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IBM PowerHA SystemMirror for AIX Cookbook

Book Description

This IBM® Redbooks® publication can help you install, tailor, and configure the new IBM PowerHA® Version 7.1.3, and understand new and improved features such as migrations, cluster administration, and advanced topics like configuring in a virtualized environment including workload partitions (WPARs).

With this book, you can gain a broad understanding of the IBM PowerHA SystemMirror® architecture. If you plan to install, migrate, or administer a high availability cluster, this book is right for you.

This book can help IBM AIX® professionals who seek a comprehensive and task-oriented guide for developing the knowledge and skills required for PowerHA cluster design, implementation, and daily system administration. It provides a combination of theory and practical experience.

This book is targeted toward technical professionals (consultants, technical support staff, IT architects, and IT specialists) who are responsible for providing high availability solutions and support with the IBM PowerHA SystemMirror Standard on IBM POWER® systems.

Table of Contents

  1. Front cover
  2. Notices
    1. Trademarks
  3. Preface
    1. Authors
    2. Now you can become a published author, too!
    3. Comments welcome
    4. Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  4. Summary of changes
    1. October 2014, Second Edition
  5. Part 1 Introduction
    1. Chapter 1. Introduction to PowerHA SystemMirror for AIX
      1. 1.1 What is PowerHA SystemMirror for AIX
        1. 1.1.1 High availability (HA)
        2. 1.1.2 Cluster multiprocessing
      2. 1.2 Availability solutions: An overview
        1. 1.2.1 Downtime
        2. 1.2.2 Single point of failure (SPOF)
      3. 1.3 History and evolution
        1. 1.3.1 PowerHA SystemMirror Version 7.1.1
        2. 1.3.2 PowerHA SystemMirror Version 7.1.2
        3. 1.3.3 PowerHA SystemMirror Version 7.1.3
      4. 1.4 High availability terminology and concepts
        1. 1.4.1 Terminology
        2. 1.4.2 Concepts
      5. 1.5 Fault tolerance versus high availability
        1. 1.5.1 Fault-tolerant systems
        2. 1.5.2 High availability systems
      6. 1.6 Software planning
        1. 1.6.1 AIX level and related requirements
        2. 1.6.2 Licensing
      7. 1.7 PowerHA software installation
        1. 1.7.1 Checking for prerequisites
        2. 1.7.2 New installation
        3. 1.7.3 Installing PowerHA
    2. Chapter 2. High availability components
      1. 2.1 PowerHA configuration data
      2. 2.2 Software components
      3. 2.3 Cluster topology
        1. 2.3.1 CAA and RSCT
        2. 2.3.2 TCP/IP networks
        3. 2.3.3 IP address takeover (IPAT) mechanism
        4. 2.3.4 Persistent IP label or address
        5. 2.3.5 Cluster heartbeat settings
        6. 2.3.6 Network security considerations
      4. 2.4 Resources and resource groups
        1. 2.4.1 Definitions
        2. 2.4.2 Resources
        3. 2.4.3 NFS
        4. 2.4.4 Application controller scripts
        5. 2.4.5 Application monitors
        6. 2.4.6 Tape resources
        7. 2.4.7 Workload Manager (WLM) integration
        8. 2.4.8 Workload partitions (WPARs)
        9. 2.4.9 User defined resources
        10. 2.4.10 Resource groups
      5. 2.5 Smart assists
      6. 2.6 Other features
        1. 2.6.1 Notifications
        2. 2.6.2 Rootvg system event
        3. 2.6.3 Capacity on demand (CoD) and dynamic LPAR support on fallover
        4. 2.6.4 File collections
        5. 2.6.5 PowerHA SystemMirror Enterprise Edition
      7. 2.7 Limits
      8. 2.8 Storage characteristics
        1. 2.8.1 Shared LVM
      9. 2.9 Shared storage configuration
        1. 2.9.1 Shared LVM requirements
      10. 2.10 PowerHA cluster events
  6. Part 2 Planning, installation, and migration
    1. Chapter 3. Planning
      1. 3.1 High availability planning
      2. 3.2 Planning for PowerHA 7.1.3
        1. 3.2.1 Planning strategy and example
        2. 3.2.2 Planning tools
        3. 3.2.3 Getting started
        4. 3.2.4 Current environment
        5. 3.2.5 Addressing single points of failure
        6. 3.2.6 Initial cluster design
        7. 3.2.7 Completing the cluster overview planning worksheet
      3. 3.3 Planning cluster hardware
        1. 3.3.1 Overview of cluster hardware
        2. 3.3.2 Completing the cluster hardware planning worksheet
      4. 3.4 Planning cluster software
        1. 3.4.1 AIX and RSCT levels
        2. 3.4.2 Virtual Ethernet and vSCSI support
        3. 3.4.3 Required AIX file sets
        4. 3.4.4 PowerHA 7.1.3 file sets
        5. 3.4.5 AIX files altered by PowerHA 7.1.3
        6. 3.4.6 Application software
        7. 3.4.7 Licensing
        8. 3.4.8 Completing the software planning worksheet
      5. 3.5 Operating system considerations
      6. 3.6 Planning security
        1. 3.6.1 Cluster security
        2. 3.6.2 User administration
        3. 3.6.3 HACMP group
        4. 3.6.4 Planning for PoweHA file collections
      7. 3.7 Planning cluster networks
        1. 3.7.1 Terminology
        2. 3.7.2 General network considerations
        3. 3.7.3 IP Address Takeover planning
        4. 3.7.4 Additional network planning considerations
        5. 3.7.5 Completing the network planning worksheets
      8. 3.8 Planning storage requirements
        1. 3.8.1 Internal disks
        2. 3.8.2 Cluster repository disk
        3. 3.8.3 SAN-based heartbeat
        4. 3.8.4 Shared disks
        5. 3.8.5 Enhanced Concurrent Mode (ECM) volume groups
        6. 3.8.6 How fast disk takeover works
        7. 3.8.7 Enabling fast disk takeover
        8. 3.8.8 Shared logical volumes
        9. 3.8.9 Completing the storage planning worksheets
      9. 3.9 Application planning
        1. 3.9.1 Application controllers
        2. 3.9.2 Application monitoring
        3. 3.9.3 Availability analysis tool
        4. 3.9.4 Completing the application planning worksheets
      10. 3.10 Planning for resource groups
        1. 3.10.1 Resource group attributes
        2. 3.10.2 Completing the planning worksheet
      11. 3.11 Detailed cluster design
      12. 3.12 Developing a cluster test plan
        1. 3.12.1 Custom test plan
        2. 3.12.2 Cluster Test Tool
      13. 3.13 Developing a PowerHA 7.1.3 installation plan
      14. 3.14 Backing up the cluster configuration
      15. 3.15 Documenting the cluster
        1. 3.15.1 Native HTML report
      16. 3.16 Change and problem management
      17. 3.17 Planning tools
        1. 3.17.1 PowerHA cluster simulator
        2. 3.17.2 Paper planning worksheets
        3. 3.17.3 Cluster diagram
    2. Chapter 4. Installation and configuration
      1. 4.1 Basic steps to implement a PowerHA cluster
      2. 4.2 Configuring PowerHA
        1. 4.2.1 General considerations for the configuration method
        2. 4.2.2 Standard configuration path
        3. 4.2.3 Defining cluster, nodes, and networks
        4. 4.2.4 Configuring repository and heartbeat method
        5. 4.2.5 Create shared volume groups
        6. 4.2.6 Create shared logical volumes
        7. 4.2.7 Creating a jfslog2 logical volume
        8. 4.2.8 Creating a new file system
        9. 4.2.9 Create one more or more application controllers
        10. 4.2.10 Create service IP labels
        11. 4.2.11 Create resource group
        12. 4.2.12 Add resources into resource group
        13. 4.2.13 Verify and synchronize cluster configuration
      3. 4.3 Installing PowerHA SystemMirror for IBM Systems Director plug-in
    3. Chapter 5. Migration
      1. 5.1 Migration planning
        1. 5.1.1 PowerHA SystemMirror 7.1.3 requirements
        2. 5.1.2 Deprecated features
      2. 5.2 Understanding the PowerHA 7.1 migration process
        1. 5.2.1 Stages of migration
        2. 5.2.2 Migration options
      3. 5.3 The clmigcheck program
      4. 5.4 Migration scenarios
        1. 5.4.1 Legacy migrations to PowerHA SystemMirror 7.1.3
        2. 5.4.2 Rolling migration from PowerHA v6.1 to PowerHA v7.1.3
        3. 5.4.3 Rolling migration from PowerHA v7.1.x to PowerHA v7.1.3
        4. 5.4.4 Snapshot migration to PowerHA SystemMirror 7.1.3
        5. 5.4.5 Performing offline migration to PowerHA SystemMirror 7.1.3
        6. 5.4.6 Nondisruptive migration from PowerHA v7.1.2 to PowerHA 7.1.3
      5. 5.5 Common migration errors
        1. 5.5.1 Node name not set to host name
        2. 5.5.2 Stuck in migration
        3. 5.5.3 Non-IP network not deleted after migration completed
        4. 5.5.4 Clodmget not found
  7. Part 3 Cluster administration
    1. Chapter 6. Cluster maintenance
      1. 6.1 Change control and testing
        1. 6.1.1 Scope
        2. 6.1.2 Test cluster
      2. 6.2 Starting and stopping the cluster
        1. 6.2.1 Cluster Services
        2. 6.2.2 Starting cluster services
        3. 6.2.3 Stopping cluster services
      3. 6.3 Resource group and application management
        1. 6.3.1 Bringing a resource group offline by using SMIT
        2. 6.3.2 Bringing a resource group online by using SMIT
        3. 6.3.3 Moving a resource group by using SMIT
        4. 6.3.4 Suspending and resuming application monitoring
      4. 6.4 Scenarios
        1. 6.4.1 PCI hot-plug replacement of a NIC
        2. 6.4.2 Service Packs
        3. 6.4.3 Storage
        4. 6.4.4 Applications
      5. 6.5 Updating multipath drivers
        1. 6.5.1 Cluster wide update
        2. 6.5.2 Individual node update
        3. 6.5.3 Pre-PowerHA v7.1.3 SP1 steps for maintenance
      6. 6.6 Repository disk replacement
      7. 6.7 Critical volume groups (voting disks) for Oracle RAC
      8. 6.8 Cluster Test Tool
        1. 6.8.1 Custom testing
        2. 6.8.2 Test duration
        3. 6.8.3 Considerations
        4. 6.8.4 Automated testing
        5. 6.8.5 Custom testing
    2. Chapter 7. Cluster management
      1. 7.1 Cluster Single Point of Control (C-SPOC)
        1. 7.1.1 C-SPOC SMIT menu
      2. 7.2 File collections
        1. 7.2.1 Predefined file collections
        2. 7.2.2 Managing file collections
      3. 7.3 User administration
        1. 7.3.1 C-SPOC user and group administration
        2. 7.3.2 Password management
      4. 7.4 Shared storage management
        1. 7.4.1 Updating LVM components
        2. 7.4.2 Enhanced concurrent volume group (ECVG) LVM limitations
        3. 7.4.3 Dynamic volume expansion (DVE)
        4. 7.4.4 C-SPOC Storage
        5. 7.4.5 Examples
        6. 7.4.6 C-SPOC command-line interface (CLI)
      5. 7.5 Time synchronization
      6. 7.6 Cluster verification and synchronization
        1. 7.6.1 Cluster verification and synchronization using SMIT
        2. 7.6.2 Dynamic cluster reconfiguration with DARE
        3. 7.6.3 Changing between multicast to unicast
        4. 7.6.4 Verification log files
        5. 7.6.5 Running automatically corrective actions during verification
        6. 7.6.6 Automatic cluster verification
      7. 7.7 Monitoring PowerHA
        1. 7.7.1 Cluster status checking utilities
        2. 7.7.2 Cluster status and services checking utilities
        3. 7.7.3 Other cluster monitoring tools
        4. 7.7.4 Topology information commands
        5. 7.7.5 Resource group information commands
        6. 7.7.6 Log files
        7. 7.7.7 Error notification
        8. 7.7.8 Application monitoring
        9. 7.7.9 Measuring application availability
    3. Chapter 8. Cluster security
      1. 8.1 Cluster security
        1. 8.1.1 The /etc/cluster/rhosts file
        2. 8.1.2 Additional cluster security features
        3. 8.1.3 Cluster communication over VPN
      2. 8.2 Using encrypted internode communication from CAA
        1. 8.2.1 Self-signed certificate configuration
        2. 8.2.2 Custom certificate configuration
        3. 8.2.3 Symmetric fixed key only configuration
        4. 8.2.4 Symmetric key distribution using asymmetric key pair
      3. 8.3 Secure remote command execution
      4. 8.4 PowerHA and firewalls
      5. 8.5 Federated security for cluster-wide security management
        1. 8.5.1 Federated security components
        2. 8.5.2 Federated security configuration requirement
        3. 8.5.3 Federated security configuration details
  8. Part 4 Advanced topics, with examples
    1. Chapter 9. PowerHA and PowerVM
      1. 9.1 Virtualization
      2. 9.2 Virtual I/O Server
      3. 9.3 DLPAR and application provisioning
        1. 9.3.1 Requirements
        2. 9.3.2 Application provisioning
        3. 9.3.3 Configuring DLPAR to PowerHA
        4. 9.3.4 Troubleshooting HMC verification errors
        5. 9.3.5 Test cluster configuration
        6. 9.3.6 Test results
      4. 9.4 Live Partition Mobility (LPM)
        1. 9.4.1 Performing LPM with SANcomm defined
    2. Chapter 10. Extending resource group capabilities
      1. 10.1 Settling time attribute
        1. 10.1.1 Behavior of settling time attribute
        2. 10.1.2 Configuring settling time for resource groups
        3. 10.1.3 Displaying the current settling time
        4. 10.1.4 Settling time scenarios
      2. 10.2 Node distribution policy
        1. 10.2.1 Configuring a resource group node-based distribution policy
        2. 10.2.2 Node-based distribution scenario
      3. 10.3 Dynamic node priority (DNP)
        1. 10.3.1 Configuring a resource group with predefined RMC-based DNP policy
        2. 10.3.2 How predefined RMC based dynamic node priority functions
        3. 10.3.3 Configuring resource group with adaptive fallover DNP policy
        4. 10.3.4 Testing adaptive fallover dynamic node priority
      4. 10.4 Delayed fallback timer
        1. 10.4.1 Delayed fallback timer behavior
        2. 10.4.2 Configuring delayed fallback timers
        3. 10.4.3 Displaying delayed fallback timers in a resource group
      5. 10.5 Resource group dependencies
        1. 10.5.1 Resource group parent/child dependency
        2. 10.5.2 Resource group location dependency
        3. 10.5.3 Start and stop after dependency
        4. 10.5.4 Combining various dependency relationships
        5. 10.5.5 Displaying resource group dependencies
    3. Chapter 11. Customizing resources and events
      1. 11.1 Overview of cluster events
      2. 11.2 User-defined resources and types
        1. 11.2.1 Creating a user-defined resource type
        2. 11.2.2 Creating a user-defined resource
        3. 11.2.3 Adding a user-defined resource to a resource group
      3. 11.3 Writing scripts for custom events
      4. 11.4 Pre-event and post-event commands
        1. 11.4.1 Parallel processed resource groups; pre-event and post-event scripts
        2. 11.4.2 Configuring pre-event or post-event scripts
      5. 11.5 Automatic error notification
        1. 11.5.1 Disk monitoring consideration
        2. 11.5.2 Setting up automatic error notification
        3. 11.5.3 Listing automatic error notification
        4. 11.5.4 Removing automatic error notification
        5. 11.5.5 Using error notification
        6. 11.5.6 Customizing event duration
        7. 11.5.7 Defining new events
    4. Chapter 12. Networking considerations
      1. 12.1 Multicast considerations
        1. 12.1.1 Multicast concepts
        2. 12.1.2 Multicast guidelines
      2. 12.2 Distribution preference for service IP aliases
        1. 12.2.1 Configuring service IP distribution policy
        2. 12.2.2 Lab experiences with service IP distribution policy
      3. 12.3 Changing heartbeat settings
      4. 12.4 Site-specific service IP labels
      5. 12.5 Understanding the netmon.cf file
        1. 12.5.1 The netmon.cf format for virtual Ethernet environments
        2. 12.5.2 Implications
      6. 12.6 Understanding the clhosts file
    5. Chapter 13. WPARs and PowerHA scenario
      1. 13.1 Introduction to WPARs
      2. 13.2 Planning for high availability
        1. 13.2.1 General considerations
        2. 13.2.2 PowerHA and rootvg WPARs
        3. 13.2.3 WPAR on local disk
        4. 13.2.4 Planning for NFS-based file systems
        5. 13.2.5 Planning for a versioned WPAR
      3. 13.3 Support for a WPAR in PowerHA
        1. 13.3.1 Creating a WPAR before you define a Resource Group
        2. 13.3.2 Creating a WPAR with the Resource Group menu
      4. 13.4 Scenario with a local WPAR
        1. 13.4.1 Creating a local WPAR on two nodes
        2. 13.4.2 Configuring PowerHA
      5. 13.5 SAP scenario on AIX 7.1 NFS WPAR
        1. 13.5.1 NFS WPARs overview
        2. 13.5.2 Specific commands to fit the SAP environment
        3. 13.5.3 SAP installation
        4. 13.5.4 Setting the cluster
        5. 13.5.5 Using the command line to create the cluster
      6. 13.6 NFS versioned 5.2 WPAR
        1. 13.6.1 Creating the resource group
  9. Part 5 Appendixes
    1. Appendix A. Paper planning worksheets
      1. TCP/IP network planning worksheets
      2. TCP/IP network interface worksheet
      3. Fibre Channel disks worksheets
      4. Shared volume group and file system worksheet
      5. NFS-exported file system or directory worksheet
      6. Application worksheet
      7. Application server worksheet
      8. Application monitor worksheet (custom)
      9. Resource group worksheet
      10. Cluster events worksheet
      11. Cluster file collections worksheet
    2. Appendix B. C-SPOC CLI commands
      1. C-SPOC CLI man pages
    3. Appendix C. Cluster Test Tool log
      1. Sample output from Cluster Test Tool log
  10. Related publications
    1. IBM Redbooks
    2. Online resources
    3. Help from IBM
  11. Back cover
  12. IBM System x Reference Architecture for Hadoop: IBM InfoSphere BigInsights Reference Architecture
    1. Introduction
    2. Business problem and business value
    3. Reference architecture use
    4. Requirements
    5. InfoSphere BigInsights predefined configuration
    6. InfoSphere BigInsights HBase predefined configuration
    7. Deployment considerations
    8. Customizing the predefined configurations
    9. Predefined configuration bill of materials
    10. References
    11. The team who wrote this paper
    12. Now you can become a published author, too!
    13. Stay connected to IBM Redbooks
  13. Notices
    1. Trademarks