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Human Rights and the Impact of ICT in the Public Sphere

Book Description

The creation of a new public realm through the use of the Internet and ICT may positively promote political liberties and freedom of speech, but could also threaten the political and public autonomy of the individual. Human Rights and the Impact of ICT in the Public Sphere: Participation, Democracy, and Political Autonomy focuses on the new technological era as an innovative way to initiate democratic dialogue, but one that can also endanger individual rights to freedom, privacy, and autonomy. This reference book focuses on the new opportunities technology offers for political expression and will be of use to both academic and legal audiences, including academics, students, independent authorities, legislative bodies, and lawyers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Book Series
  5. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editorial Advisory Board
  6. Preface
    1. THE DEMOCRACY DILEMMA IN THE ERA OF GLOBALIZATION – CAN ICT ENHANCE DEMOCRACY, PARTICIPATION, ACCOUNTABILITY, AND POLITICAL AUTONOMY IN THE PUBLIC SPHERE?
    2. CONCLUSION
  7. Introduction
  8. Section 1: ICT, Democracy, Digital Participation, and Political Autonomy
    1. Chapter 1: Digital Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. ONLINE PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY IN ITALY: PRELIMINARY REMARKS
      3. 2. THEMATIC SECTIONS
      4. 3. SOCIAL MEDIA
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: E-Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. E-PARTICIPATION: AN OVERVIEW
      4. 3. KEY DIMENSIONS OF E-PARTICIPATION
      5. 4. A PRACTICAL VIEW OF E-PARTICIPATION
      6. 5. HOW TO MEASURE E-PARTICIPATION?
      7. 6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: ICT in Direct Democracy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT)
      4. 3. THE RIGHT TO INTERNET
      5. 4. REFERENDUM AS FORM OF DIRECT DEMOCRACY
      6. 5. E-REFERENDUM
      7. 6. THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN E-REFERENDA: E-VOTING
      8. 7. DANGERS AND PROBLEMS REGARDING THE USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN E-DEMOCRACY
      9. 8. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Digital Democracy and Trade Unionism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE GREEK EXPERIENCE: THE CASE OF THE NEW TRADE UNIONS OF PRECARIOUS WORKERS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 2: ICT, Freedom of Speech, and the Public Interest
    1. Chapter 5: Dignity as the Ultimate Boundary to the Freedom of Speech
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION: THE INTERNATIONAL DEBATE ON THE LIMITS OF SPEECH
      3. 2. THE USA WAY OF UNDERSTANDING FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND HATE SPEECH
      4. 3. JEREMY WALDRON: THE HARM IN HATE SPEECH AND ITS MANY ASPECTS
      5. 4. WALDRON'S DIGNITY ARGUMENT AND ITS CRITIC BY C. EDWIN BAKER AND RONALD DWORKIN
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 6: Vengeance Culture Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      4. VENGEANCE ONLINE
      5. ARTIFACTS OF ONLINE VENGEANCE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 7: ICT4D and its Potential Role in the Detection, Surveillance, and Prevention of Novel Zoonotic Disease Outbreaks for Global, National, and Local Pandemic Prevention
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POSSIBLE NOVEL APPLICATIONS OF ICT4D FOR PANDEMIC PREVENTION
      4. DEVELOPING ICT4D INTUITIONS: SOME POSSIBLE ICT4D TOOL AFFORDANCES THAT MAY BE USED IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PANDEMIC PREVENTION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 3: ICT and Their Role for Public Transparency and Democracy
    1. Chapter 8: The Practice of Naming and Shaming through the Publicizing of “Culprit” Lists
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RECENT EXAMPLES OF SUCH LISTS
      4. 3. CONFLICT ARISING BETWEEN THE FREEDOM OF PRESS AND THE CITIZENS’ RIGHT TO PRIVACY OF PERSONAL DATA
      5. 4. THE PRESS’S PUBLICATION OF ILLEGALLY OBTAINED DATA
      6. 5. PUBLICIZING AS A SANCTION
      7. 6. IN LIEU OF AN EPILOGUE
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 9: We-Transparency
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND DEMOCRATIC VALUES
      4. 3. SOCIAL INTERACTION AND TRANSPARENCY
      5. 4. TOWARDS NEW TRANSPARENCY POLICIES: THE CASE OF WIKILEAKS
      6. 5. RESHAPING THE “TRANSPARENCY PARADIGM”
      7. 6. RESHAPING PARTICIPATION
      8. 7. THE CASE OF ICELAND: REBUILDING POLITICAL TRUST
      9. 8. A NEW ICELANDIC CONSTITUTION
      10. 9. THE PERFORMANCE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL PROCESS
      11. 10. THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA FOR A TRANSPARENT PROCESS OF CONSTITUTION-MAKING
      12. 11. THE FINAL DOCUMENT
      13. 12. A FEW CONCLUSIVE THOUGHTS ON THE ICELANDIC CASE
      14. 13. THE MANY USES AND BENEFITS OF CROWDSOURCING
      15. 14. THE USHAHIDI CASE
      16. 15. THE TWITTER VOTER REPORT CASE
      17. 16. CROWDSOURCING IN BULGARIA
      18. 17. ANALYSIS (FROM THE FINAL REPORT)
      19. 18. A BETTER ACCOUNTABILITY: OPENPOLIS
      20. 19. THE DIALOGUE WITH CITIZENS: A NEW SEASON FOR ITALY?
      21. 20. CONCLUSION
      22. REFERENCES
      23. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 10: The Potential for ICT Tools to Promote Public Participation in Fighting Corruption
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TYPES OF ICT TOOLS
      4. INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FACTORS OF CORRUPTION AND ANTI-CORRUPTION CAPABILITY OF ICT TOOLS
      7. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 11: ICTs, Public Access to Documents, and Transparency in the European Union
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. PUBLIC ACCESS TO DOCUMENTS IN THE EU
      4. 3. THE ROLE OF THE EO - THE EO’S DECISION ON CASE 705/2012/BEH
      5. 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
  11. Section 4: ICT, Privacy, and Accountability of Public Figures
    1. Chapter 12: Privacy and Accountability of Public Figures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. DEFINITION OF RIGHT TO PRIVACY
      4. 3. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS ON PRIVACY
      5. 4. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 13: Privacy and Accountability of Public Figures
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE, THE FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION AND THE PRESS
      4. 3. THE VIOLATION OF PRIVACY OF PUBLIC FIGURES IN GERMANY, FRANCE AND THE UNITED KINGDOM
      5. 4. SOLUTIONS AND RECCOMENDATIONS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 14: Accountability and Responsibility in the Public Sphere
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE MEANING AND THE BACKGROUND OF IMPEACHMENT
      4. 3. WHO ARE INCLUDED IN THE IMPEACHMENT PROCEDURE?
      5. 4. IMPEACHMENT IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
      6. 5. IMPEACHMENT IN THE SENATE
      7. 6. IMPEACHMENT OF THE US PRESIDENT
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 5: ICT, Inclusion, and Cultural Differences
    1. Chapter 15: The Inclusion and Design of Cultural Differences in Interactive Multimedia Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND SOCIAL JUSTICE IN LEARNING
      4. DESIGN OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 16: The Use and Design of Supplementary Visuals for the Enhancement of Listening Skills in Hypermedia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: Priority of Listening Materials for Autonomous Intermediate Language Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE COMPARISON OF LISTENING MATERIALS
      5. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND THE OTHER ASPECTS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 18: Factors Affecting Listening
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INPUT (TEXT)
      4. SOUND (SPEECH)
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  13. Compilation of References
  14. About the Contributors