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IBM z/OS V2R1 Communications Server TCP/IP Implementation Volume 1: Base Functions, Connectivity, and Routing

Book Description

For more than 40 years, IBM® mainframes have supported an extraordinary portion of the world's computing work, providing centralized corporate databases and mission-critical enterprise-wide applications. IBM System z®, the latest generation of the IBM distinguished family of mainframe systems, has come a long way from its IBM System/360 heritage. Likewise, its IBM z/OS® operating system is far superior to its predecessors in providing, among many other capabilities, world-class, state-of-the-art support for the TCP/IP Internet protocol suite.

TCP/IP is a large and evolving collection of communication protocols managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an open, volunteer organization. Because of its openness, the TCP/IP protocol suite has become the foundation for the set of technologies that form the basis of the Internet. The convergence of IBM mainframe capabilities with Internet technology, connectivity, and standards (particularly TCP/IP) is dramatically changing the face of information technology and driving requirements for even more secure, scalable, and highly available mainframe TCP/IP implementations.

The IBM z/OS Communications Server TCP/IP Implementation series provides understandable, step-by-step guidance for enabling the most commonly used and important functions of z/OS Communications Server TCP/IP.

This IBM Redbooks® publication is for people who install and support z/OS Communications Server. It introduces z/OS Communications Server TCP/IP, describes the system resolver, showing implementation of global and local settings for single and multi-stack environments. It presents implementation scenarios for TCP/IP base functions, connectivity, routing, virtual MAC support, and sysplex subplexing.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Notices
    1. Trademarks
  3. Preface
    1. Authors
    2. Now you can become a published author, too!
    3. Comments welcome
    4. Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  4. Chapter 1. Introduction to Communications Server for z/OS IP
    1. 1.1 Overview and basic concepts
    2. 1.2 Featured functions
    3. 1.3 Communications Server for z/OS IP implementation
      1. 1.3.1 Functional overview
      2. 1.3.2 Operating environment
      3. 1.3.3 Reusable address space ID
      4. 1.3.4 Protocols and devices
      5. 1.3.5 Supported routing applications
      6. 1.3.6 Application programming interfaces
      7. 1.3.7 z/OS Communications Server applications
      8. 1.3.8 UNIX System Services
    4. 1.4 Additional information
  5. Chapter 2. The resolver
    1. 2.1 Basic concepts of the resolver
    2. 2.2 The resolver address space
      1. 2.2.1 The resolver SETUP data set
      2. 2.2.2 The resolver configuration file
      3. 2.2.3 Local hosts file
      4. 2.2.4 Resolver DNS cache
      5. 2.2.5 Unresponsive DNS name servers
      6. 2.2.6 Affinity servers and generic servers
      7. 2.2.7 Resolving an IPv6 address
      8. 2.2.8 Resolver support for EDNS0
      9. 2.2.9 Considerations
    3. 2.3 Implementing the resolver
      1. 2.3.1 Implementation tasks
      2. 2.3.2 Activation and verification
    4. 2.4 Problem determination
      1. 2.4.1 Deciding which tool to use to diagnose a resolver problem
      2. 2.4.2 Trace Resolver
      3. 2.4.3 CTRACE: RESOLVER (SYSTCPRE)
    5. 2.5 Additional information
  6. Chapter 3. Base functions
    1. 3.1 The base functions
    2. 3.2 Common design scenarios for base functions
      1. 3.2.1 Single stack environment
      2. 3.2.2 Multiple stack environment
      3. 3.2.3 Suggestion of one TCP/IP stack per LPAR
      4. 3.2.4 Suggestions for MTU
    3. 3.3 z/OS UNIX System Services setup for TCP/IP
      1. 3.3.1 RACF actions for UNIX
      2. 3.3.2 APF authorization
      3. 3.3.3 Changes to SYS1.PARMLIB members
      4. 3.3.4 Changes to SYS1.PROCLIB members
      5. 3.3.5 Additional z/OS customization for z/OS UNIX
      6. 3.3.6 TCP/IP server functions
      7. 3.3.7 TCP/IP client functions
      8. 3.3.8 UNIX client functions
      9. 3.3.9 Verification checklist
    4. 3.4 Configuring z/OS TCP/IP
      1. 3.4.1 TCP/IP configuration data set names
      2. 3.4.2 PROFILE.TCPIP
      3. 3.4.3 PROFILE.TCPIP SYNTAXCHECK command
      4. 3.4.4 VTAM Resource
      5. 3.4.5 TCPIP.DATA
      6. 3.4.6 Configuring the local hosts file
    5. 3.5 Implementing the TCP/IP stack
      1. 3.5.1 Create TCPIP.DATA file
      2. 3.5.2 Create the PROFILE.TCPIP file
      3. 3.5.3 Check BPXPRMxx
      4. 3.5.4 Create TCP/IP cataloged procedure
      5. 3.5.5 Add RACF definitions
      6. 3.5.6 Create a VTAM TRL major node for MPCIPA OSA
    6. 3.6 Activating the TCP/IP stack
      1. 3.6.1 UNIX System Services verification
      2. 3.6.2 Verifying TCP/IP configuration
    7. 3.7 Reconfiguring the system with z/OS commands
      1. 3.7.1 Deleting a device and adding or changing a device
      2. 3.7.2 Modifying a device
    8. 3.8 Job log versus syslog as diagnosis tool
    9. 3.9 Message types: Where to find them
    10. 3.10 Additional information
  7. Chapter 4. Connectivity
    1. 4.1 What is connectivity
    2. 4.2 Suggested interfaces
      1. 4.2.1 High-bandwidth and high-speed networking technologies
      2. 4.2.2 OSA-Express (MPCIPA)
      3. 4.2.3 OSA-Express for zEnterprise (z196 and z114)
      4. 4.2.4 HiperSockets (MPCIPA)
      5. 4.2.5 Dynamic XCF
    3. 4.3 Connectivity for the z/OS environment
      1. 4.3.1 IOCP definitions
      2. 4.3.2 VTAM definitions
    4. 4.4 OSA-Express QDIO connectivity
      1. 4.4.1 Dependencies: CHPID, IOCDS, port numbers, portnames, and port sharing
      2. 4.4.2 Considerations for isolating traffic across a shared OSA port
      3. 4.4.3 Configuring OSA-Express with VLAN ID
      4. 4.4.4 Verifying the connectivity status
    5. 4.5 OSA-Express QDIO connectivity with connection isolation
      1. 4.5.1 Description of connection isolation
      2. 4.5.2 Dependencies for connection isolation
      3. 4.5.3 Considerations for connection isolation
      4. 4.5.4 Configuring OSA-Express with connection isolation
      5. 4.5.5 Verifying connection isolation on OSA2080X
      6. 4.5.6 Conclusions and suggestions: Best practices for isolating traffic
    6. 4.6 HiperSockets connectivity
      1. 4.6.1 Dependencies
      2. 4.6.2 Considerations
      3. 4.6.3 Configuring HiperSockets
      4. 4.6.4 Verifying the connectivity status
    7. 4.7 Dynamic XCF connectivity
      1. 4.7.1 Dependencies
      2. 4.7.2 Considerations
      3. 4.7.3 Configuring DYNAMICXCF
      4. 4.7.4 Verifying connectivity status
    8. 4.8 Controlling and activating devices
      1. 4.8.1 Starting a device
      2. 4.8.2 Stopping a device
      3. 4.8.3 Activating modified device definitions
    9. 4.9 Problem determination
    10. 4.10 Additional information
  8. Chapter 5. Routing
    1. 5.1 Basic concepts
      1. 5.1.1 Terminology
      2. 5.1.2 Direct routes, indirect routes, and default route
      3. 5.1.3 Route selection
      4. 5.1.4 Static routing and dynamic routing
      5. 5.1.5 Choosing the routing method
    2. 5.2 Routing in the z/OS environment
      1. 5.2.1 Static routing
      2. 5.2.2 Dynamic routing using OMPROUTE
      3. 5.2.3 Policy-based routing
    3. 5.3 Dynamic routing protocols
      1. 5.3.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
      2. 5.3.2 Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
      3. 5.3.3 IPv6 dynamic routing
    4. 5.4 Implementing static routing in z/OS
      1. 5.4.1 Dependencies
      2. 5.4.2 Considerations
      3. 5.4.3 Implementation tasks
      4. 5.4.4 Activation and verification
    5. 5.5 Implementing OSPF routing in z/OS with OMPROUTE
      1. 5.5.1 Dependencies
      2. 5.5.2 Considerations
      3. 5.5.3 Suggestions
      4. 5.5.4 Implementation tasks
      5. 5.5.5 Configure routers
      6. 5.5.6 Activation and verification
      7. 5.5.7 Managing OMPROUTE
    6. 5.6 Problem determination
      1. 5.6.1 Commands to diagnose networking connectivity problems
      2. 5.6.2 Diagnosing an OMPROUTE problem
    7. 5.7 Additional information
  9. Chapter 6. VLAN and virtual MAC support
    1. 6.1 Virtual MAC overview
      1. 6.1.1 Why use virtual MACs
      2. 6.1.2 Virtual MAC concept
      3. 6.1.3 Virtual MAC address assignment
    2. 6.2 Virtual MAC implementation
      1. 6.2.1 IP routing when using VMAC
      2. 6.2.2 Verification
    3. 6.3 Virtual LAN overview
      1. 6.3.1 Types of ports
      2. 6.3.2 Types of connections
    4. 6.4 VLAN implementation on z/OS
      1. 6.4.1 Single VLAN per OSA
      2. 6.4.2 Multiple VLAN support
      3. 6.4.3 Multiple VLANs configuration guidelines
      4. 6.4.4 Verification
    5. 6.5 Additional information
  10. Chapter 7. Sysplex subplexing
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Subplex environment
    3. 7.3 Load Balancing Advisor and subplexing
    4. 7.4 Subplex implementation
      1. 7.4.1 XCF group names
      2. 7.4.2 TCP/IP structures
      3. 7.4.3 Subplex 11: Internal subplex
      4. 7.4.4 Subplex 22: External subplex
      5. 7.4.5 Access verifications
      6. 7.4.6 LBA connected to a subplex
    5. 7.5 Additional information
  11. Chapter 8. Diagnosis
    1. 8.1 Debugging a problem in a z/OS TCP/IP environment
      1. 8.1.1 Categorizing the problem
      2. 8.1.2 An approach to problem analysis
    2. 8.2 Logs to diagnose Communications Server for z/OS IP problems
    3. 8.3 Sysplex Autonomics function
    4. 8.4 Useful commands to diagnose Communications Server for z/OS IP problems
      1. 8.4.1 The ping command (TSO or z/OS UNIX)
      2. 8.4.2 traceroute command
      3. 8.4.3 The netstat command (console, TSO, or z/OS UNIX)
      4. 8.4.4 NETSTAT Catalog validation
      5. 8.4.5 Timestamp validation for NETSTAT catalogs
    5. 8.5 Gathering traces in Communications Server for z/OS IP
      1. 8.5.1 Taking a component trace
      2. 8.5.2 Event trace for TCP/IP stacks (SYSTCPIP)
      3. 8.5.3 Packet trace (SYSTCPDA)
      4. 8.5.4 OMPROUTE trace (SYSTCPRT)
      5. 8.5.5 Resolver trace (SYSTCPRE)
      6. 8.5.6 IKE daemon trace (SYSTCPIK)
      7. 8.5.7 Intrusion detection services trace (SYSTCPIS)
      8. 8.5.8 OSAENTA trace (SYSTCPOT)
      9. 8.5.9 Queued Direct I/O Diagnostic Synchronization
      10. 8.5.10 Network security services server trace (SYSTCPNS)
      11. 8.5.11 Obtaining component trace data with a dump
      12. 8.5.12 Analyzing a trace
      13. 8.5.13 Configuration profile trace
    6. 8.6 OSA-Express Network Traffic Analyzer
      1. 8.6.1 Determining the microcode level for OSA-Express3
      2. 8.6.2 Defining TRLE definitions
      3. 8.6.3 Checking TCPIP definitions
      4. 8.6.4 Customizing OSA-Express Network Traffic Analyzer
      5. 8.6.5 Defining a resource profile in RACF
      6. 8.6.6 Allocating a VSAM linear data set
      7. 8.6.7 Starting the OSAENTA trace
      8. 8.6.8 Operator command to query and display OSA information
      9. 8.6.9 OSM and OSX information
    7. 8.7 Additional tools for diagnosing Communications Server for z/OS IP problems
      1. 8.7.1 Network Management Interface API
      2. 8.7.2 Systems Management Facilities accounting records
    8. 8.8 MVS console support for selected TCP/IP commands
      1. 8.8.1 Concept
      2. 8.8.2 Commands and environments supported by EZACMD
      3. 8.8.3 When to use EZACMD
      4. 8.8.4 How to use the EZACMD command
      5. 8.8.5 Configuring z/OS for using the EZACMD
      6. 8.8.6 Using the EZACMD command in the z/OS console
      7. 8.8.7 Preparing the EZACMD command in z/OS TSO and z/OS NetView
      8. 8.8.8 Using EZACMD command from z/OS TSO
      9. 8.8.9 Integrating EZACMD into REXX programs in TSO and NetView
      10. 8.8.10 Protecting the EZACMD command
      11. 8.8.11 Diagnosing the EZACMD command
    9. 8.9 Additional information
  12. Chapter 9. z/OS in an ensemble
    1. 9.1 Basic concepts
    2. 9.2 zEnterprise Unified Resource Manager
    3. 9.3 Connectivity
      1. 9.3.1 Intranode management network (INMN)
      2. 9.3.2 Intraensemble data network (IEDN)
    4. 9.4 Enabling z/OS as a member of the ensemble
      1. 9.4.1 Enabling z/OS for IPv6
      2. 9.4.2 Enabling VTAM for the ensemble
      3. 9.4.3 Validating the INMN interfaces in z/OS
      4. 9.4.4 Displaying information about the OSM interfaces
    5. 9.5 Adding z/OS Communications Server into the ensemble
      1. 9.5.1 Configuring the OSA CHPID to OSX in HCD
      2. 9.5.2 Creating a VLAN definition on Unified Resource Manager in HMC
      3. 9.5.3 Adding hosts to the virtual network
      4. 9.5.4 Configuring OSX interfaces in the TCP/IP stack
      5. 9.5.5 Displaying information about the OSX interfaces
      6. 9.5.6 HiperSockets connectivity to the intraensemble data network
      7. 9.5.7 Enabling HiperSockets access to the intraensemble data network
      8. 9.5.8 Verifying the HiperSockets IQDX implementation
    6. 9.6 Additional information
  13. Appendix A. IPv6 support
    1. A.1 Overview of IPv6
    2. A.2 Importance of IPv6
    3. A.3 Common design scenarios for IPv6
    4. A.4 How IPv6 is implemented in z/OS Communications Server
  14. Appendix B. Additional parameters and functions
    1. B.1 MVS system symbols
    2. B.2 Reusable address space ID (REUSASID) function examples
    3. B.3 PROFILE.TCPIP statements
    4. B.4 TCP/IP built-in security functions
  15. Appendix C. Examples used in our environment
    1. C.1 Resolver
    2. C.2 TCP/IP stack
    3. C.3 OMPROUTE dynamic routing
  16. Appendix D. Our implementation environment
    1. D.1 The environment used for all four books
    2. D.2 Our focus for this book
  17. Related publications
    1. IBM Redbooks publications
    2. Other publications
    3. Online resources
    4. Help from IBM
  18. Back cover