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Illustrated Guide to Home Forensic Science Experiments

Book Description

The Illustrated Guide to Home Forensic Science Experiments offers advice for setting up an inexpensive lab at home, and includes more than 50 lab sessions that deal with forensic science experiments in chemistry, biology, physics, and medicine, hands-on. You'll learn the practical skills and fundamental knowledge needed to pursue forensics as a lifelong hobby—or even a career.

Table of Contents

  1. Diy Science: Illustrated Guide to Home Forensic Science Experiments: All Lab, No Lecture
  2. Dedication
  3. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  4. Preface
    1. Who this Book is For
    2. How this Book is Organized
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. How to Contact Us
    5. Thank You
    6. Author Bios
  5. 1. Laboratory Safety
  6. 2. Equipping Your Forensics Laboratory
    1. Optical Equipment
      1. Imaging Equipment
        1. Camera (Optional)
      2. Scanner (Optional)
        1. Magnifier (Required)
      3. Microscope (Required)
        1. Microscope Accessories
        2. Photomicrography Equipment (Optional)
        3. Spectrometer (Optional)
        4. Ultraviolet Light Source (Optional)
    2. Laboratory Equipment
    3. Chemicals and Reagents
    4. Specimens
  7. I. Soil Analysis
    1. 3. Lab I-1 Gather and Prepare Soil Samples
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure I-1-1: Gather Soil Specimens
      4. Procedure I-1-2: Dry Soil Specimens
      5. Review Questions
    2. 4. Lab I-2 Examine the Physical Characteristics of Soil
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure I-2-1: Observe and Categorize Soil Color
      4. Procedure I-2-2: Determine Soil Density
      5. Procedure I-2-3: Determine Soil Settling Time
      6. Procedure I-2-4: Determine Soil Particle Size Distribution
      7. Review Questions
    3. 5. Lab I-3 Examine the Microscopic Characteristics of Soil
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure I-3-1: Examine Soil Specimens Under Magnification
      4. Review Questions
    4. 6. Lab I-4 Assay Phosphate Concentrations in Soil Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure I-4-1: Extract Soil Specimens
      4. Procedure I-4-2: Assay Soil Phosphate Concentrations
      5. Review Questions
    5. 7. Lab I-5 Examine the Spectroscopic Characteristics of Soil
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure I-5-1: Extract Ion Species from Soil Specimens
      4. Procedure I-5-2: Test Soil Specimen Extracts with the Spectrometer
      5. Procedure I-5-3: Identify Ions Present in Exemplar
      6. Review Questions
  8. II. Hair and Fiber Analysis
    1. 8. Lab II-1 Gathering Hair Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-1-1: Obtain Hair Specimens with Forceps
      4. Procedure II-1-2: Obtain Hair Specimens with Lift Tape
      5. Review Questions
    2. 9. Lab II-2 Study the Morphology of Human Scalp Hair
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-2-1: Macroscopic Examination of Human Scalp Hair
      4. Procedure II-2-2: Wet-Mount Hair Specimens
      5. Procedure II-2-3: Microscopic Examination of Human Scalp Hair
      6. Review Questions
    3. 10. Lab II-3 Make Scale Casts of Hair Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-3-1: Make and Observe Scale Casts of Human Hair
      4. Review Questions
    4. 11. Lab II-4 Study the Morphology of Animal Hair
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-4-1: Observe Animal Hair
      4. Review Question
    5. 12. Lab II-5 Individualize Human Hair Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-5-1: Obtain Hair Specimens
      4. Procedure II-5-2: Observe and Characterize Hair Specimens
      5. Review Questions
    6. 13. Lab II-6 Physical and Chemical Tests of Fibers
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-6-1: Test Fiber Specimens by Burning
      4. Procedure II-6-2: Test Fiber Specimens by Solubility
      5. Procedure II-6-3: Test Fiber Specimens by Dye Stripping
      6. Procedure II-6-4: Test Fiber Specimens by Dyeing
      7. Review Questions
    7. 14. Lab II-7 Study the Morphology of Fibers and Fabrics
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure II-7-1: Macroscopic Examination of Fabrics
      4. Procedure II-7-2: Microscopic Examination of Fibers and Fabrics
      5. Procedure II-7-3: Cross-Sectional Examination of Fiber Specimens
      6. Procedure II-7-4: Determine the Refractive Index of Fibers with RI Matching Liquids
      7. Procedure II-7-5: Examining Fibers by Polarized Light
      8. Review Questions
  9. III. Glass and Plastic Analysis
    1. 15. Lab III-1 Determine Densities of Glass and Plastic Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure III-1-1: Determine Density by Displacement
      4. Procedure III-1-2: Determine Density by Flotation
      5. Review Questions
    2. 16. Lab III-2 Compare Refractive Indices of Glass and Plastic Specimens
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure III-2-1: Compare RI of Questioned and Known Specimens
      4. Review Question
    3. 17. Lab III-3 Observe Shatter Patterns
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure III-3-1: Produce Glass Shards
      4. Procedure III-3-2: Observe and Compare Glass Shards
      5. Review Questions
  10. IV. Revealing Latent Fingerprints
    1. 18. Lab IV-1 Dusting and Lifting Latent Fingerprints
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-1-1: Dusting Latent Fingerprints
      4. Procedure IV-1-2: Lifting Developed Fingerprints
      5. Review Questions
    2. 19. Lab IV-2 Revealing Latent Fingerprints Using Iodine Fuming
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-2-1: Fuming Latent Fingerprints with Iodine
      4. Review Questions
    3. 20. Lab IV-3 Revealing Latent Fingerprints Using Ninhydrin
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-3-1: Developing Latent Fingerprints with Ninhydrin
      4. Procedure IV-3-2: Ninhydrin After-Treatments
      5. Review Questions
    4. 21. Lab IV-4 Revealing Latent Fingerprints Using Superglue Fuming
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-4-1: Preparing for Superglue Fuming
      4. Procedure IV-4-2: Fuming Latent Fingerprints with Superglue
      5. Procedure IV-4-3: Dusting and Lifting Superglue-fumed Fingerprints
      6. Review Questions
    5. 22. Lab IV-5 Revealing Latent Fingerprints On Sticky Surfaces
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-5-1: Preparing Specimens for Gentian Violet Development
      4. Procedure IV-5-2: Developing Specimens with Gentian Violet
      5. Review Questions
    6. 23. Lab IV-6 Revealing Latent Fingerprints On Brass Cartridge Cases
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IV-6-1: Treat Specimens with Acidified Hydrogen Peroxide
      4. Review Question
  11. V. Detecting Blood
    1. 24. Lab V-1 Testing the Sensitivity and Selectivity of Kastle-Meyer Reagent
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure V-1-1: Prepare Known Dilutions of Blood
      4. Procedure V-1-2: Spot Known Dilutions of Blood
      5. Procedure V-1-3: Test Sensitivity of Kastle-Meyer Reagent
      6. Procedure V-1-4: Test Selectivity of Kastle-Meyer Reagent
      7. Procedure V-1-5: Field Testing with Kastle-Meyer Reagent
      8. Review Questions
  12. VI. Impression Analysis
    1. 25. Lab VI-1 Tool Mark Analysis
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VI-1-1: Produce and Compare Compression Specimens
      4. Procedure VI-1-2: Produce and Compare Scoring Specimens
      5. Review Questions
    2. 26. Lab VI-2 Matching Images to Cameras
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VI-2-1: Matching Films to Cameras
      4. Procedure VI-2-1: Forensic Examination of Digital Image Files
      5. Review Questions
    3. 27. Lab VI-3 Perforation and Tear Analysis
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VI-3-1: Produce and Examine Tape Specimens
      4. Review Question
  13. VII. Forensic Drug Testing
    1. 28. Lab VII-1 Presumptive Drug Testing
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VII-1-1: Testing Specimens Against Presumptive Reagents
      4. Procedure VII-1-2: Verifying Test Results
      5. Review Questions
    2. 29. Lab VII-2 Detect Cocaine and Methamphetamine on Paper Currency
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VII-2-1: Testing a Control Specimen
      4. Procedure VII-2-2: Testing Currency for Cocaine
      5. Procedure VII-2-3: Testing Currency for Methamphetamine
      6. Review Questions
    3. 30. Lab VII-3 Analysis of Drugs by Chromatography
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VII-3-1: Prepare Chromatography Jars and Strips
      4. Procedure VII-3-2: Prepare Solutions of Known and Questioned Specimens
      5. Procedure VII-3-3: Spot and Develop the Chromatograms
      6. Procedure VII-3-4: Visualize the Chromatograms
      7. Review Questions
    4. 31. Lab VII-4 Observation of Drug Microcrystalline Structures and Precipitation Reactions
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VII-4-1: Preparing Solutions of Known and Questioned Specimens
      4. Procedure VII-4-2: Observing Microcrystalline Structures
      5. Procedure VII-4-3: Analysis of Drugs by Precipitation
      6. Review Questions
    5. 32. Lab VII-5 Assay Vitamin C in Urine by Iodometric Titration
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VII-5-1: Prepare a Standard Vitamin C Solution
      4. Procedure VII-5-2: Titrate the Standard Vitamin C Solution
      5. Procedure VII-5-3: Titrate the Questioned Urine Specimen
      6. Review Questions
  14. VIII. Forensic Toxicology
    1. 33. Lab VIII-1 Salicylate Determination by Visual Colorimetry
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VIII-1-1: Prepare an Array of Salicylate Concentrations
      4. Procedure VIII-1-2: Test the Reagent
      5. Procedure VIII-1-3: Test the Questioned Specimen(S)
      6. Review Questions
    2. 34. Lab VIII-2 Detect Alkaloid Poisons with Dragendorff’s Reagent
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure VIII-2-1: Prepare Questioned Alkaloid Specimens
      4. Procedure VIII-2-2: Test Specimens for the Presence of Alkaloids
      5. Procedure VIII-2-3: Analyze Alkaloids Using Paper Chromatography
      6. Review Questions
  15. IX. Gunshot and Explosive Residues Analysis
    1. 35. Lab IX-1 Presumptive Color Tests for Gunshot Residue
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IX-1-1: Produce Gunshot Residue (GSR) Specimens
        1. Producing Simulated GSR Specimens
      4. Procedure IX-1-2: Make up Modified Griess Reagent Test Paper
      5. Procedure IX-1-3: Test for Nitrite Residue in GSR Specimens
      6. Procedure IX-1-4: Test White GSR Specimens for Lead Residue
      7. Procedure IX-1-5: Test Colored or Patterned GSR Specimens for Lead Residue
      8. Review Questions
    2. 36. Lab IX-2 Presumptive Color Tests for Explosives Residues
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure IX-2-1: Test Known Specimens
      4. Procedure IX-2-2: Extract Explosives Residues
      5. Procedure IX-2-3: Test Swabs for Explosives Residues
      6. Review Questions
  16. X. Detecting Altered and Forged Documents
    1. 37. Lab X-1 Revealing Alterations in Documents
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure X-1-1: Test Ink Solvents
      4. Procedure X-1-2: Produce Questioned Document Specimens
      5. Procedure X-1-3: Examine Questioned Documents by Visible and Ultraviolet Light
      6. Procedure X-1-4: Examine Questioned Documents Microscopically
      7. Procedure X-1-5: Examine Questioned Documents by Iodine Fuming
      8. Procedure X-1-6: Examine Questioned Documents by Chemical Treatment
      9. Review Questions
    2. 38. Lab X-2 Analysis of Inks by Chromatography
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure X-1-1: Prepare Chromatography Jars
      4. Procedure X-1-2: Prepare the Questioned Ink Specimen
      5. Procedure X-1-3: Prepare and Spot Chromatograms
      6. Procedure X-1-4: Develop Chromatograms
      7. Review Questions
    3. 39. Lab X-3 Forensic Analysis of Paper
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure X-3-1: Examine Paper Specimens Visually
      4. Procedure X-3-2: Examine Paper Specimens Microscopically
      5. Procedure X-3-3: Examine Paper Specimens by Differential Staining
      6. Review Questions
  17. XI. Forensic Biology
    1. 40. Lab XI-1 Pollen Analysis
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure XI-1-1: Examining Known and Questioned Pollen Grains
      4. Review Questions
    2. 41. Lab XI-2 Diatom Analysis
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure XI-2-1: Digest Diatom Specimens
      4. Procedure XI-2-2: Mount and Observe Diatoms
      5. Review Questions
    3. 42. Lab XI-3 Extract, Isolate, and Visualize DNA
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure XI-3-1: Extract DNA
      4. Procedure XI-3-2: Isolate DNA
      5. Procedure XI-3-1: Visualize DNA
      6. Review Questions
    4. 43. Lab XI-4 DNA Analysis by Gel Electrophoresis
      1. Equipment and Materials
        1. Materials from Kit
        2. Materials you Provide
      2. Background
      3. Procedure XI-3-1: Build a Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus
      4. Procedure XI-3-2: Prepare DNA Specimens
      5. Procedure XI-3-3: Prepare and Cast Gel(s)
      6. Procedure XI-3-4: Load and Run the DNA Specimens
      7. Procedure XI-3-5: Stain and Visualize the Gel(s)
      8. Review Questions
  18. Index
  19. About the Authors
  20. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  21. Copyright