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Idealized Design: Creating an Organization’s Future

Book Description

What's the best way to drive fundamental, transformative change within your organization? Envision your ideal solution: then, work backwards to where you are. It's called idealized design, and -- as executives in hundreds of organizations will testify -- it's one of the most powerful techniques you'll ever use. Authored by its legendary creator, Wharton Professor Emeritus Russell Ackoff, and leading practitioner Jason Magidson, Idealized Design covers every facet of this breakthrough methodology. You'll learn the fundamental differences between idealized design and traditional process re-engineering, and understand how idealized design eliminates many conventional obstacles to change. Start-to-finish techniques and examples drawn from hundreds of companies, non-profits, and government organizations will show you how to use idealized design to solve your own crisis of tomorrow...today.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. About the Authors
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. About the Authors and the “Authors’ Voice”
  6. Introduction: The Birth of an Idea
    1. The Plan of the Book
    2. A Surprising Ingredient
    3. Using This Book
  7. I. Idealized Design: The Basics
    1. 1. The Stages of Idealized Design
      1. The Evolution of Idealized Design
      2. The Process of Idealized Design
        1. Idealization
          1. 1. Formulating the Mess
          2. 2. Ends Planning
        2. Realization
          1. 3. Means Planning
          2. 4. Resource Planning
          3. 5. Design of Implementation
          4. 6. Design of Controls
      3. Constraints and Requirement
      4. Anticipating the Future
      5. Effects of Idealized Design
        1. Promotes Understanding
        2. Transforms Designers’ Concept of Feasibility
        3. Simplifies the Planning Process
        4. Enhances Creativity
        5. Facilitates Implementation
      6. Idealized Design at General Motors
        1. Idealization
          1. 1. Formulate the Mess
          2. 2. Ends Planning
        2. Realization
          1. 3. Means Planning
          2. 4. Resource Planning
          3. 5. Design of Implementation
          4. 6. Design of Controls
        3. The Outcome
      7. Summary
    2. 2. Organizing the Process
      1. Who Should Be Involved?
      2. Frequency and Duration of Design Sessions
      3. Facilitators
      4. Recording the Sessions
      5. Procedural Rules
      6. Constrained and Unconstrained Designs
      7. Consensus Design
      8. Conference Facilities and Equipment
      9. Summary
    3. 3. Preparing for an Idealized Design Process
      1. Formulating the Mess
        1. The Mess-Formulating Team
        2. Presentation of the Mess
      2. Preparing a Mission Statement
      3. Specifying the Properties Desired in the Design
      4. Summary
  8. II. Idealized Design: Applications—The Process in Action
    1. 4. Business Enterprises
      1. Common Content of Designs
      2. Repetitive Design Features
        1. The Internal Political System
        2. The Internal Economy
        3. Organizational Structure
        4. Organizational Learning and Adaptation
      3. A Supermarket Chain at the Crossroads
        1. Effects of the Super Fresh Design
      4. Summary
    2. 5. Not-for-Profit and Government Organizations
      1. An Opera School Reinvents Itself
        1. Attracting the Best Students
        2. Expanding and Improving the Facility
        3. Increasing the Number and Quality of Performances
        4. Raising Money
      2. Visiting Nurses Face a Financial Crisis
      3. Reorganizing Communications in the White House
      4. Summary
    3. 6. Process Improvement
      1. Internal Markets Transform Internal Monopolies
      2. Opening a Company’s Computing Services to Competition
      3. Solving the Perennial Problem of Transfer Pricing
      4. Transforming a Procurement Process
      5. Facilitating a Joint Venture
      6. Summary
    4. 7. Problem Dissolving
      1. The Four Ways of Treating Problems
      2. Ending Labor Violence on City Buses
      3. Improving Productivity at Coated Papers
      4. Preserving an Organization That Preserves Life
      5. Issuing Licenses in Mexico City
      6. Summary
    5. 8. Facilities and Sites Design
      1. Improving Sales by Improving the Layout of a Store
      2. Improving the Quality of Air Travel
        1. General Objectives
        2. Entering the Plane
        3. Getting Seated
        4. In the Air
        5. Onboard Lobby and Bar
      3. Summary
    6. 9. Take the Plunge
      1. Overcoming Today’s Crisis
      2. Making a Good Organization Better
      3. Making Work More Satisfying
      4. Overcoming Obstacles to Idealized Design
        1. Psychological Obstacles
        2. Procedural Obstacles
        3. Overcoming Psychological Obstacles
        4. Overcoming Procedural Obstacles
      5. Summary
  9. III. Idealized Design: No Limit—Applications to World Challenges
    1. 10. The Urban Challenge: An Urban Car A Redesign of Paris and Beyond
      1. An Urban Automobile
      2. A Redesign of Paris and Beyond
    2. 11. The Health-Care Challenge: A National Health-Care System A Health-Care Mall
      1. A National Health-Care System
        1. The Design
        2. The Effects of the Design
        3. An Application
      2. A Health-Care Mall
    3. 12. The Challenges to Government: A National Elections System A New United Nations A Response to Terrorism
      1. A National Election System
        1. Ballots
        2. The Obligation to Vote
        3. Political Parties
        4. Platforms
        5. Campaigns
        6. Terms of Office
      2. A New United Nations
        1. Introduction
        2. Desirable Properties of a New United Nations
        3. Governance of the Union
        4. Getting into the Union
        5. Separation from the Union
        6. Conditions of Continued Membership
        7. Services Provided by the Union
        8. The Rights of Member States
      3. A Response to Terrorism
        1. Resources
        2. Development
        3. Democracy
        4. Corruption
        5. Monitoring
        6. Collaborative Development Reduces Terrorism
  10. IV. Complete Idealized Designs
    1. 13. Energetics (Business Enterprise)
      1. Introduction
      2. The Internal Economy
      3. Organizational Structure
      4. Organizational Learning and Adaptation
      5. Human Resources Development
        1. Expectations
        2. Feedback on Performance
        3. Compensation and Benefits
        4. Recruiting and Hiring
        5. Job Postings
        6. Termination, Resignation, and Retirement
        7. Personnel Policies Audit
        8. Communications
        9. Community Relations
        10. Facilities and Equipment
    2. 14. Academy of Vocal Arts (Not-for-Profit)
      1. Introduction
      2. The Organization Involved
      3. The Planning Process
      4. The Application
      5. What Has Been Done
      6. Results
      7. Impact Assessment
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
    3. 15. White House Communications Agency (Government)
      1. Introduction
      2. Meet WHCA
      3. Setting the Stage
      4. Enter the Change Agent
      5. Understanding the Culture
      6. Key Cultural Influences
      7. Getting Started
      8. Changing the System
      9. Organizational Redesign
      10. Board Structure and Participation
      11. Results
      12. Other Changes
      13. Managing Fear
      14. Role of Leader
      15. Holding the Gains
      16. Further Study
        1. Organizational Design
        2. Organizational Psychology
      17. Note
      18. References
  11. Endnotes
    1. Chapter 4
    2. Chapter 5
    3. Chapter 10
    4. Chapter 11
    5. Chapter 12
    6. Chapter 14
  12. Annotated Bibliography