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Impedimetric Biosensors for Medical Applications

Book Description

In this monograph, the authors discuss the current progress in the medical application of impedimetric biosensors, along with the key challenges in the field. First, a general overview of biosensor development, structure and function is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of impedimetric biosensors and the principles of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Next, the current state-of-the art in terms of the science and technology underpinning impedance-based biosensors is reviewed in detail. The layer-by-layer construction of impedimetric sensors is described, including the design of electrodes, their nano-modification, transducer surface functionalization and the attachment of different bioreceptors. The current challenges of translating lab-based biosensor platforms into commercially-available devices that function with real patient samples at the POC are presented; this includes a consideration of systems integration, microfluidics and biosensor regeneration. The final section of this monograph describes case studies of successful impedance-based biosensors for the detection of a range of analytes from small molecules up to whole microorganisms. Finally, the authors put forward future perspectives for the clinical applications of impedimetric biosensors.

Table of Contents

  1. Impedimetric Biosensors for Medical Applications
  2. Series Editors’ Preface
  3. Contents
  4. Abstract
  5. 1. Introduction and scope
  6. 2. Biosensors
    1. 2.1 Brief history of biosensor development
    2. 2.2 Applications of biosensors
    3. 2.3 Biosensor architecture – an overview
    4. 2.4 Biorecognition element
      1. 2.4.1 Enzymes
      2. 2.4.2 Antibodies
      3. 2.4.3 Non-antibody binding proteins
      4. 2.4.4 Nucleic acids
      5. 2.4.5 Others
    5. 2.5 Transducer element
      1. 2.5.1 Optical biosensors
      2. 2.5.2 Piezoelectric biosensors
      3. 2.5.3 Electrochemical biosensors
        1. 2.5.3.1 Amperometric sensors.
        2. 2.5.3.2 Potentiometric sensors.
        3. 2.5.3.3 Impedimetric sensors.
    6. 2.6 Summary
  7. 3. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
    1. 3.1 Brief history of the development of impedimetric biosensors
    2. 3.2 An overview of impedance
    3. 3.3 Principles of impedimetric sensing
    4. 3.4 Presenting and analysing impedance data
  8. 4. Fabrication of impedimetric biosensors
    1. 4.1 Electrode design and materials
      1. 4.1.1 Base electrode materials
      2. 4.1.2 Electrode modifications at the nano-scale
      3. 4.1.3 Electrode manufacture
    2. 4.2 Bioreceptor tethering to transducer surfaces
      1. 4.2.1 Transducer surface functionalisation
        1. 4.2.1.1 Matrix entrapment.
        2. 4.2.1.2 Self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based attachment.
        3. 4.2.1.3 Polymer-based attachment.
      2. 4.2.2 Directed vs undirected orientation of bioreceptors
      3. 4.2.3 Bioreceptor tethering to the transducer surface
        1. 4.2.3.1 Covalent cross-linking.
        2. 4.2.3.2 Biotin-avidin interaction.
      4. 4.2.4 Biosensor surface analysis and optimisation techniques
  9. 5. Commercialising impedimetric biosensors: from laboratory to field
    1. 5.1 Components of a point-of-care diagnostic device
    2. 5.2 From research to point-of-care
      1. 5.2.1 Portability and component integration
      2. 5.2.2 Biosensor performance capability
      3. 5.2.3 Development costs
      4. 5.2.4 Usability
    3. 5.3 Sample delivery & processing
      1. 5.3.1 Guiding principles
      2. 5.3.2 Mini- and micro-fluidic platforms
      3. 5.3.3 Disposable cartridges
    4. 5.4 Sensor regeneration
    5. 5.5 Barriers to commercialisation
  10. 6. Case studies of impedimetric biosensors for medical applications
    1. 6.1 Whole cells and pathogenic microorganisms
      1. 6.1.1 Whole bacterial cells
      2. 6.1.2 Human cells
      3. 6.1.3 Viruses
      4. 6.1.4 Other markers of pathogenic infection
    2. 6.2 Protein and peptide biomarkers of disease
    3. 6.3 Small molecules
  11. 7. Conclusions and future perspectives
  12. Author biographies
  13. References