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Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide: (CCNP ROUTE 300-101)

Book Description

Now updated for Cisco’s new ROUTE 300-101 exam, Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide is your Cisco® authorized learning tool for CCNP® or CCDP® preparation. Part of the Cisco Press Foundation Learning Series, it teaches you how to plan, configure, maintain, and scale a modern routed network.

Focusing on Cisco routers connected in LANs and WANs at medium-to-large network sites, the authors show how to select and implement Cisco IOS services for building scalable, routed networks. They examine basic network and routing protocol principles in detail; introduce both IPv4 and IPv6; fully review EIGRP, OSPF, and BGP; explore enterprise Internet connectivity; cover routing updates and path control; and present today’s router security best practices.

Each chapter opens with a list of topics that clearly identifies its focus. Each chapter ends with a summary of key concepts for quick study, as well as review questions to assess and reinforce your understanding. Throughout, configuration and verification output examples illustrate critical issues in network operation and troubleshooting.

This guide is ideal for all certification candidates who want to master all the topics covered on the ROUTE 300-101 exam.

  • Serves as the official book for the newest version of the Cisco Networking Academy CCNP ROUTE course

  • Includes all the content from the newest Learning@Cisco ROUTE course and information on each of the ROUTE exam topics

  • Compares basic routing protocol features and limitations

  • Examines RIPv2 and RIPng

  • Covers EIGRP operation and implementation for both IPv4 and IPv6

  • Explores OSPFv2 implementation, and OSPFv3 for both IPv4 and IPv6

  • Discusses network performance optimization via routing updates

  • Introduces path control with Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) switching, policy-based routing (PBR), and service level agreements (SLAs)

  • Addresses enterprise Internet connectivity via single or redundant ISP connections

  • Explains BGP terminology, concepts, operation, configuration, verification, and troubleshooting

  • Covers securing the management plane of Cisco routers using authentication and other recommended practices

  • Presents self-assessment review questions, chapter objectives, and summaries to facilitate effective studying

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This eBook
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. About the Authors
    5. About the Technical Reviewer
    6. Dedications
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Contents at a Glance
    9. Contents
    10. Icons Used in This Book
    11. Command Syntax Conventions
    12. Configuration and Verification Examples
    13. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book?
      2. ROUTE Exam Topic Coverage
      3. How This Book Is Organized
    14. Chapter 1. Basic Network and Routing Concepts
      1. Differentiating Routing Protocols
        1. Enterprise Network Infrastructure
        2. Role of Dynamic Routing Protocols
        3. Choosing a of Dynamic Routing Protocols
        4. IGP versus EGP
        5. Types of Routing Protocols
        6. Convergence
        7. Route Summarization
        8. Route Protocol Scalability
      2. Understanding Network Technologies
        1. Traffic Types
        2. IPv6 Address Types
        3. ICMPv6 Neighbor Discovery
        4. Network Types
        5. NBMA Networks
        6. Routing Over the Internet
      3. Connecting Remote Locations with Headquarters
        1. Principles of Static Routing
          1. Configuring an IPv4 Static Route
          2. Configuring a Static Default Route
          3. Basic PPP Overview
          4. PPP Authentication Overview
          5. PPPoE
          6. Basic Frame Relay Overview
          7. VPN Connectivity Overview
          8. MPLS-based VPNs
          9. Tunneling VPNs
          10. Hybrid VPNs
        2. Routing Across MPLS VPNs
        3. Routing Over GRE Tunnel
        4. Dynamic Multipoint Virtual Private Network
        5. Multipoint GRE
        6. NHRP
        7. IPsec
      4. Routing and TCP/IP Operations
        1. MSS, Fragmentation, and PMTUD
        2. IPv4 Fragmentation and PMTUD
        3. Bandwidth Delay Product
        4. TCP Starvation
        5. Latency
        6. ICMP Redirect
      5. Implementing RIPng
        1. RIP Overview
        2. RIPv2 Overview
        3. Configuring RIPng
          1. Basic RIPng Configuration
          2. Propagating a Default Route
        4. Investigating the RIPng Database
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    15. Chapter 2. EIGRP Implementation
      1. Establishing EIGRP Neighbor Relationships
        1. EIGRP Features
        2. EIGRP Features
        3. EIGRP Operation Overview
        4. Configuring and Verifying Basic EIGRP for IPv4
        5. Manipulating EIGRP Timers
        6. EIGRP Neighbor Relationship over Frame Relay
        7. Establishing EIGRP over Layer 3 MPLS VPN
        8. Establishing EIGRP over Layer 2 MPLS VPN
      2. Building the EIGRP Topology Table
        1. Building and Examining the EIGRP Topology Table
          1. Choosing the Best Path
        2. Exchange of Routing Knowledge in EIGRP
        3. EIGRP Metric
        4. EIGRP Metric Calculation
          1. EIGRP Wide Metrics
        5. EIGRP Metric Calculation Example
        6. EIGRP Metric Calculation Example
        7. EIGRP Path Calculation Example
      3. Optimizing EIGRP Behavior
        1. EIGRP Queries
        2. EIGRP Stub Routers
        3. Configuring EIGRP Stub Routing
          1. EIGRP Stub Options
        4. Stuck in Active
        5. Reducing Query Scope by Using Summary Routes
        6. Configuring EIGRP Summarization
          1. Determining the Summary Route
          2. Obtaining Default Route
        7. Load Balancing with EIGRP
        8. Configuring EIGRP Load Balancing
          1. EIGRP Load Balancing
          2. EIGRP Load Balancing Across Unequal-Metric Paths
      4. Configuring EIGRP for IPv6
        1. Overview of EIGRP for IPv6
        2. Configuring and Verifying EIGRP for IPv6
          1. EIGRP for IPv6 Configuration
          2. Determining the IPv6 Summary Route
      5. Named EIGRP Configuration
        1. Introduction to Named EIGRP Configuration
        2. Configuring Named EIGRP
          1. Address Families
          2. EIGRP for IPv4 Address Family
          3. EIGRP for IPv6 Address Family
        3. Named EIGRP Configuration Modes
        4. Classic Versus Named EIGRP Configuration
      6. Summary
      7. Review Questions
    16. Chapter 3. OSPF Implementation
      1. Establishing OSPF Neighbor Relationships
        1. OSPF Features
        2. OSPF Operation Overview
        3. Hierarchical Structure of OSPF
        4. Design Restrictions of OSPF
        5. OSPF Message Types
        6. Basic OSPF Configuration
          1. Optimizing OSPF Adjacency Behavior
          2. Using OSPF Priority in the DR/BDR Election
          3. OSPF Behavior in NBMA Hub-and-Spoke Topology
          4. The Importance of MTU
          5. Manipulating OSPF Timers
        7. OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Point-to-Point Links
        8. OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 3 MPLS VPN
        9. OSPF Neighbor Relationship over Layer 2 MPLS VPN
        10. OSPF Neighbor States
        11. OSPF Network Types
        12. Configuring Passive Interfaces
      2. Building the Link-State Database
        1. OSPF LSA Types
        2. Examining the OSPF Link-State Database
          1. OSPF Link-State Database
          2. OSPF Type 2 Network LSA
          3. OSPF Type 3 Summary LSA
          4. OSPF Type 4 ASBR Summary LSA
          5. OSPF Type 5 External LSA
        3. Periodic OSPF Database Changes
        4. Exchanging and Synchronizing LSDBs
        5. Synchronizing the LSDB on Multiaccess Networks
        6. Running the SPF Algorithm
        7. Configuring OSPF Path Selection
          1. OSPF Path Selection
          2. OSPF Best Path Calculation
          3. Default OSPF Costs
        8. Calculating the Cost of Intra-Area Routes
        9. Calculating the Cost of Interarea Routes
        10. Selecting Between Intra-Area and Interarea Routes
      3. Optimizing OSPF Behavior
        1. OSPF Route Summarization
        2. Benefits of Route Summarization
        3. Configuring OSPF Route Summarization
        4. Summarization on ABRs
        5. Summarization on ASBRs
        6. OSPF Virtual Links
          1. Configuring OSPF Virtual Links
        7. Configuring OSPF Stub Areas
          1. OSPF Stub Areas
          2. OSPF Totally Stubby Areas
        8. Cost of the Default Route in a Stub Area
        9. The default-information originate Command
        10. Other Stubby Area Types
      4. OSPFv3
        1. Configuring OSPFv3
          1. Implementing OSPFv3
          2. OSPFv3 for IPv4 and IPv6
        2. Configuring Advanced OSPFv3
        3. OSPFv3 Caveats
      5. Summary
      6. Review Questions
    17. Chapter 4. Manipulating Routing Updates
      1. Using Multiple IP Routing Protocols on a Network
        1. Why Run Multiple Routing Protocols?
        2. Running Multiple Routing Protocols
          1. Administrative Distance
        3. Multiple Routing Protocols Solutions
      2. Implementing Route Redistribution
        1. Defining Route Redistribution
        2. Planning to Redistribute Routes
        3. Redistributing Routes
        4. Seed Metrics
          1. Default Seed Metrics
        5. Configuring and Verifying Basic Redistribution in IPv4 and IPv6
          1. Redistributing OSPFv2 Routes into the EIGRP Routing Domain
          2. Redistributing OSPFv3 Routes into the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Domain
          3. Redistributing EIGRP Routes into the OSPFv2 Routing Domain
          4. Redistributing EIGRP for IPv6 Routes into the OSPFv3 Routing Domain
        6. Types of Redistribution Techniques
          1. One-Point Redistribution
          2. Multipoint Redistribution
          3. Redistribution Problems
          4. Preventing Routing Loops in a Redistribution Environment
          5. Verifying Redistribution Operation
      3. Controlling Routing Update Traffic
        1. Why Filter Routes?
        2. Route Filtering Methods
        3. Using Distribute Lists
          1. Configuring Distribute Lists
          2. Distribute List and ACL Example
        4. Using Prefix Lists
          1. Prefix List Characteristics
          2. Configuring Prefix Lists
          3. Distribute List and Prefix List Example
          4. Prefix List Examples
          5. Verifying Prefix Lists
          6. Manipulating Redistribution Using ACLs, Prefix Lists, and Distribute Lists
        5. Using Route Maps
          1. Understanding Route Maps
          2. Route Map Applications
          3. Configuring Route Maps
          4. Route Map Match and Set Statements
        6. Configuring Route Redistribution Using Route Maps
          1. Using Route Maps with Redistribution
          2. Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Maps
          3. Mutual Redistribution without Route Filtering
          4. Mutual Redistribution with Route Maps
          5. Change Administrative Distance to Enable Optimal Routing
        7. Manipulating Redistribution Using Route Tagging
        8. Caveats of Redistribution
      4. Summary
      5. References
      6. Review Questions
    18. Chapter 5. Path Control Implementation
      1. Using Cisco Express Forwarding Switching
        1. Control and Data Plane
        2. Cisco Switching Mechanisms
        3. Process and Fast Switching
        4. Cisco Express Forwarding
        5. Analyzing Cisco Express Forwarding
          1. Verify the Content of the CEF Tables
          2. Enable and Disable CEF by Interface and Globally
      2. Understanding Path Control
        1. The Need for Path Control
        2. Implementing Path Control Using Policy-Based Routing
          1. PBR Features
          2. Steps for Configuring PBR
          3. Configuring PBR
          4. Verifying PBR
          5. Configuring PBR Example
        3. Implementing Path Control Using Cisco IOS IP SLAs
          1. PBR and IP SLA
          2. IP SLA Features
          3. Steps for Configuring IP SLAs
          4. Verifying Path Control Using IOS IP SLAs
          5. Configuring IP SLA Example
          6. Configuring PBR and IP SLA Example
      3. Summary
      4. References
      5. Review Questions
    19. Chapter 6. Enterprise Internet Connectivity
      1. Planning Enterprise Internet Connectivity
        1. Connecting Enterprise Networks to an ISP
          1. Enterprise Connectivity Requirements
          2. ISP Redundancy
        2. Public IP Address Assignment
          1. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
          2. Regional Internet Registries
          3. Public IP Address Space
        3. Autonomous System Numbers
      2. Establishing Single-Homed IPv4 Internet Connectivity
        1. Configuring a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address
        2. DHCP Operation
        3. Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv4 Address with DHCP
        4. Configuring a Router as a DHCP Server and DHCP Relay Agent
        5. NAT
          1. Configuring Static NAT
          2. Configuring Dynamic NAT
          3. Configuring PAT
          4. Limitations of NAT
        6. NAT Virtual Interface
          1. Configuring NAT Virtual Interface
          2. Verifying NAT Virtual Interface
      3. Establishing Single-Homed IPv6 Internet Connectivity
        1. Obtaining a Provider-Assigned IPv6 Address
          1. Manual Assignment
          2. Configuring Basic IPv6 Internet Connectivity
          3. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration
          4. DHCPv6 Operation
          5. Stateless DCHPv6
          6. Stateful DHCPv6
          7. DHCPv6 Prefix Delegation
        2. NAT for IPv6
          1. NAT64
          2. NPTv6
        3. IPv6 ACLs
          1. IPv6 ACL Characteristics
          2. Configuring IPv6 ACLs
        4. Securing IPv6 Internet Connectivity
      4. Improving Internet Connectivity Resilience
        1. Drawbacks of a Single-Homed Internet Connectivity
        2. Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity
          1. Dual-Homed Connectivity Options
          2. Configuring Best Path for Dual-Homed Internet Connectivity
        3. Multihomed Internet Connectivity
      5. Summary
      6. References
      7. Review Questions
    20. Chapter 7. BGP Implementation
      1. BGP Terminology, Concepts, and Operation
        1. BGP Use Between Autonomous Systems
        2. Comparison with Other Scalable Routing Protocols
        3. BGP Path Vector Characteristics
        4. BGP Characteristics
        5. BGP Tables
        6. BGP Message Types
          1. Open and Keepalive Messages
          2. Update Messages
          3. Notification Messages
        7. When to Use BGP
        8. When Not to Use BGP
      2. Implementing Basic BGP
        1. BGP Neighbor Relationships
          1. External BGP Neighbors
          2. Internal BGP Neighbors
          3. iBGP on All Routers in a Transit Path
        2. Basic BGP Configuration Requirements
        3. Entering BGP Configuration Mode
        4. Defining BGP Neighbors and Activating BGP Sessions
        5. Basic BGP Configuration and Verification
          1. Configuring and Verifying an eBGP Session
          2. Configuring and Verifying an iBGP Session
          3. Advertising Networks in BGP and Verifying That They Are Propagated
          4. Using the Next-Hop-Self Feature
          5. Understanding and Troubleshooting BGP Neighbor States
          6. BGP Session Resilience
          7. Sourcing BGP from Loopback Address
          8. eBGP Multihop
          9. Resetting BGP Sessions
      3. BGP Attributes and the Path-Selection Process
        1. BGP Path Selection
          1. BGP Path-Selection Process
          2. The Path-Selection Decision Process with a Multihomed Connection
        2. BGP Attributes
          1. Well-Known Attributes
          2. Optional Attributes
          3. Defined BGP Attributes
          4. The AS-Path Attribute
          5. The Next-Hop Attribute
          6. The Origin Attribute
          7. The Local-Preference Attribute
          8. The Community Attribute
          9. The MED Attribute
          10. The Weight Attribute (Cisco Only)
          11. Changing the Weight for All Updates from a Neighbor
          12. Changing the Weight Using Route Maps
        3. Influencing BGP Path Selection
          1. Changing the Weight
          2. Changing Local Preference
          3. Setting the AS-Path
      4. Controlling BGP Routing Updates
        1. Filtering BGP Routing Updates
          1. BGP Filtering Using Prefix Lists
          2. BGP Filtering Using AS-Path Access Lists
          3. BGP Filtering Using Route Maps
          4. Filtering Order
          5. Clearing the BGP Session
        2. BGP Peer Groups
          1. Peer Group Operation
          2. Peer Group Configuration
          3. Peer Group Configuration Example
      5. Implementing BGP for IPv6 Internet Connectivity
        1. MP-BGP Support for IPv6
        2. Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv4 Session
        3. Exchanging IPv6 Routes over an IPv6 Session
        4. BGP for IPv6 Configuration and Verification
          1. Initial State of Routers
          2. Enable eBGP IPv6 Route Exchange
          3. Enable iBGP IPv6 Route Exchange
        5. Comparing IPv4 to Dual (IPv4/IPv6) BGP Transport
        6. BGP Filtering Mechanisms for IPv6
          1. IPv6 Prefix List Filtering
          2. IPv6 Path Selection with BGP Local Preference
      6. Summary
      7. References
      8. Review Questions
    21. Chapter 8. Routers and Routing Protocol Hardening
      1. Securing the Management Plane on Cisco Routers
        1. Securing the Management Plane
        2. Router Security Policy
        3. Encrypted Passwords
          1. Use Strong Passwords
          2. Encrypting Passwords
        4. Authentication, Authorization, Accounting
          1. RADIUS and TACACS+ Overview
          2. Enabling AAA and Local Authentication
          3. Enabling AAA RADIUS Authentication with Local User for Backup
          4. Enabling AAA TACACS+ Authentication with Local User for Backup
          5. Configuring Authorization and Accounting
          6. Limitations of TACACS+ and RADIUS
        5. Use SSH Instead of Telnet
        6. Securing Access to the Infrastructure Using Router ACLs
        7. Implement Unicast Reverse Path Forwarding
          1. uRPF in an Enterprise Network
          2. uRPF Examples
          3. Enabling uRPF
        8. Implement Logging
        9. Implementing Network Time Protocol
          1. NTP Modes
          2. Enabling NTP
          3. Securing NTP
          4. NTP Versions
          5. NTP in IPv6 Environment
          6. Simple NTP
        10. Implementing SNMP
          1. SNMPv3
          2. Enabling SNMPv3
          3. Verifying SNMPv3
        11. Configuration Backups
          1. The archive Command
        12. Using SCP
          1. Enabling SCP on a Router
        13. Disabling Unused Services
        14. Conditional Debugging
          1. Enabling Conditional Debugging
      2. Routing Protocol Authentication Options
        1. The Purpose of Routing Protocol Authentication
          1. Plain-Text Authentication
          2. Hashing Authentication
        2. Time-Based Key Chains
          1. Key Chain Specifics
        3. Authentication Options with Different Routing Protocols
      3. Configuring EIGRP Authentication
        1. EIGRP Authentication Configuration Checklist
        2. Configuring EIGRP Authentication
          1. Configure EIGRP MD5 Authentication Mode
          2. Configure EIGRP Key-Based Routing Authentication
        3. Configuring EIGRP for IPv6 Authentication
          1. Configure EIGRP for IPv6 MD5 Authentication Mode
          2. Configuring Named EIGRP Authentication
      4. Configuring OSPF Authentication
        1. OSPF Authentication
        2. OSPF MD5 Authentication
          1. Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication
          2. Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication on Interfaces
          3. Configure OSPF MD5 Authentication in an Area
        3. OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication
          1. Configuring OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication
          2. Configure OSPFv2 Cryptographic Authentication Example
        4. OSPFv3 Authentication
          1. Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication
          2. Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication on an Interface Example
          3. Configuring OSPFv3 Authentication in an Area Example
      5. Configuring BGP Authentication
        1. BGP Authentication Configuration Checklist
        2. BGP Authentication Configuration
        3. BGP for IPv6 Authentication Configuration
      6. Implementing VRF-Lite
        1. VRF and VRF-Lite
        2. Enabling VRF
      7. Easy Virtual Network
      8. Summary
      9. References
      10. Review Questions
    22. Appendix A. Answers to End of Chapter Review Questions
      1. Chapter 1
      2. Chapter 2
      3. Chapter 3
      4. Chapter 4
      5. Chapter 5
      6. Chapter 6
      7. Chapter 7
      8. Chapter 8
    23. Appendix B. IPv4 Supplement
      1. IPv4 Addresses and Subnetting Job Aid
      2. Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Chart
      3. IPv4 Addressing Review
        1. Converting IP Addresses Between Decimal and Binary
        2. Determining an IP Address Class
        3. Private Addresses
        4. Extending an IP Classful Address Using a Subnet Mask
        5. Calculating a Subnet Mask
        6. Calculating the Networks for a Subnet Mask
        7. Using Prefixes to Represent a Subnet Mask
      4. IPv4 Access Lists
        1. IP Access List Overview
        2. IP Standard Access Lists
          1. Wildcard Masks
          2. Access List Configuration Tasks
          3. IP Standard Access List Configuration
          4. Implicit Wildcard Masks
          5. Configuration Principles
          6. Standard Access List Example
          7. Location of Standard Access Lists
        3. IP Extended Access Lists
          1. Extended Access List Processing
          2. Extended IP Access List Configuration
          3. Extended Access List Examples
          4. Location of Extended Access Lists
          5. Time-Based Access Lists
        4. Restricting Virtual Terminal Access
          1. How to Control vty Access
          2. Virtual Terminal Line Access Configuration
        5. Verifying Access List Configuration
      5. IPv4 Address Planning
        1. Benefits of an Optimized IP Addressing Plan
        2. Scalable Network Addressing Example
        3. Nonscalable Network Addressing
          1. Update Size
          2. Unsummarized Internetwork Topology Changes
          3. Summarized Network Topology Changes
      6. Hierarchical Addressing Using Variable-Length Subnet Masks
        1. Subnet Mask
          1. Use of the Subnet Mask
          2. Subnet Mask Example
        2. Implementing VLSM in a Scalable Network
        3. VLSM Calculation Example
          1. LAN Addresses
          2. Serial Line Addresses
          3. Summary of Addresses Used in the VLSM Example
        4. Another VLSM Example
      7. Route Summarization
        1. Route Summarization Overview
        2. Route Summarization Calculation Example
        3. Summarizing Addresses in a VLSM-Designed Network
        4. Route Summarization Implementation
        5. Route Summarization Operation in Cisco Routers
        6. Route Summarization in IP Routing Protocols
      8. Classless Interdomain Routing
        1. CIDR Example
    24. Appendix C. BGP Supplement
      1. BGP Route Summarization
        1. CIDR and Aggregate Addresses
        2. Network Boundary Summarization
        3. BGP Route Summarization Using the network Command
          1. Cautions When Using the network Command for Summarization
        4. Creating a Summary Address in the BGP Table Using the aggregate-address Command
      2. Redistribution with IGPs
        1. Advertising Networks into BGP
        2. Advertising from BGP into an IGP
          1. ISP: No Redistribution from BGP into IGP Is Required
          2. Non-ISP: Redistribution from BGP into IGP Might Be Required
      3. Communities
        1. Community Attribute
        2. Setting and Sending the Communities Configuration
        3. Using the Communities Configuration
      4. Route Reflectors
        1. Route Reflector Benefits
        2. Route Reflector Terminology
        3. Route Reflector Design
        4. Route Reflector Design Example
        5. Route Reflector Operation
        6. Route Reflector Migration Tips
        7. Route Reflector Configuration
        8. Route Reflector Example
        9. Verifying Route Reflectors
      5. Advertising a Default Route
      6. Not Advertising Private Autonomous System Numbers
    25. Appendix D. Acronyms and Abbreviations
    26. Index
    27. Code Snippets