You are previewing Implantable Sensor Systems for Medical Applications.
O'Reilly logo
Implantable Sensor Systems for Medical Applications

Book Description

Implantable sensor systems offer great potential for enhanced medical care and improved quality of life, consequently leading to major investment in this exciting field. Implantable sensor systems for medical applications provides a wide-ranging overview of the core technologies, key challenges and main issues related to the development and use of these devices in a diverse range of medical applications.

Part one reviews the fundamentals of implantable systems, including materials and material-tissue interfaces, packaging and coatings, microassembly, electrode array design and fabrication, and the use of biofuel cells as sustainable power sources. Part two goes on to consider the challenges associated with implantable systems. Biocompatibility, sterilization considerations and the development of active implantable medical devices in a regulated environment are discussed, along with issues regarding data protection and patient privacy in medical sensor networks. Applications of implantable systems are then discussed in part three, beginning with Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for in-vivo applications before further exploration of tripolar interfaces for neural recording, sensors for motor neuroprostheses, implantable wireless body area networks and retina implants.

With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Implantable sensor systems for medical applications is a comprehensive guide for all those involved in the design, development and application of these life-changing technologies.

  • Provides a wide-ranging overview of the core technologies, key challenges and main issues related to the development and use of implantable sensor systems in a range of medical applications
  • Reviews the fundamentals of implantable systems, including materials and material-tissue interfaces, packaging and coatings, and microassembly
  • Considers the challenges associated with implantable systems, including biocompatibility and sterilization

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials
  7. Foreword
  8. Introduction
  9. Part I: Fundamentals of implantable systems
    1. Chapter 1: Materials for implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Interactions between materials and the biological medium
      4. 1.3 Electrodes
      5. 1.4 Preferred electrode metals, compounds and polymers
      6. 1.5 Leads and interconnects
      7. 1.6 Packaging
      8. 1.7 Surface preparation
      9. 1.8 Conclusions
      10. 1.9 Future trends
      11. 1.10 Sources of further information
      12. 1.11 Acknowledgements
    2. Chapter 2: Material–tissue interfaces in implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Fundamental requirements of material–tissue interfaces
      4. 2.3 Material selection for implantable systems
      5. 2.4 Design considerations and packaging concepts
      6. 2.5 Approaches to reduce reactions at the material–tissue interface
      7. 2.6 Conclusions
      8. 2.7 Future trends
      9. 2.8 Sources of further information
    3. Chapter 3: Packaging and coating materials for implantable devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.1.1 Background
      4. 76 Implantable sensor systems for medical applications 3.1.3 Current packaging and coating strategies
      5. 3.2 Packaging of the passive device surface
      6. 80 Implantable sensor systems for medical applications 3.2.2 Silicone
      7. 3.3 Coating of active device surfaces
      8. 3.4 Coatings and barriers for drug release
      9. 3.5 Enhancement of surface biocompatibility
      10. 3.6 Conclusions
      11. 3.7 Future trends
    4. Chapter 4: Microassembly and micropackaging of implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Components of an implanted sensor system
      4. 4.3 Microassembly
      5. 4.4 Micropackaging
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
      7. 4.6 Future trends
      8. 4.7 Sources of further information
    5. Chapter 5: Electrode array design and fabrication for implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 General requirements for implantable electrode arrays
      4. 5.3 Materials for implantable electrodes
      5. 5.4 The processing of silicone as a substrate material
      6. 5.5 Coating layers for microelectrodes
      7. 5.6 Fabrication of electrodes using platinum
      8. 5.7 Microelectrode arrays – design and fabrication
      9. 5.8 Advantages and disadvantages of existing fabrication processes
      10. 5.9 Risks
      11. 5.10 Conclusions
      12. 5.11 Future trends
      13. 5.12 Sources of further information
    6. Chapter 6: Biofuel cells as sustainable power sources for implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Implantable biofuel cells
      4. 6.3 Design considerations
      5. 6.4 State-of-the-art and practical examples
      6. 6.5 Conclusions and future trends
      7. 6.6 Sources of further information
  10. Part II: Challenges of implantable systems
    1. Chapter 7: Biocompatibility of implantable systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 The nature of the biological milieu
      4. 7.3 The course of events following insertion of an implantable system
      5. 7.4 Interfacial interactions
      6. 7.5 Biological and chemical processes which can affect implantable systems
      7. 7.6 Modelling protein adsorption
      8. 7.7 The immune response
      9. 7.8 Hydrodynamic aspects of biocompatibility
      10. 7.9 Tribological aspects of biocompatibility
      11. 7.10 Corrosion
      12. 7.11 Cell–implant interactions
      13. 7.12 The metrology and evaluation of biocompatibility
      14. 7.13 Conclusions
      15. 7.14 Future trends
      16. 7.15 Sources of further information
    2. Chapter 8: Sterilisation considerations for implantable sensor systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Global markets and the regulatory context
      4. 8.3 Methods for sterilisation of medical devices
      5. 8.4 Sterilisation of implantable sensor systems
      6. 8.5 Conclusions
      7. 8.6 Future trends
      8. 8.7 Sources of further information
    3. Chapter 9: Protection of data confidentiality and patient privacy in medical sensor networks
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Challenges
      4. 9.3 Review of existing methods and their limitations
      5. 9.4 Secure authentication of medical sensing information
      6. 9.5 Performance evaluation of the Securing User Access to Medical Sensing Information (SecMed) method
      7. 9.6 Discussion
      8. 9.7 Conclusions
      9. 9.8 Future trends
      10. 9.9 Sources of further information
    4. Chapter 10: Developing active implantable medical devices in a regulated environment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 The route to market
      4. 10.3 The medical device
  11. Part III: Applications of implantable systems
    1. Chapter 11: Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for in vivo applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction to MEMS
      3. 11.2 Requirements for in vivo MEMS
      4. 11.3 In vivo physiological MEMS sensors
      5. 11.4 In vivo MEMS actuators
      6. 11.5 Biocompatibility
      7. 11.6 Conclusions
      8. 11.7 Future trends
      9. 11.8 Sources of further information
    2. Chapter 12: Tripolar interfaces for neural recording
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 The signal
      4. 12.3 Noise
      5. 12.4 Common-mode interference effects
      6. 12.5 Interference by external potential gradients
      7. 12.6 Models and illustrations
      8. 12.7 Future trends
      9. 12.8 Conclusions
      10. 12.9 Acknowledgements
      11. 12.11 Appendix: list of symbols
    3. Chapter 13: Sensors for motor neuroprostheses
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Unique requirements of motor neuroprostheses
      4. 13.3 Clinical significance of motor neuroprostheses
      5. 13.4 Motor neuroprosthesis sensors
      6. 13.5 Motor neuroprosthesis control algorithms and sensor signal processing
      7. 13.6 Motor neuroprosthesis implantable sensor applications
      8. 13.7 Network topology design of sensor systems for use in motor neuroprostheses
      9. 13.8 Conclusions
      10. 13.9 Future trends
      11. 13.10 Sources of further information
    4. Chapter 14: Implantable wireless body area networks
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction to Implanted Body Area Networks (IBANs)
      3. 14.2 Applications of IBANs
      4. 14.3 Wireless communication into and out of the body
      5. 14.4 Healthy Aims demonstration of IBANs
      6. 14.5 Conclusions
      7. 14.6 Future trends
      8. 14.7 Sources of further information
    5. Chapter 15: Retina implants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Background
      4. 15.3 The eye and the retina
      5. 15.4 Overview and approaches to retina implants
      6. 15.5 Technical implementation
      7. 15.6 Clinical trials
      8. 15.7 Conclusions
      9. 15.8 Future trends
      10. 15.9 Sources of further information
  12. Index