
    7. 2.6 Epitaxial film strain determination
    8. 2.7 Kinematic and dynamic scattering
    9. 2.8 Epitaxial film structure determination
    10. 2.9 Conclusion
  8. Chapter 3: Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) for in situ characterization of thin film growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 Principles of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS)
    4. 3.3 Applications of UPS to thin film systems
    5. 3.4 Future trends
  9. Chapter 4: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) for in situ characterization of thin film growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 4.1 Introduction
    3. 4.2 In situ monitoring of thin film growth
    4. 4.3 Measuring the reaction of thin films with gases using ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
    5. 4.4 In situ measurements of buried interfaces using high kinetic energy XPS (HAXPES)
    6. 4.5 Conclusions
    7. 4.6 Acknowledgments
  10. Chapter 5: In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) for characterization of thin film growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 Principles of ellipsometry
    4. 5.3 In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) characterization
    5. 5.4 In situ considerations
    6. 5.5 Further in situ SE examples
    7. 5.6 Conclusions
    8. 5.8 Acknowledgments
  11. Chapter 6: In situ ion beam surface characterization of thin multicomponent films
    1. Abstract:
    2. 6.1 Introduction
    3. 6.2 Background to ion backscattering spectrometry and time-of-flight (TOF) ion scattering and recoil methods
    4. 6.3 Experimental set-ups
    5. 6.4 Studies of film growth processes relevant to multicomponent oxides
    6. 6.5 Conclusions
    7. 6.6 Acknowledgments
  12. Chapter 7: Spectroscopies combined with reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) for real-time in situ surface monitoring of thin film growth
    1. Abstract:
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Overview of processes and excitations by primary electrons in the surface
    4. 7.3 Recombination and emission processes
    5. 7.4 Descriptions and results of in situ spectroscopies combined with reflection high-energy electron diffractio (RHEED)
    6. 7.5 Conclusion and future trends
  13. Chapter 8: In situ deposition vapor monitoring
    1. Abstract:
    2. 8.1 Introduction
    3. 8.2 Overview of vapor flux monitoring
    4. 8.3 Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)
    5. 8.4 Vapor ionization techniques
    6. 8.5 Optical absorption spectroscopy techniques
    7. 8.6 Summary of techniques and resources
    8. 8.7 Case studies
    9. 8.8 Conclusions
    10. 8.9 Acknowledgments
  14. Chapter 9: Real-time studies of epitaxial film growth using surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD)
    1. Abstract:
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Growth kinetics studies of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using surface X-ray diffraction (SXRD)
    4. 9.3 Real-time SXRD in SrTiO3 PLD: an experimental case study
    5. 9.4 Future trends
    6. Acknowledgment
  15. Index