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Hypobaric Storage in Food Industry

Book Description

Hypobaric Storage in Food Industry: Advances in Application and Theory presents recent examples of hypobaric storage implementation. The book covers examples including hypobaric warehouses in the United States and China; the results from extensive Chinese publications, some addressing military use; improved design of an intermodal container to reduce cost, weight, and power consumption; and a proposal to fabricate a  container in China for shipping mangoes and other difficult-to-export plant commodities.

In1979 the Food Technology Industrial Achievement Award was given by the Institute of Food Technologists to the Grumman Corporation and the Armour & Company-Research Center for their creation of a hypobaric transportation and storage system that extended the storage life of fresh meats and plant commodities six times greater than average. Since then, cost, experimental errors by academics, and other concerns have prevented hypobaric storage from achieving more widespread adoption. However, recent advances — particularly since 2004 — have brought hypobaric storage back into active research and development.

With specific focus on issues such as condensation; insect, fungi, and bacterial contamination; and materials and methods, this work lays out hypobaric technology for readers including students of postharvest physiology, agricultural engineers, and producers and exporters of food products.



  • Presents recent examples of implementation of hypobaric storage including construction of hypobaric warehouses in United States and China
  • Features an improved design of intermodal container to reduce cost, weight, and power consumption
  • Proposes fabricating hypobaric containers in China for exporting mangoes and other plant commodities that presently can only be transported at much greater expense by air

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Units and Abbreviations
  6. Chapter 1. History of Hypobaric Storage
  7. Chapter 2. Experimental Errors in Hypobaric Storage Research
    1. 2.1 A Leak in an LP Chamber Increases Commodity Water Loss
    2. 2.2 LP Air Changes Must Be Humidified at the Storage Pressure
    3. 2.3 A Cold Spot on a Vacuum Chamber’s Surface Increases Commodity Water Loss
    4. 2.4 LP Prevents C<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>HH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">4</sub>, CO, CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>, and NH, and NH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub> Retention Retention
    5. 2.5 LP Does Not “Outgas or Evacuate” Flavor and Aroma Volatiles or Water Vapor
    6. 2.6 Slow Evacuation and Venting Do Not Damage Commodities
  8. Chapter 3. Gas and Vapor Mass Transfer at a Low Pressure
    1. 3.1 Diffusion of Gases and Vapors
    2. 3.2 Carbon Dioxide
    3. 3.3 Stomatal Opening
    4. 3.4 Volumetric Expansion
    5. 3.5 Air Changes
  9. Chapter 4. Heat Transfer at a Low Pressure
    1. 4.1 Convection
    2. 4.2 Radiation
    3. 4.3 Evaporative Cooling
    4. 4.4 Conduction
    5. 4.5 Heat Formation and ATP Production
    6. 4.6 Removing Respiratory Heat from a Hypobaric Chamber
  10. Chapter 5. Materials and Methods
    1. 5.1 Measuring the RH
    2. 5.2 Measuring the Pressure
    3. 5.3 Controlling the Pressure
    4. 5.4 Vacuum Pump
    5. 5.5 Measuring the Air-Change Rate
    6. 5.6 Measuring O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>, CO, CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>, C, C<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>HH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">5</sub>OH, and CHOH, and CH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub>CHO in the Air ChangeCHO in the Air Change
    7. 5.7 Measuring O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>, CO, CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>, C, C<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>HH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">5</sub>OH, and CHOH, and CH<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">3</sub>CHO Within the CommodityCHO Within the Commodity
    8. 5.8 Flow Control
    9. 5.9 Measuring Hypobaric Acid Vapor
  11. Chapter 6. Humidity Control
  12. Chapter 7. Water Condensation in Hypobaric Chambers
  13. Chapter 8. Low-Oxygen Injury
  14. Chapter 9. Pervaporation
    1. 9.1 Commercial Pervaporation
    2. 9.2 Pervaporation During Hypobaric Storage
  15. Chapter 10. Capillary Condensation in Non-Waxed Cardboard Boxes
  16. Chapter 11. Insect Quarantine
    1. 11.1 Lethal Effect of a Low Humidity
    2. 11.2 Gas and Water Vapor Exchange Through Spiracles and Trachea
    3. 11.3 Gas Exchange Systems of Insects and Horticultural Commodities
    4. 11.4 Lethal Effect of Low [O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    5. 11.5 Lethal Effect of High [CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    6. 11.6 Lethal Effect of Ethanol and Other Vapors
    7. 11.7 Metabolic Stress Disinfection and Disinfestation
    8. 11.8 Lethal Effect of a Low Pressure
    9. 11.9 Ionizing Radiation (also See Section 12.8)
  17. Chapter 12. Fungi and Bacteria
    1. 12.1 Effect of Low [O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    2. 12.2 Effect of [CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    3. 12.3 Combined Effect of Low [O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub> ]+High [CO ]+High [CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    4. 12.4 Indirect Effects of Low [O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] and High [CO] and High [CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] at Atmospheric Pressure] at Atmospheric Pressure
    5. 12.5 Effect of Low [O<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>]+Low [CO]+Low [CO<sub xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">2</sub>] During Hypobaric Storage] During Hypobaric Storage
    6. 12.6 A Modest Pressure Change Activates Enzymes that Suppress Mold Growth
    7. 12.7 Hypochlorous Acid Vapor
    8. 12.8 Ozone
    9. 12.9 Germicidal Effect of Ionizing Radiation
    10. 12.10 MSDD (See Sections 11.6 and 11.7 for a Description of the MSDD Method)
  18. Chapter 13. Cost-Effective LP Intermodal Container
  19. Chapter 14. Storage Boxes
  20. Chapter 15. Conclusions
  21. Bibliography
  22. Index