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Image Processing

Book Description

Advancements in digital technology continue to expand the image science field through the tools and techniques utilized to process two-dimensional images and videos. Image Processing: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications presents a collection of research on this multidisciplinary field and the operation of multi-dimensional signals with systems that range from simple digital circuits to computers. This reference source is essential for researchers, academics, and students in the computer science, computer vision, and electrical engineering fields.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Image Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS IN THE IMAGE?
      4. PREPROCESSING
      5. DETECTION OF RELEVANT FEATURES
      6. ESTIMATION OF POSITIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 2: Orthogonal Image Moment Invariants
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND IN IMAGE MOMENTS
      4. IMAGE MOMENTS
      5. ORTHOGONAL IMAGE MOMENT INVARIANTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 3: Real-Time Primary Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DIVERSITY OF OPERATIONS IN REAL TIME PRIMARY IMAGE PROCESSING
      5. HARDWARE ARCHITECTURES OF PRIMARY IMAGE PROCESSORS
      6. RUNNING SOFTWARE ALGORITHMS FOR REAL TIME IMAGE PROCESSING ON PARALLEL PLATFORMS
      7. A CASE STUDY: LINES DETECTION USING DIRECTIONAL FILTERING
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 4: The Kolmogorov Spline Network for Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE KOLMOGOROV SPLINE NETWORK
      5. KOLMOGOROV SPLINE NETWORK FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION
      6. KOLMOGOROV SPLINE NETWORK FOR PROGRESSIVE IMAGE TRANSMISSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 5: Modeling Visual Saliency in Images and Videos
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPLICATIONS IN MULTIMEDIA
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. RANDOM WALK FOR IMAGE SALIENCY
      6. ATTENTION-FROM-MOTION IN VIDEOS
      7. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 6: A Study of Cloud Computing for Retinal Image Processing through MATLAB
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 7: Certain and Uncertain Triangulation in Multiple Camera Vision Systems via LMIs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NOTATION AND PROBLEM FORMULATION
      4. PROPOSED TECHNIQUE
      5. RESULTS
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 8: Projective Geometry for 3D Modeling of Objects
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NOTATION
      4. SINGLE-VIEW GEOMETRY
      5. THE PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION MATRIX
      6. THE CALIBRATION MATRIX
      7. THE ROTATION TRANSLATION MATRIX
      8. THE ROTATION MATRIX
      9. TWO-VIEW GEOMETRY
      10. RANSAC: RANDOM SAMPLE CONSENSUS
      11. 3D RECONSTRUCTION
      12. 3D LINE RECONSTRUCTION
      13. INACCURACY CORRECTION
      14. CORRECTION ON IMAGE PLANE
      15. CORRECTION IN SPACE
      16. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 9: Multi-View Stereo Reconstruction Technique
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CAMERA CALIBRATION
      4. IMAGE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING
      5. SHAPE FROM SILHOUETTE
      6. MULTI-VIEW STEREO RECONSTRUCTION
      7. BENCHMARK
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 10: Image Focus Measure Based on Energy of High Frequency Components in S-Transform
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FOCUS MEASURE IN S-TRANSFORM
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 11: Object Recognition with a Limited Database Using Shape Space Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. THE SHAPE SPACE THEORY
      5. 4. AUGMENTING DATABASE CONTENT
      6. 5. OBJECT RECOGNITION BASED ON THE SHAPE SPACE THEORY
      7. 6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 12: Salient Region Detection for Biometric Watermarking
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SALIENT REGION BASED WATERMARKING METHODS
      5. CONCLUSION
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 13: Fast and High Capacity Digital Image Watermarking Technique Based on Phase of Zernike Moments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECURSIVE COMPUTATION OF ZERNIKE POLYNOMIALS
      4. WATERMARKING USING PHASE MODIFICATION OF MOMENTS
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 14: Image Processing Applications Based on Texture and Fractal Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATIONS BASED ON TEXTURE AND FRACTAL ANALYSIS
      5. CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING FRACTAL DIMENSION AS TEXTURAL FEATURE
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 15: An Evaluation Framework and a Benchmark for Multi/Hyperspectral Image Compression
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPRESSION APPROACHES
      4. COMPRESSION EVALUATION FRAMEWORK
      5. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
      6. SPEED AND MEMORY CONSUMPTION COMPARISON
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 16: A Hierarchical Multilevel Image Thresholding Method Based on the Maximum Fuzzy Entropy Principle
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A HIERARCHICAL MULTILEVEL IMAGE THRESHOLDING METHOD BASED ON THE MAXIMUM FUZZY ENTROPY PRINCIPLE
      5. APPLICATION IN CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 17: A Novel Fuzzy Rule Guided Intelligent Technique for Gray Image Extraction and Segmentation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SURVEY
      4. PROPOSED WORK
      5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 18: Unsupervised and Supervised Image Segmentation Using Graph Partitioning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IMAGE INTO GRAPH CONVERSION
      4. UNSUPERVISED IMAGE SEGMENTATION USING GRAPH PARTITIONING
      5. SUPERVISED IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON GRAPH PARTITIONING
      6. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 19: Hypergraph Based Visual Segmentation and Retrieval
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. UNSUPERVISED AND SEMI-SUPERVISED LEARNING WITH HYPERGRAPHS
      5. HYPERGRAPH BASED VIDEO OBJECT SEGMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 20: Graph Embedding Using Dissimilarities with Applications in Classification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN GRAPH BASED PATTERN RECOGNITION
      4. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION
      5. REFERENCE SYSTEMS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 21: Graph Matching Techniques for Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GRAPH MATCHING ALGORITHMS
      4. COMPUTER VISION APPLICATIONS USING GRAPH MATCHING
      5. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 22: Implementation and Evaluation of a Computational Model of Attention for Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORIES AND MECHANISMS OF BIOLOGICAL VISUAL ATTENTION
      4. COMPUTATIONAL MODELS OF ATTENTION
      5. A COMPETITIVE YET HIERARCHICAL ATTENTION MODEL
      6. EVALUATION OF THE MODEL
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 23: Artificial Visual Attention Using Combinatorial Pyramids
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE PROPOSED ARTIFICIAL MODEL OF ATTENTION
      5. RECOGNITION STAGE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 24: Methods of 3D Object Shape Acquisition
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. 3D COORDINATES ACQUISITION FROM MULTIPLE VIEWS
      5. 3D COORDINATES ACQUISITION USING LIGHTS AND CAMERAS
      6. 3D RECONSTRUCTION FROM CT/MRI
      7. PROCESSING OF ACQUIRED 3D SURFACES
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 25: Corner Detection Using Fuzzy Principles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FUZZY RULE-BASED SYSTEM
      4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      5. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON
      6. CONCLUSION
    14. Chapter 26: Optical Coherence Tomography Image Interpretation and Image Processing Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. FUTURE TRENDS: FUSION OF OCT WITH ANGIOGRAPHIC DATA
      5. CONCLUSION
  8. Section 3: Frameworks and Methodologies
    1. Chapter 27: ICA as Pattern Recognition Technique for Gesture Identification
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. MATERIALS AND METHODS
      6. RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    2. Chapter 28: Inexpensive, Simple and Quick Photorealistic 3DCG Modeling
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. WORKFLOW OF OBJECT MODELING
      5. COMPARISON BETWEEN ACTUAL DATA AND MEASUREMENT DATA
      6. APPLICATION TO 3-D IRREGULAR OBJECTS
      7. APPLICATION TO FACIAL MODELING
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. APPENDIX
    3. Chapter 29: A Review of Registration Methods on Mobile Robots
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. 2D/3D DATA ACQUISITION
      5. EXPERIMENTATION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 30: Visual Positioning in a Smartphone
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. COMPUTER VISION METHODS
      5. VISUAL POSITIONING ON A SMARTPHONE
      6. CHALLENGES WITH SMARTPHONES
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. Chapter 31: Image Based 3D Modeling and Rendering from Single View Perspective Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. APPROACH FOR BUILDING THE 3D WIREFRAME USING EDGE LENGTH
      4. PROPOSED METHOD TO SIMPLIFY THE VIRTUAL TOURING
      5. THE REGIONS AND NAMING CONVENTIONS OF CUBOID MESH
      6. EXTRACTION AND RECTIFICATION OF REGIONS FROM CUBOID MESH
      7. WIREFRAME OF CUBOID
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 32: Clinical Machine Learning in Action
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CIRCUS: CLINICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR RADIOLOGIC COMPUTATION OF UNITED SOLUTIONS
      5. LONG-TERM EXPERIENCE WITH CADE BASED ON THE CIRCUS SYSTEM
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 33: IVUS Image Processing Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS
      5. COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMATED IVUS SEGMENTATION
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 34: Surgeon Assistive Augmented Reality Model with the use of Endoscopic Camera for Line of Vision Calculation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AUGMENTED REALITY
      4. AUGMENTED REALITY MODEL
      5. GRAPHICAL INTERFACE FOR SEGMENTATION AND 3D MODELING
      6. GRAPHICAL INTERFACE FOR INTRA-OPERATIVE PROCESSES
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 35: Techniques for the Automated Segmentation of Lung in Thoracic Computed Tomography Scans
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE LUNG SEGMENTATION METHOD
      4. MODULE REMOVING FALSE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LUNGS
      5. MODULE HANDLING INCORRECT CONCAVITIES CAUSED BY VESSELS AND AIRWAY
      6. MODULE HANDLING BOWEL
      7. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 36: Image Processing for Localization and Parameterization of the Glandular Ducts of Colon in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. THE PROPOSED AUTOMATIC SOLUTION FOR DUCT EXTRACTION
      5. THE AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR CLASSIFICATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT STAGE OF IBD
      6. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
  9. Section 4: Cases and Applications
    1. Chapter 37: Computational Intelligence Techniques for Pattern Recognition in Biomedical Image Processing Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. AI BASED MR BRAIN IMAGE CLASSIFICATION
      5. CLASSIFIERS
      6. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE WORK
    2. Chapter 38: Color Image Segmentation of Endoscopic and Microscopic Images for Abnormality Detection in Esophagus
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DETECTION OF ABNORMAL REGION IN ENDOSCOPIC IMAGE
      4. CELL NUCLEI SEGMENTATION IN MICROSCOPIC IMAGES OF SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
    3. Chapter 39: Statistical Analysis for Radiologists' Interpretations Variability in Mammograms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SUBJECTS AND METHODS
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 40: Fuzzy Image Segmentation for Mass Detection in Digital Mammography
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MEDICAL IMAGING IN DIGITAL MAMMOGRAPHY
      5. FUZZY IMAGE SEGMENTATION FOR MASS DETECTION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 41: Adaptive Intelligent Systems for Recognition of Cancerous Cervical Cells Based on 2D Cervical Cytological Digital Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED STUDIES
      4. MACHINE LEARNING
      5. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. SIMULATION AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 42: Virtual Forensic Anthropology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VIRTUAL FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY
      4. VIRTUAL FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION
      5. VIRTOPSY
      6. THE VIRTUAL BODY FOR FORENSIC EDUCATION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 43: Computational Intelligence for Pathological Issues in Precision Agriculture
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PREVIOUS RESEARCH WORK
      4. TECHNOLOGIES USED IN THIS CHAPTER
      5. MATLAB OVERVIEW
      6. SYSTEM DESIGN
      7. IMPLEMENTATION
      8. CASE STUDY 1: DISEASED SAMPLE
      9. CASE STUDY 2: HEALTHY SAMPLE
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 44: In-Line Sorting of Processed Fruit Using Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. DESCRIPTION OF THE INSPECTION MACHINE
      5. CASE STUDY 1: POMEGRANATE ARILS
      6. CASE STUDY 2: SATSUMA SEGMENTS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 45: Machine Learning Applications in Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECT DESCRIPTION AND REPRESENTATION IN COMPUTER VISION
      4. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND COMPUTER VISION
      5. TRANSDUCTIVE LEARNING
      6. DISTANCES IN COMPUTER VISION AND DISTANCE METRIC LEARNING
    10. Chapter 46: Study on Image Quality Assessment with Scale Space Approach Using Index of Visual Evoked Potentials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: BASIC KNOWLEDGE OF EACH FIELD
      4. BLUR SCALE PARAMETER WITH SCALE SPACE FILTERING
      5. EXPERIMENT OF PR-VEP WITH BLUR SCALE
      6. GENERAL DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 47: 3D Shape Compression Using Holoimage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. HOLOIMAGE TECHNIQUE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 48: 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Natural Scenes and Objects Using Stereo Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STEREO VISION PARADIGM
      4. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF UNDERWATER NATURAL SCENES AND OBJECTS
      5. 3D RECONSTRUCTION OF UNDERWATER OBJECTS USING STEREO VISION
      6. WAVELET BASED IMAGE DENOISING
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 49: Automated Solar Feature Detection for Space Weather Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OUTLOOK
    14. Chapter 50: Object Recognition via Contour Points Reconstruction Using Hurwitz - Radon Matrices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE METHOD OF HURWITZ - RADON MATRICES
      5. THE METHOD OF HURWITZ - RADON MATRICES
      6. ALGORITHM AND COMPLEXITY OF MHR CALCULATIONS
      7. THE LENGTH ESTIMATION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
    15. Chapter 51: Video Stream Mining for On-Road Traffic Density Analytics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRAFFIC DENSITY ESTIMATION APPROACHES
      5. VIDEO STREAM MINING FOR TRAFFIC DENSITY ESTIMATION
      6. CONCLUSION
  10. Section 5: Issues and Challenges
    1. Chapter 52: Using Line Cameras for Monitoring and Surveillance Sensor Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROFILING DYNAMIC FLOW
      4. SAMPLING LINE SELECTION
      5. LONG-LASTING ROBUST SENSING
      6. SCALABLE LINE SENSOR NETWORK
      7. CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 53: Building a Multiple Object Tracking System with Occlusion Handling in Surveillance Videos
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    3. Chapter 54: Feature Extraction Methods for Intrusion Detection Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD APPLICATIONS
      5. DISCUSSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 55: Security Applications Using Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ARCHITECTURE AND SIMULATION RESULTS
      4. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 56: Facial Image Processing in Computer Vision
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FACIAL FEATURE POINTS DETECTION
      5. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 57: Face Recognition with Active Appearance Model (AAM)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. UNDERSTANDING FACE RECOGNITION PROCESS
      4. CLASSIFIER BASED ON ACTIVE APPEARANCE MODEL
      5. APPLICATIONS AND TOOLS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 58: 3D Face Modeling for Multi-Feature Extraction for Intelligent Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MODELING OBJECTS IN COMPUTER VISION
      5. OVERVIEW OF FACE MODELING
      6. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      7. MULTI-FEATURE EXTRACTION
      8. EXPERIMENTATIONAL EVALUATION
      9. APPLICATIONS
      10. FUTURE WORK
      11. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 59: Computer Vision for Learning to Interact Socially with Humans
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE
      5. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    9. Chapter 60: A Modular Framework for Vision-Based Human Computer Interaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE VIRTUALBOARD FRAMEWORK
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 61: Human-Computer Interaction in Games Using Computer Vision Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CAPTURE AND TRACKING OF A HUMAN
      5. GESTURE RECOGNITION MODELS
      6. MULTIMODAL AGGREGATION
      7. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 62: Learning Robot Vision for Assisted Living
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORKS
      4. METHODS
      5. CASE STUDY
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 63: Advances in Region-of-Interest Video and Image Processing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROI-BASED ERROR-RESILIENCE TECHNIQUES FOR IMAGE/VIDEO TRANSMISSION
      4. REGION OF INTEREST CODING IN H.264/SVC STANDARD
      5. COMPLEXITY AWARE REGION OF INTEREST SCALABLE VIDEO CODING BY PERFORMING PRE-PROCESSING
      6. COMPLEXITY AWARE BIT ALLOCATION FOR THE REGION OF INTEREST SCALABLE VIDEO CODING
      7. MEDIUM GRAINED SCALABILITY AND COARSE GRAIN SCALABILITY COMPRESSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
    2. Chapter 64: Image Compression Technique for Low Bit Rate Transmission
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED TECHNIQUE
      3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. APPENDIX A
    3. Chapter 65: Recent Advances on Graph-Based Image Segmentation Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SUPERVISED IMAGE SEGMENTATION METHODS
      5. UNSUPERVISED IMAGE SEGMENTATION METHODS
      6. OTHER CONCERNS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
    4. Chapter 66: The Roles of Endstopped and Curvature Tuned Computations in a Hierarchical Representation of 2D Shape
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INCLUDING ENDSTOPPING IN THE OBJECT RECOGNITION PATHWAY
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    5. Chapter 67: Large Imagery on Small Screens
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A NOVEL FRAMEWORK FOR DEVICE ADAPTATION BASED ON PROGRESSIVE REFINEMENT
      5. ON-THE-FLY ADAPTATION USING PROGRESSIVE IMAGERY
      6. PROFILE-BASED ADAPTATION USING PROGRESSIVE IMAGERY
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
      9. A TYPICAL USE CASE: CRISIS MANAGEMENT
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 68: Automatic Organ Localization on X-Ray CT Images by Using Ensemble-Learning Techniques
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENSEMBLE-LEARNING-BASED AUTOMATED ORGAN LOCALIZATION IN CT IMAGES
      5. MAJORITY VOTING METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FINAL TARGET LOCATION
      6. PERFORMACE EVALUATION
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
    7. Chapter 69: Adapted Approach for Fruit Disease Identification using Images
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. FRUIT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 70: 3D Visualization of Urban Data Based on CityGML with WebGL
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 3D MODELING AND VISUALIZATION OF URBAN DATA
      4. 3D VISUALIZATION WITH WEBGL
      5. IMPLEMENTATION AND VALIDATION EXERCISE
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
    9. Chapter 71: Image Processing for Solar Cell Analysis, Diagnostics and Quality Assurance Inspection
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MACHINE VISION FOR SOLAR CELL INSPECTION
      5. SURFACE ROUGHNESS
      6. SURFACE ASSESSMENT BY INTERFEROMIC IMAGING
      7. IMAGE PROCESSING FOR GRAIN STRUCTURE ANALYSIS
      8. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF COATING UNIFORMITY
      9. FEATURE RECOGNITION
      10. IMAGING METHODS SPECIFIC TO SEMICONDUCTORS AND THE PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT
      11. THERMOGRAPHIC IMAGING OF SOLAR CELLS
      12. CONCLUSION
    10. Chapter 72: Visual Behavior Based Bio-Inspired Polarization Techniques in Computer Vision and Robotics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POLARIZATION BASED VISUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE ANIMAL KINGDOM
      4. POLARIZATION-INSPIRED MACHINE VISION APPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
    11. Chapter 73: Object Analysis with Visual Sensors and RFID
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OBJECT ANALYSIS USING RFID
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
    12. Chapter 74: From Face to Facial Expression
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FACIAL EXPRESSION REPRESENTATION
      4. FACIAL FEATURES EXTRACTION: SHORT OVERVIEW
      5. STATE OF THE ART OF FACIAL EXPRESSION CLASSIFICATION: ADVANCES AND CHALLENGES
      6. VISUAL PERCEPTION FOR FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION
      7. DESCRIPTION OF ONE CONTRIBUTION
      8. CONCLUSION
    13. Chapter 75: Replicating the Role of the Human Retina for a Cortical Visual Neuroprosthesis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VISUAL NEUROPROSTHETICS
      4. BIO-INSPIRED RETINAL PROCESSING
      5. ADDITIONAL TOOLS FOR BIO-INSPIRED VISUAL IMPLANTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT