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Human Rights and Ethics

Book Description

In today’s increasingly interconnected and global society, the protection of basic liberties is an important consideration in public policy and international relations. Profitable social interactions can begin only when a foundation of trust has been laid between two parties. Human Rights and Ethics: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications considers some of the most important issues in the ethics of human interaction, whether in business, politics, or science and technology. Covering issues such as cybercrime, bioethics, medical care, and corporate leadership, this four-volume reference work will serve as a crucial resource for leaders, innovators, educators, and other personnel living and working in the modern world.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Right to Internet
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RIGHT TO INTERNET AS A HUMAN RIGHT
      4. ACCESS TO INTERNET CONTENT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 2: Big Data Dilemmas
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF BIG DATA
      4. THE ETHICS OF BIG DATA
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 3: ICT Policies Favouring Human Rights
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
      4. POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS
      5. PRESENT LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
      6. SPECIFIC RISKS FOR THE REALIZATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
      7. TARGETS FOR A SUCCESSFUL ENJOYMENT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 4: Gambling with Laws and Ethics in Cyberspace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. MACHINE ETHICS
      5. 4. ONLINE GAMBLING
      6. 5. MACHINE ETHICS FOR ONLINE GAMBLING
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. 7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 5: IT Security Governance Legal Issues
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: IT SECURITY GOVERNANCE LEGAL ISSUES
      3. METHOD
      4. INFORMATIONAL PRIVACY OR DATA PROTECTION
      5. OTHER IT SECURITY GOVERNANCE LEGAL ISSUES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. APPENDIX 1
    6. Chapter 6: Governance Theory and Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO POLICY
      4. POLITICAL LIBERALISM
      5. COMMUNITY VALUES
      6. LIBERO-COMMUNITARIANISM IN THE EU
      7. DIRECT DELIBERATIVE POLYARCHY
      8. A DIRECT, DELIBERATIVE EXAMPLE
      9. OPEN METHOD OF COORDINATION
      10. OMC AND ETHICAL INTERFACE
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 7: The Practice of Naming and Shaming through the Publicizing of “Culprit” Lists
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RECENT EXAMPLES OF SUCH LISTS
      4. 3. CONFLICT ARISING BETWEEN THE FREEDOM OF PRESS AND THE CITIZENS’ RIGHT TO PRIVACY OF PERSONAL DATA
      5. 4. THE PRESS’S PUBLICATION OF ILLEGALLY OBTAINED DATA
      6. 5. PUBLICIZING AS A SANCTION
      7. 6. IN LIEU OF AN EPILOGUE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 8: Citizen and Citizenship in the Era of Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: ASPECTS, DIMENSIONS, AND THE VALUE OF CITIZENSHIP
      3. HISTORIC EVOLUTION, THEORIES, AND APPROACHES OF CITIZEN AND CITIZENSHIP
      4. THE OLD TIME CLASSIC MARSHALL’S THEORY ON CITIZENSHIP
      5. THE COMPONENTS OF CITIZENSHIP: MEMBERSHIP, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, RIGHTS, AND DUTIES
      6. GLOBALIZATION AND THE CHALLENGES OF CITIZENSHIP: MULTICULTURALISM AND POST NATIONALISM
      7. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSIONS: THE EU AND THE PROMISE OF A SUPRA AND TRANSNATIONAL CITIZENSHIP
      8. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 9: The Evolution of Business Ethics to Business Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE EVOLUTION OF BUSINESS ETHICS TO BUSINESS LAW
      4. BUSINESS ETHICS: CYNICISM
      5. BUSINESS ETHICS: WHAT IS ETHICS?
      6. ETHICAL PROBLEMS: INDIVIDUALS VS. ORGANIZATIONS
      7. BUSINESS ETHICS AND THE LAW
      8. LAW
      9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHICS AND LAW
      10. FOCUSING ON THE POSITIVE, THE ETHICAL, AND THE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE IN BUSINESS ETHICS
      11. SUSTAINABILITY FOR BUSINESS ETHICS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      16. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 10: Education Attainment and Feminization of Labor Markets in Arab Countries with Comparisons to Eastern and Central European Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 2. EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATIONS
      5. 3. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Ethics for eLearning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ETHICAL THEORY BASIS FOR THE FIRST SIDE OF THE COIN: MASON’S FOUR ETHICAL ISSUES FOR THE INFORMATION AGE: THEN AND NOW
      4. FIRST SIDE OF THE COIN
      5. THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE COIN
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Students on the Rise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      4. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDIITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Intellectual Property Rights in Semi-Conductor Industries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PATENT PROCEDURE AND PRACTICES
      4. STANDARD FOR PATENT DRAFTING
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: Lessons from the International Governance of Biotechnology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GOVERNANCE AT THE INTERNATIONAL LEVEL
      4. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL NORMS
      5. BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL GOVERNANCE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
      6. NORMS IN THE GOVERNANCE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 15: Ethics in the Design of Serious Games for Healthcare and Medicine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT REQUIREMENTS ARE THERE IN DESIGNING AN ETHICAL SERIOUS GAME?
      4. CONSIDERATIONS IN INCORPORATING KEY ETHICO-LEGAL ISSUES INTEGRAL TO HEALTHCARE ENCOUNTERS IN SERIOUS GAMES FOR HEALTHCARE
      5. CONCLUDING COMMENTS
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 16: Online Research and Obtaining Human Subjects/IRB Approvals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PASSING REVIEW: ONLINE RESEARCH AND OBTAINING HUMAN SUBJECTS/IRB APPROVALS
      3. FEDERAL REGULATIONS REGARDING HUMAN RESEARCH
      4. INTERNET RESEARCH AND DATA OUTSIDE OF IRB REVIEW PROCESS
      5. EXEMPT RESEARCH
      6. RESEARCH REQUIRING FORMAL REVIEW
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
  7. Section 2: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 17: Creating a Sustainable Program for Ethics in Student Affairs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. STUDY PART 1: ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT AFFAIRS DIVISION DIRECTORS
      5. PART 2: ETHICAL CLIMATE STUDY OF A STUDENT AFFAIRS DIVISION
      6. PART 3: ETHICS AWARENESS/TRAINING WORKSHOP
      7. THEORIES GUIDING WORKSHOP DEVELOPMENT
      8. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX 1
      12. APPENDIX 2
    2. Chapter 18: Introducing Medical Humanities--Use of Humour for Teaching Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 19: The Phenomenon of Peace in the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey and Greece
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CURRICULUM AND PEACE PHENOMENON
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 20: Improved Decision Support System to Develop a Public Policy to Reduce Dropout Rates for Four Minorities in a Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. DATA MINING PROCESS
      6. 5. MINORITY EDUCATION IN MEXICO
      7. 6. STUDY CASE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 21: Using Authentic Case Studies to Teach Ethics Collaboratively to School Librarians in Distance Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICS IN SCHOOL LIBRARIANSHIP
      4. THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTS OF ETHICAL JUDGMENT AND STUDY
      5. USING CASE STUDIES TO STUDY ETHICS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 22: Ethical and Legal Data Mining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (OD) PRACTITONERS
      4. ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS (OP)
      5. DATA MINING
      6. ETHICS
      7. DATA MINING AND LEGALITY
      8. DATA MINING: THE THREE VIEWS
      9. ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONERS AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGISTS ON DATA MINING
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 23: Automated Data Extraction from Online Social Network Profiles
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF THE HISTORY BEHIND SOCIAL RESEARCH ETHICS
      4. OSN PROFILE DATA EXTRACTION AND ETHICAL ISSUES
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 24: Crowdsourcing for Human Rights Monitoring
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRADITIONAL METHODS OF HUMAN RIGHTS MONITORING
      4. CURRENT APPLICATIONS
      5. THE POTENTIAL OF CROWDSOURCING
      6. CRITIQUES OF VERIFICATION AND CROWDSOURCING
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 25: Foreign Aid and Family at Risk
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. POVERTY, MIGRATION, AND RISK MANAGEMENT
      4. 3. FAMILY AND MIGRATION FROM MYANMAR
      5. 4. RISKS AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 26: Enterprise Architecture of Sustainable Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. EVOLVING NOTIONS ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      4. 3. CALL TO BE ACTION-ORIENTED AND USEFULNESS OF A SYSTEMIC VISION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      5. 4. A FRAMEWORK TO INTEGRATE THE MANY ELEMENTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS
      6. 5. APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK TO THE STRATEGIZING, ORGANIZATION, AND MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 27: Business Ethics in Latin America and Its Impact on Sustained Economic Growth
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LATIN AMERICA (LA) AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION
      4. ECONOMIC OUTLOOK AND BUSINESS ETHICS OF LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES
      5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR BUSINESS ETHICS
      6. ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
      7. PHILOSOPHICAL APPROACHES TO BUSINESS ETHICS
      8. MEASURES OF BUSINESS ETHICS
      9. BUSINESS ETHICS INDEX (BEI)
      10. CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX (CPI)
      11. ECONOMIC FREEDOM INDEX (EFI) AND FREEDOM FROM CORRUPTION INDEX (FFCI)
      12. EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND NATIONAL CULTURE ON BUSINESS ETHICS MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA
      13. ROLE OF RELIGION ON BUSINESS ETHICS IN LA
      14. INFLUENCE OF INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA ON BUSINESS ETHICS
      15. BUSINESS ETHICS, TRUST, AND ECONOMIC GROWTH
      16. SUMMARY
      17. REFERENCES
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 28: Corporate Moral Agency and Artificial Intelligence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STRUCTURE OF THE CMA DEBATE
      4. 3. LEGALISTIC AND POLITICAL ARGUMENTS
      5. 4. SYSTEMIC AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS
      6. 5. META ARGUMENTS
      7. 6. PRAGMATISM
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 29: 2008 – 2011 World Economic Crisis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 2008 – 2011 WORLD ECONOMIC CRISIS
      3. WORLD DYNAMICS AND NEW PARADIGMS
      4. SCIENCE METHODOLOGY
      5. INFORMATION SYSTEMS
      6. DECISION SYSTEMS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 30: Affirmative Action in the United States and Positive Action in the European Union in the Context of Comparative Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AFFIRMATIVE ACTION IN THE UNITED STATES
      4. POSITIVE ACTION IN THE EU
      5. COMPARATIVE REVIEW AND CONCLUSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 31: Paradigms of Governance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE TECHNOCRATIC-INSTRUMENTAL PARADIGM
      4. THE ETHOCRATIC-NORMATIVE PARADIGM
      5. THE EPISTOCRATIC-COGNITIVE PARADIGM
      6. THE DEMOCRATIC-INCLUSIVE PARADIGM
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 32: Counting the Unknown Victims of Political Violence
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: DOES THE TRUTH MATTER?
      3. BACKGROUND: WHY IS HUMAN RIGHTS DATA SO DIFFICULT TO ANALYZE?
      4. EL SALVADOR 1991: WHO DID WHAT TO WHOM?
      5. GUATEMALA 1993 – 1999: USING MULTIPLE SYSTEMS ESTIMATION TO ANALYZE HUMAN RIGHTS DATA
      6. KOSOVO 1999: USING MULTIPLE SYSTEMS ESTIMATION TO ANALYZE A VERY DIFFERENT CONFLICT
      7. TIMOR-LESTE 2006: CREATING SURVEYS TO UNCOVER THE TRUTH
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS: ANALYZING A LARGE POLICE ARCHIVE
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 33: A Case Study of Citizen-to-Government Mobile Activism in Jamaica
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROTESTING RULE OF LAW (ROL) VIOLATIONS
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      5. PROTESTING IN JAMAICA
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 34: Media Policy, Co-Existence, and Freedom of Speech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CBSC: WHAT IT IS AND DOES
      4. THE CBSC: HOW IT DECIDES
      5. FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND THE CANADIAN CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS
      6. CBSC DECISIONS ON RELIGIOUS MATTERS
      7. COMMENTS ABOUT RELIGIONS OR RELIGIONISTS
      8. RELIGIONS ENTERING THE POLITICAL DOMAIN
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 35: Information and Communication Technologies, Democracy, and Human Rights in Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ICT STATUS IN NIGERIA
      4. THE PUSH-ICT THEORY AND NIGERIA ICTS STATUS
      5. ICTS AND DEMOCRACY
      6. THE NIGERIAN SCENARIO
      7. ICTS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
      8. THE NIGERIAN SCENARIO
      9. CHALLENGES OF ICTS IN PROMOTING DEMOCRACY AND HUMAN RIGHTS
      10. RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 36: CyberEthics Case Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. CYBERETHICS: THE CYPRUS SAFER INTERNET CENTRE OVERVIEW AND EXAMPLE CASES
      5. CONNECTING CYBERETHICS WITH LITERATURE REVIEW
      6. FRAMEWORK DERIVED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 37: Understanding ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTUALIZATION OF EMPOWERMENT
      4. DEFINING EMPOWERMENT
      5. UNDERSTANDING EMPOWERMENT
      6. INTRODUCTION OF (MOBILE) THE VILLAGE PAY PHONE
      7. EMPOWERMENT: A WEAPON TO COMBAT VIOLENCE
      8. RETHINKING EMPOWERMENT
      9. ICT 4D FOR WOMEN: SOME SUCCESS STORIES
      10. CONCLUDING REMARKS: THE CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 38: Privacy and Data Protection towards Elderly Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOTIVATION: HEALTHCARE AND PRIVACY
      4. MEMORY ASSISTANTS
      5. IGENDA PROJECT: AN INTELLIGENT MEMORY ASSISTANT
      6. TECHNICAL AND LEGAL SAFEGUARDS
      7. CONCLUSION AND CHALLENGES
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 39: Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
      3. STAGES IN THE ONLINE RESEARCH PROCESS
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 40: Cultural Adaptation of E-Learning Courseware
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION OR SITUATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. LESSONS LEARNED
      7. CURRENT, FUTURE, OR RELATED CHALLENGES
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 41: The Ethical Dilemmas of Social Networking Sites in Classroom Contexts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICAL ISSUES WHEN USING SNS IN A CLASSROOM CONTEXT
      4. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 42: Disclosure Alignment and Transparency Signaling in CSR Reports
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 43: CSR for Retailers' Led Channel Relationships
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CSR AND RETAILERS' LED INTERNATIONAL SUPPLY CHAINS
      4. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 44: CSR as a Strategic Management Tool
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS CSR?
      4. STAKEHOLDERS: WHO ARE THEY?
      5. STAKEHOLDERS’ THEORY
      6. CSR AS A TOOL FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
      7. MINERAL RESOURCES IN NIGERIA
      8. METHODOLOGY
      9. DATA COLLECTION METHODS
      10. FINDINGS
      11. CSR PRACTICES OF COCA COLA AND SHELL IN NIGERIA
      12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF CSR ACTIVITIES OF SHELL AND COCA COLA IN NIGERIA
      13. UNFORESEEN DANGERS IN THE SACKCLOTH OF CSR
      14. STAKEHOLDERS AND CSR FROM A LOCAL PERSPECTIVE
      15. ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS
      16. LAWS AND REGULATIONS
      17. FUTURE RESEARCH
      18. REFERENCE
    14. Chapter 45: The Ethics of Tax Evasion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE PRESENT STUDY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 46: Attitudes toward Bribery
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. THE PRESENT STUDY
      5. FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUDING COMMENTS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 47: Business Ethics in Emerging Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUSINESS ETHICS
      4. FOUR KEY ISSUES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 4: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 48: Ethics and Leadership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. INCORPORATION OF TRANSFORMATIONAL, SERVANT, AND ETHICAL LEADER BEHAVIOR THROUGH PROMOTION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 49: Ethical Leadership Styles of Future Managers in Central and Eastern European Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP DIMENSIONS
      4. METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES REGARDING THE STUDY
      5. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCH SAMPLE
      6. RESULTS OF THE STUDY
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 50: Development of the Leader Integrity Assessment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTEGRITY
      3. INTEGRITY CONSTRUCT THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. LEADER INTEGRITY ASSESSMENT
      5. LIA CONSTRUCT OPERATIONALIZATIONS
      6. SAMPLE 1
      7. SAMPLE 2
      8. NOTE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX
    4. Chapter 51: Examining the 21st Century Workforce Leaders' Perceptions of Ethical Leadership and Organizational Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NEEDS
      4. BACKGROUND STUDIES
      5. ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH
      6. FINDINGS
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 52: Key Issues for Training the Leaders, Managers, and Planners who Join the Peacekeeping Operations and Working in Chaos Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 53: The Impact of Faith on Servant Leadership and Leadership Behavior
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PERSONAL SPIRITUAL BELIEFS AND A SCHEMA
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 54: The Relationship between Islamic Religion and Ethical Leadership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 55: Enabling Democratic Local Governance through Rural E-Municipalities in Kyrgyzstan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPMENT
      4. DECENTRALIZATION REFORMS FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE
      5. GOOD GOVERNANCE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. ICT-ENABLED GOOD GOVERNANCE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
      7. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      8. GOVERNANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT
      9. DEMOCRATIC LOCAL GOVERNANCE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT
      10. RURAL E-MUNICIPALITY FOR DEMOCRATIC LOCAL GOVERNANCE
      11. METHODOLOGY
      12. CASE STUDY: RURAL E-MUNICIPALITIES IN KYRGYZSTAN
      13. DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES AND GOVERNANCE REFORMS IN KYRGYZSTAN
      14. DEMOCRATIC LOCAL GOVERNANCE FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN KYRGYZSTAN
      15. RURAL E-MUNICIPALITIES FOR DEMOCRATIC LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN KYRGYZSTAN
      16. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      17. DISCUSSION
      18. CONCLUSION
      19. REFERENCES
      20. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 56: The Social Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL DISTINCTIONS AND INTERFERENCES
      4. THE MOTIVATIONS OF THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND THE INVOLVEMENT OF INSTITUTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 57: Decision Making in SMEs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCEPT OF ETHICAL ENTREPRENERUSHIP
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 58: The Code of Ethics and Workplace Behaviors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE AMERICAN LIBRARY ASSOCIATION CODE OF ETHICS: A CONTROVERSIAL HISTORY
      4. EVOLUTION OF THE COE
      5. METHOD: PROCEDURE AND PARTICIPANTS
      6. RESULTS
      7. ETHICS EDUCATION AND COE FAMILIARITY
      8. WORKPLACE BEHAVIORS
      9. RESPONSES TO UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR
      10. ALA MEMBERSHIP AND ETHICAL BEHAVIOR
      11. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR LIBRARY EDUCATION AND LEADERSHIP
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      16. APPENDIX
    12. Chapter 59: Addressing Work Ethic in the New Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PREVALENT WORK ETHIC IN THIS CENTURY
      5. MOTIVATION THEORIES
      6. MOTIVATION AND AGE
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 60: Work Ethics Perceptions of Pakistani Employees
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 61: Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a People Caring Concept
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPT OF CSR
      4. THE PHILANTRHOPIC AND STRATEGIC ROLE OF CSR
      5. WHY COMPANIES USE CSR, WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
      6. ANTECEDENTS OR DRIVERS OF CSR ENGAGEMENT
      7. THE BENEFITS OR CONSEQUENCES OF CSR
      8. EFFECTIVENESS OF CSR
      9. COMMUNICATING CSR ACTIONS
      10. EMERGING THEMES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      11. THE FUTURE OF CSR
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 62: Ethical Issues of ‘Morality Mining'
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MORALITY MINING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 63: Internet Companies and the Great Firewall of China
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ISSUES: THE TROUBLED HISTORY OF GOOGLE IN CHINA
      4. LEGAL ISSUES
      5. AN ETHICAL PERSPECTIVE AND RESOLUTION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 64: The Un/Acceptability of Virtual Moral Practices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 65: Robotic Technologies and Fundamental Rights
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. A EUROPEAN UNION PERSPECTIVE
      3. HOW FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ARE CHALLENGED BY ROBOTIC TECHNOLOGIES
      4. ISSUES FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS RAISED BY SPECIFIC ROBOTIC TECHNOLOGIES
      5. FACING THE ISSUES: HOW TO HANDLE CONFLICTS IN A CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 66: E-Justice in Administrative Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN LAW
      4. E-JUSTICE AS COMPONENT OF POLICY OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. E-JUSTICE IN LITHUANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 67: Fiji
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL STRUCTURES
      4. 2. STRUCTURAL DISCRIMINATION EMBEDDED IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM
      5. 3. FIJI'S OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW
      6. 4. DATA ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN REVEALS THE STATE'S FAILURE TO PROTECT
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. SPECIAL THANKS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 68: Right to Governance and Right to Collective Bargaining
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RIGHT TO COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AND RIGHT TO STRIKE AS INTERNATIONAL LAW TERM
      3. LEGAL DEFINITION OF RIGHT TO STRIKE AND ITS NORMATIVE REGULATION
      4. LIMITATION OF RIGHT TO STRIKE IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
      5. CONSTITUTIONAL GUARANTEE OF THE RIGHT TO STRIKE
      6. POSITIVE OBLIGATION OF THE STATE BASED ON INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 69: Facilitating the Egyptian Uprising
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUREAUCRACIES FIGHTING FREE EXPRESSION ONLINE
      4. THE EGYPTIAN MEDIA ENVIRONMENT
      5. FROM 6 APRIL, 2008, TO 25 JANUARY, 2011
      6. EXAMINING THE ROLE OF FACEBOOK IN THE UPRISING
      7. FINDINGS
      8. DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. SUMMARY
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
    11. Chapter 70: Globalization and Library and Information Science
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY
      4. IMPLICATIONS FOR LIBRARIES
      5. THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON DEVELOPING WORLD
      6. GLOBALIZATION AND BRAIN DRAIN
      7. ETHICAL ISSUES, GLOBALIZATION AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 71: Studying Professional Degrees via the Internet
      1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. REFLECTION
      6. CURRENT CHALLENGES, ISSUES, AND QUESTIONS OF RELEVANCE FACING PROFESSIONAL DEGREES VIA THE INTERNET
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 72: The Role of the Researcher in Making Serious Games for Health
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. WHY SOME PEOPLE MAY NOT PURSUE RESEARCH
      5. THE SOLUTION
      6. DURING GAME DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
      7. BEFORE THE GAME IS COMPLETED
      8. AFTER THE GAME IS FINISHED
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. References
      13. ADDITIONAL READING
      14. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 6: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 73: Ethical Issues of Emerging ICT Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EMERGING ICTS
      4. ETHICAL CONSEQUENCES
      5. EVALUATION
      6. GOVERNANCE
      7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR POLICY MAKERS
      8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INDUSTRY, RESEARCHERS AND CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANISATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 74: Human Rights and Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ISSUES
      5. A FEW EXISTING SOLUTIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 75: Health Information Technology and Human Rights
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HEALTHCARE: A HUMAN RIGHT?
      4. SAFEGUARDS FOR CONFIDENTIALITY OF HEALTH INFORMATION
      5. THE NEED FOR BETTER PROTECTION FOR HEALTHCARE DATA
      6. THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY OF ONE’S HEALTH INFORMATION
      7. PRIVACY AND OTHER RIGHTS
      8. PERSONAL ACCESS TO HEALTH DATA
      9. RESEARCH AND SECONDARY USE OF DATA
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 76: Human Enhancing Technologies and Individual Privacy Right
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PRIVACY OVERVIEW
      4. PROTECTION OF SENSITIVE AND HEALTH INFORMATION
      5. HET ORIGINATED PRIVACY THREATS
      6. HET AS A LEGAL CHALLENGE
      7. ROLE OF BUSINESS ETHICS
      8. POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 77: The Relevance of Value Theory for the Ethical Discussion of Human Enhancement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. VALUE THEORY AND HUMAN ENHANCEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
      4. VALUE THEORY AND HUMAN ENHANCEMENT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 78: Of Robots and Simulacra
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: PRESENCE AND ROBOTIC MEDIATION
      4. SOCIAL ROBOTS AS SIMULACRUM OF PRESENCE
      5. THE DARK SIDE OF SOCIAL ROBOTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 79: Decoding What is Good in Code
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOWARD A METAPHYSICS OF CODE
      4. DEFINING THINGNESS
      5. BEYOND RHETORIC?
      6. THE CASE OF BSSYM7.TTF
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 80: ICTs and Their Impact on Women's Roles and Evolution within Developing Societies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WOMEN’S ACCESS TO AND USE OF ICTs
      4. THE EVER-INCREASING POTENTIAL OF THE INTERNET FOR WOMEN EMPOWERMENT
      5. GENDER AND ICTS
      6. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 81: Governance in Technology Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICS, GOVERNANCE AND REFLEXIVITY IN EU-FUNDED TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS
      4. EMPIRICAL INQUIRY ON EU-FUNDED AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE PROJECTS
      5. FROM GOVERNANCE TOOLS TO GOVERNANCE MODELS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 82: Revolution 2.0
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE PARADOXICAL EGYPTIAN MEDIA LANDSCAPE PRIOR TO THE 2011 REVOLUTION
      4. NEW MEDIA, CIVIC ENGAGEMENT, AND POLITICAL MOBILIZATION DURING THE 2011 REVOLUTION
      5. ONE YEAR AFTER THE REVOLUTION: THE POLITICAL AND COMMUNICATION CHANGES AND CHALLENGES
      6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 83: Use of New ICTs as “Liberation” or “Repression” Technologies in Social Movements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE AND DEFINITION OF TERMS
      4. GOVERNMENT STRUCTURE, FREE-EXPRESSION AND RESTRICTIONS
      5. NEW ICTS IN SOCIAL MOVEMENTS: KENYA AND EGYPT
      6. SUMMARY AND GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
      7. SHORTCOMINGS AND AREAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 84: ICT for Social Inclusion and Equal Opportunities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SEARCH FOR IMPROVED QUALITY OF LIFE AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR PWD
      4. CONTRIBUTION OF PWD TO THE DEPLOYMENT OF KNOWLEDGE BASED ECONOMY
      5. CENTER OF EXCELLENCE IN TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION FOR THE SOCIAL INCLUSION OF PWD (CETI-D) IN BRAZIL
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 85: ID Scanners and Überveillance in the Night-Time Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGY, SECURITY AND DIGITAL GOVERNANCE
      4. AUSTRALIAN PRIVACY LAWS
      5. LIQUOR LICENSEES’ VIEWS OF PRIVACY
      6. DISCUSSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 86: The Role of Information Security and Cryptography in Digital Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HUMAN RIGHTS CONSIDERATION
      4. THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION SECURITY AND PRIVACY
      5. CRYPTOGRAPHY PARADIGM
      6. EPILOGUE
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 87: Ethics, Wearable Technology, and Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. “OK, GLASS… TEACH A CLASS”
      3. FRAMING GLASS WITH DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP (A/K/A FOUR-EYED CITIZENSHIP)
      4. TEACHING AND LEARNING #THROUGHGLASS
      5. GLASS MAKES EVERY MOMENT A TEACHABLE MOMENT
      6. GLASSING INTO THE UNKNOWN
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 88: Friends and Rivals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DRPG GAMES AND ALLEGORICAL GAMESPACE
      4. VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES AND LEADERSHIP IN DRAGON AGE II
      5. FROM CONSOLE TO COMMUNITY: TRANSLATING THE LESSONS OF DRAGON AGE II
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    17. Chapter 89: Using 3D Virtual Reality Technology in Cyber Ethics Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OUR PERSPECTIVES ON INNOVATION IN CYBER ETHICS EDUCATION
      4. NEW METHOD FOR CYBER ETHICS EDUCATION BASED ON THREE TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF E-LEARNING MATERIAL BASED ON OUR NEW METHOD
      6. NEW E-LEARNING MATERIAL USING VRML
      7. DISCUSSION: ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO EVALUATE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 90: Ethics, Media, and Reasoning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ETHICS THEORIES AND SYSTEMS
      4. ETHICS REASONING AND EDUCATION
      5. GLOBAL MEDIA SYSTEMS
      6. COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA ETHICS: THEORY AND PRACTICE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 91: URL Manipulation and the Slippery Slope
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. URL MANIPULATION
      4. PREVIOUS WORK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. SURVEY RESULTS
      7. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 92: Negotiating Boundaries between Control and Dissent
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERALL OBJECTIVES OF THE CHAPTER
      4. DIGITAL ARMS RACE
      5. MEANS OF CONTROL
      6. OVERALL MEDIA ENVIRONMENTS
      7. RESPONSE BY COMPANIES
      8. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      13. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 93: The Right to Anonymity in Political Activities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE RIGHT TO PRIVACY AS A FRAMEWORK TO UNDERSTAND AND EVALUATE POLITICAL SURVEILLANCE
      4. PRIVACY AND SURVEILLANCE IN THE POPULAR CULTURE: LESSONS FROM HOLLYWOOD
      5. POLITICAL ACTIVITIES: TARGETING AND MONITORING
      6. THE RIGHT TO ANONYMITY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 94: The Developmental Effect of a New Political Anomaly on the Oldest ICT
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THEORETICAL GROUNDING
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. A FRAME WORK FOR THE EFFECT OF POLITICS ON RADIO ICT ENABLE DEVELOPMENT
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 95: A Moral Analysis of Effective Prediction Markets on Terrorism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF GOVERNMENTS
      4. 3. POTENTIAL MORAL ISSUES: WHY EFFECTIVE PMSOT MIGHT BE IMMORAL
      5. 4. PMS AS ANTI-TERRORISM INTELLIGENCE-GATHERING TOOLS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 96: A Critique of Legal Framework Facilitating Access to Government Information in Tanzania
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND TO ICT DEVELOPMENT AND ACCESS TO INFORMATION IN TANZANIA
      4. ANALYSIS OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK OF ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION IN TANZANIA
      5. REFORMING THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK TO FACILITATE ACCESS TO GOVERNMENT INFORMATION IN TANZANIA
      6. FUTURE STUDIES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 97: Memory, National Identity, and Freedom of Expression in the Information Age
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD AND THEORY
      4. UNDERSTANDING FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION: THE CONTEXT OF ZIMBABWE
      5. MEMORY AND HEROES ACRE DEBATES: GRAVE TUSSLES BETWEEN THE ELITE AND THE ORDINARY PEOPLE
      6. GUKURAHUNDI GENOCIDE: A BAD BIRTHMARK
      7. HEROES AND VILLAINS: CONTESTING THE GRAVEYARD
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 98: Freedom, Equality and the Quality of Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION: THE QUALITY OF DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRATIC LIFE
      3. 2. DEMOCRACY AND THE QUALITY OF DEMOCRACY
      4. 3. THE BASIS OF DEMOCRATIC LIFE: INDEX OF FREEDOM AND INDEX OF EQUALITY
      5. 4. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES OF DEMOCRATIC LIFE: INDEX OF CLASSIFICATION AND DEMOCRATIC-LIFE-INDEX
      6. 5. RESEARCH RESULTS AND FINDINGS: DEMOCRATIC LIFE IN AUSTRALIA, GERMANY, SWEDEN AND THE UNITED STATES 1995-2008
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 99: Dignity as the Ultimate Boundary to the Freedom of Speech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION: THE INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON THE LIMITS OF SPEECH
      3. 2. THE USA WAY OF UNDERSTANDING FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND HATE SPEECH
      4. 3. JEREMY WALDRON: THE HARM IN HATE SPEECH AND ITS MANY ASPECTS
      5. 4. WALDRON'S DIGNITY ARGUMENT AND ITS CRITIC BY C. EDWIN BAKER AND RONALD DWORKIN
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 100: Can Sex Workers Claim Human Rights in India?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PROBLEMS OF SEX WORKERS
      4. LAW RELATED TO SEX TRADE
      5. SEX WORKERS AND HUMAN RIGHTS
      6. CASE STUDY
      7. SUMMARIZATION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 101: The Use of Developmental Psychology in Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COGNITIVE-STRUCTURALIST APPROACH TO MORAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF VIRTUES
      5. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ETHICS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 102: Game Theory vs. Business Ethics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GAME IN GAME THEORY
      4. THE HISTORY OF GAME THEORY
      5. GAME THEORY AND BUSINESS ETHICS
      6. BUSINESS ETHICS
      7. PRACTITIONERS’ ETHICAL PARADIGM
      8. EMERGING ECONOMICS
      9. GAME THEORY VERSUS BUSINESS ETHICS IN EMERGING ECONOMICS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      14. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 103: Ethics and E-Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A MODERN PHENOMENON
      5. LANGUAGE
      6. CYBER CRIME AND ALMOST CRIMES
      7. RELIGION
      8. CULTURE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDTIONAL READING
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 104: Broadening the Scope of Ethical Consumer Behaviour
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 105: Preparing Business and Information Technology Students to Contribute to Organizational Cultures Grounded in Moral Character
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURES AND CHARACTER
      4. ESTABLISHING AN EFFECTIVE LEARNING CONTEXT FOR BUSINESS ETHICS
      5. DEBRIEFING THE EXPERIENCE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 106: Opportunities for Enhancing Ethical Climates in Online Courses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      5. CASE DESCRIPTION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 107: The Legal Challenges of the Information Revolution and the Principle of “Privacy by Design”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERNATIONAL CONFLICTS OF LAW
      5. PRIVACY AND DESIGN
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 108: Human Rights Defenders and the Right to Digital Privacy and Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. RIGHT TO PRIVACY WHEN USING DIGITAL TOOLS
      3. DIGITAL PRIVACY THREATS AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS
      4. STATE SURVEILLANCE OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS
      5. DIGITAL FREEDOMS AND PRIVACY RIGHTS AND THE CONFIGURATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES
      6. THE PROBLEM WITH SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS
      7. SUPPORTING THE DIGITAL PRIVACY OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS
      8. THE FUTURE OF PRIVACY AND THE USE OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT HUMAN RIGHTS
      9. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 109: Knowing Protection of Intellectual Contents in Digital Era
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND PLAGIARISM
      4. TYPES OF PLAGIARISM
      5. WAYS TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
      6. 1. MAKING YOUR WORK “ORIGINAL”
      7. 2. KNOWING ‘RIGHTS’ ON INTELLECTUAL CONTENTS
      8. 3. KNOWING PUBLISHER’S POLICY
      9. 4. KNOWING ETHICS OF PUBLICATION
      10. WEB RESOURCE FOR ETHICS AND PLAGIARISM ISSUES
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 110: Reuse of Excess Research Data for New Researches
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ETHICAL QUESTION
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 111: A Paradigm Shift in Swedish Electronic Surveillance Law
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SOCIOLOGICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS ON THE PRIVACY DISCOURSE
      4. 3. THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
      5. 4. SWEDISH LAW
      6. 5. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NOTION OF PRIVACY
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 112: E-Government Strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. E-GOVERNMENT LEVELS
      4. A SNAPSHOT OF GLOBAL STATUS OF E-GOVERNMENT
      5. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      8. E-GOVERNMENT BEST PRACTICES
      9. STATUS OF E-GOVERNMENT IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA
      10. ENABLING STRATEGIES FOR E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION
      11. INHIBITORS OF E-GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      12. PROSPECTS FOR E-GOVERNMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      13. CONCLUSION AND THE WAY FORWARD
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 113: A Customised Dataset to Assist Legal and Ethical Governance of Seaports
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 114: Military Robots and the Question of Responsibility
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ULTIMATELY RESPONSIBLE: THE COMMANDING OFFICER
      4. RESPONSIBILITY OF DESIGNERS
      5. RESPONSIBILITY OF HUMAN OPERATORS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 115: The Ethics of Seeking Body Perfection, with Continual Reference to Heidi Montag
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POSTHUMANISM AND BODY MODIFICATION
      4. READING HEIDI MONTAG’S BODY: FOUR ETHICAL DIMENSIONS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 116: Redefining the Boundaries of Humanity and the Human Body
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OLD WINE NEW BOTTLES? TRANSHUMANISM AND THE POST-HUMAN DREAM
      3. CONCEPTUALIZING THE BODY AS TECHNOETHICAL MATTER
      4. WHAT IS A HUMAN BODY AND WHAT IS A HUMAN BEING?
      5. LONG LIVE HOMO TECHNICUS!
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS