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In Search of the Ultimate Building Blocks by Gerard 't Hooft

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19 Weighing neutrinos

There are two directions in which one can try to extend the presently known Standard Model, and these can essentially be characterized as follows:

  1. rare new particles and extremely weak new forces, and
  2. heavy new particles and new structures at very high energies.

Let us begin with the first. Particles could exist that are very difficult to produce and to detect, and, for that reason, they could have escaped our attention up till now. All particle types that exert strong forces on any of the known particles could never hide themselves from us. According to the forbidding laws of quantum particle theory, such particles would be frequently produced, either singly or in particle–antiparticle pairs – this would only not happen ...

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