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HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, 6th Edition

Book Description

"...lucid, in-depth descriptions of the behavior of every HTML tag on every major browser and platform, plus enough dry humor to make the book a pleasure to read." --Edward Mendelson, PC Magazine

"When they say 'definitive' they're not kidding." --Linda Roeder, About.com

Put everthing you need to know about HTML & XHTML at your fingertips. For nearly a decade, hundreds of thousands of web developers have turned to HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide to master standards-based web development. Truly a definitive guide, the book combines a unique balance of tutorial material with a comprehensive reference that even the most experienced web professionals keep close at hand. From basic syntax and semantics to guidelines aimed at helping you develop your own distinctive style, this classic is all you need to become fluent in the language of web design.

The new sixth edition guides you through every element of HTML and XHTML in detail, explaining how each element works and how it interacts with other elements. You'll also find detailed discussions of CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), which is intricately related to web page development. The most all-inclusive, up-to-date book on these languages available, this edition covers HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0, and CSS2, with a preview of the upcoming XHTML2 and CSS3. Other topics include the newer initiatives in XHTML (XForms, XFrames, and modularization) and the essentials of XML for advanced readers. You'll learn how to:

  • Use style sheets to control your document's appearance

  • Work with programmatically generated HTML

  • Create tables, both simple and complex

  • Use frames to coordinate sets of documents

  • Design and build interactive forms and dynamic documents

  • Insert images, sound files, video, Java applets, and JavaScript programs

  • Create documents that look good on a variety of browsers

The authors apply a natural learning approach that uses straightforward language and plenty of examples. Throughout the book, they offer suggestions for style and composition to help you decide how to best use HTML and XHTML to accomplish a variety of tasks. You'll learn what works and what doesn't, and what makes sense to those who view your web pages and what might be confusing. Written for anyone who wants to learn the language of the Web--from casual users to the full-time design professionals--this is the single most important book on HTML and XHTML you can own.

Bill Kennedy is chief technical officer of MobileRobots, Inc. When not hacking new HTML pages or writing about them, "Dr. Bill" (Ph.D. in biophysics from Loyola University of Chicago) is out promoting the company's line of mobile, autonomous robots that can be used for artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic research, and education.

Chuck Musciano began his career as a compiler writer and crafter of tools at Harris Corporations' Advanced Technology Group and is now a manager of Unix Systems in Harris' Corporate Data Center.

Table of Contents

  1. HTML & XHTML: The Definitive Guide, 6th Edition
  2. Dedication
  3. Preface
    1. Our Audience
    2. Text Conventions
    3. Versions and Semantics
    4. HTML Versus XHTML
      1. Deprecated Features
      2. A Definitive Guide
    5. Using Code Examples
    6. Safari® Enabled
    7. Comments and Questions
    8. Acknowledgments
  4. 1. HTML, XHTML, and the World Wide Web
    1. 1.1. The Internet
      1. 1.1.1. In the Beginning
      2. 1.1.2. HTML and the Web
      3. 1.1.3. Golden Threads
    2. 1.2. Talking the Internet Talk
      1. 1.2.1. Clients, Servers, and Browsers
      2. 1.2.2. The Flow of Information
      3. 1.2.3. Beneath the Web
      4. 1.2.4. Standards Organizations
        1. 1.2.4.1. The World Wide Web Consortium
        2. 1.2.4.2. The Internet Engineering Task Force
    3. 1.3. HTML and XHTML: What They Are
    4. 1.4. HTML and XHTML: What They Aren't
      1. 1.4.1. Content Versus Appearance
    5. 1.5. Standards and Extensions
      1. 1.5.1. Nonstandard Extensions
      2. 1.5.2. Extensions: Pro and Con
      3. 1.5.3. Avoiding Extensions
      4. 1.5.4. Extensions Through Modules
    6. 1.6. Tools for the Web Designer
      1. 1.6.1. Essentials
        1. 1.6.1.1. Text processor or WYSIWYG editor?
        2. 1.6.1.2. Browser software
      2. 1.6.2. An Extended Toolkit
  5. 2. Quick Start
    1. 2.1. Writing Tools
    2. 2.2. A First HTML Document
    3. 2.3. Embedded Tags
      1. 2.3.1. Start and End Tags
    4. 2.4. HTML Skeleton
    5. 2.5. The Flesh on an HTML or XHTML Document
      1. 2.5.1. Comments
      2. 2.5.2. Text
      3. 2.5.3. Multimedia
    6. 2.6. Text
      1. 2.6.1. Appearance of Text
        1. 2.6.1.1. Content-based text styles
        2. 2.6.1.2. Physical styles
        3. 2.6.1.3. Special text characters
      2. 2.6.2. Text Structures
        1. 2.6.2.1. Divisions, paragraphs, and line breaks
        2. 2.6.2.2. Headings
        3. 2.6.2.3. Horizontal rules
        4. 2.6.2.4. Preformatted text
    7. 2.7. Hyperlinks
      1. 2.7.1. URLs
      2. 2.7.2. Anchors
      3. 2.7.3. Hyperlink Names and Navigation
      4. 2.7.4. Anchors Beyond
    8. 2.8. Images Are Special
      1. 2.8.1. Inline Images
      2. 2.8.2. Image Maps
    9. 2.9. Lists, Searchable Documents, and Forms
      1. 2.9.1. Unordered, Ordered, and Definition Lists
      2. 2.9.2. Searchable Documents and Forms
    10. 2.10. Tables
    11. 2.11. Frames
    12. 2.12. Stylesheets and JavaScript
    13. 2.13. Forging Ahead
  6. 3. Anatomy of an HTML Document
    1. 3.1. Appearances Can Deceive
    2. 3.2. Structure of an HTML Document
    3. 3.3. Tags and Attributes
      1. 3.3.1. The Syntax of a Tag
      2. 3.3.2. Sample Tags
      3. 3.3.3. Starting and Ending Tags
      4. 3.3.4. Proper and Improper Nesting
      5. 3.3.5. Tags Without Ends
      6. 3.3.6. Omitting Tags
      7. 3.3.7. Ignored or Redundant Tags
    4. 3.4. Well-Formed Documents and XHTML
    5. 3.5. Document Content
      1. 3.5.1. Advice Versus Control
      2. 3.5.2. Character Entities
      3. 3.5.3. Comments
    6. 3.6. HTML/XHTML Document Elements
      1. 3.6.1. The <html> Tag
        1. 3.6.1.1. The dir attribute
        2. 3.6.1.2. The lang attribute
        3. 3.6.1.3. The version attribute
    7. 3.7. The Document Header
      1. 3.7.1. The <head> Tag
        1. 3.7.1.1. The dir and lang attributes
        2. 3.7.1.2. The profile attribute
      2. 3.7.2. The <title> Tag
        1. 3.7.2.1. What's in a title?
        2. 3.7.2.2. The dir and lang attributes
      3. 3.7.3. Related Header Tags
    8. 3.8. The Document Body
      1. 3.8.1. The <body> Tag
      2. 3.8.2. Frames
    9. 3.9. Editorial Markup
      1. 3.9.1. The <ins> and <del> Tags
        1. 3.9.1.1. The cite attribute
        2. 3.9.1.2. The datetime attribute
        3. 3.9.1.3. The class, dir, event, id, lang, style, title, and events attributes
      2. 3.9.2. Using Editorial Markup
    10. 3.10. The <bdo> Tag
  7. 4. Text Basics
    1. 4.1. Divisions and Paragraphs
      1. 4.1.1. The <div> Tag
        1. 4.1.1.1. The align attribute
        2. 4.1.1.2. The nowrap attribute
        3. 4.1.1.3. The dir and lang attributes
        4. 4.1.1.4. The id attribute
        5. 4.1.1.5. The title attribute
        6. 4.1.1.6. The class and style attributes
        7. 4.1.1.7. Event attributes
      2. 4.1.2. The <p> Tag
        1. 4.1.2.1. Paragraph rendering
        2. 4.1.2.2. The align attribute
        3. 4.1.2.3. The dir and lang attributes
        4. 4.1.2.4. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        5. 4.1.2.5. Event attributes
        6. 4.1.2.6. Allowed paragraph content
        7. 4.1.2.7. Allowed paragraph usage
    2. 4.2. Headings
      1. 4.2.1. Heading Tags
        1. 4.2.1.1. The align attribute
        2. 4.2.1.2. The dir and lang attributes
        3. 4.2.1.3. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        4. 4.2.1.4. Event attributes
      2. 4.2.2. Appropriate Use of Headings
      3. 4.2.3. Using Headings for Smaller Text
      4. 4.2.4. Allowed Heading Content
      5. 4.2.5. Allowed Heading Usage
      6. 4.2.6. Adding Images to Headings
    3. 4.3. Changing Text Appearance and Meaning
      1. 4.3.1. Content-Based Styles
      2. 4.3.2. Physical Styles
    4. 4.4. Content-Based Style Tags
      1. 4.4.1. The <abbr> Tag
      2. 4.4.2. The <acronym> Tag
      3. 4.4.3. The <cite> Tag
      4. 4.4.4. The <code> Tag
      5. 4.4.5. The <dfn> Tag
      6. 4.4.6. The <em> Tag
      7. 4.4.7. The <kbd> Tag
      8. 4.4.8. The <samp> Tag
      9. 4.4.9. The <strong> Tag
      10. 4.4.10. The <var> Tag
      11. 4.4.11. The class, style, id, and title Attributes
      12. 4.4.12. The dir and lang Attributes
      13. 4.4.13. Event Attributes
      14. 4.4.14. Summary of Content-Based Tags
      15. 4.4.15. Allowed Content
      16. 4.4.16. Allowed Usage
      17. 4.4.17. Combining Content-Based Styles
    5. 4.5. Physical Style Tags
      1. 4.5.1. The <b> Tag
      2. 4.5.2. The <big> Tag
      3. 4.5.3. The <blink> Tag (Obsolete Extension)
      4. 4.5.4. The <i> Tag
      5. 4.5.5. The <s> Tag (Deprecated)
      6. 4.5.6. The <small> Tag
      7. 4.5.7. The <strike> Tag (Deprecated)
      8. 4.5.8. The <sub> Tag
      9. 4.5.9. The <sup> Tag
      10. 4.5.10. The <tt> Tag
      11. 4.5.11. The <u> Tag (Deprecated)
      12. 4.5.12. The dir and lang Attributes
      13. 4.5.13. The class, style, id, and title Attributes
      14. 4.5.14. Event Attributes
      15. 4.5.15. Summary of Physical Style Tags
      16. 4.5.16. Allowed Content
      17. 4.5.17. Allowed Usage
      18. 4.5.18. Combining Physical Styles
    6. 4.6. Precise Spacing and Layout
      1. 4.6.1. The <br> Tag
        1. 4.6.1.1. The clear attribute
        2. 4.6.1.2. The class, id, style, and title attributes
      2. 4.6.2. The <nobr> Tag (Extension)
      3. 4.6.3. The <wbr> Tag (Extension)
      4. 4.6.4. Better Line-Breaking Rules
      5. 4.6.5. The <pre> Tag
        1. 4.6.5.1. Allowable content
        2. 4.6.5.2. The width attribute
        3. 4.6.5.3. The dir and lang attributes
        4. 4.6.5.4. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        5. 4.6.5.5. Event attributes
      6. 4.6.6. The <center> Tag (Deprecated)
        1. 4.6.6.1. The dir and lang attributes
        2. 4.6.6.2. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        3. 4.6.6.3. Event attributes
      7. 4.6.7. The <listing> Tag (Obsolete)
      8. 4.6.8. The <xmp> Tag (Obsolete)
      9. 4.6.9. The <plaintext> Tag (Obsolete)
    7. 4.7. Block Quotes
      1. 4.7.1. The <blockquote> Tag
        1. 4.7.1.1. The cite attribute
        2. 4.7.1.2. The dir and lang attributes
        3. 4.7.1.3. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        4. 4.7.1.4. Event attributes
      2. 4.7.2. The <q> Tag
        1. 4.7.2.1. The cite attribute
        2. 4.7.2.2. The dir and lang attributes
        3. 4.7.2.3. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        4. 4.7.2.4. Event attributes
    8. 4.8. Addresses
      1. 4.8.1. The <address> Tag
        1. 4.8.1.1. The dir and lang attributes
        2. 4.8.1.2. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        3. 4.8.1.3. Event attributes
    9. 4.9. Special Character Encoding
      1. 4.9.1. Special Characters
      2. 4.9.2. Inserting Special Characters
    10. 4.10. HTML's Obsolete Expanded Font Handling
      1. 4.10.1. The Extended Font Size Model
      2. 4.10.2. The <basefont> Tag (Deprecated)
      3. 4.10.3. The <font> Tag (Deprecated)
        1. 4.10.3.1. The size attribute
        2. 4.10.3.2. The color attribute
        3. 4.10.3.3. The face attribute
        4. 4.10.3.4. The dir and lang attributes
        5. 4.10.3.5. The class, id, style, and title attributes
  8. 5. Rules, Images, and Multimedia
    1. 5.1. Horizontal Rules
      1. 5.1.1. The <hr> Tag
        1. 5.1.1.1. The size attribute
        2. 5.1.1.2. The noshade attribute
        3. 5.1.1.3. The width attribute
        4. 5.1.1.4. The align attribute
        5. 5.1.1.5. The color attribute
        6. 5.1.1.6. Combining rule attributes
        7. 5.1.1.7. The class, dir, event, id, lang, style, and title attributes
      2. 5.1.2. Using Rules to Divide Your Document
      3. 5.1.3. Using Rules in Headers and Footers
    2. 5.2. Inserting Images in Your Documents
      1. 5.2.1. Understanding Image Formats
        1. 5.2.1.1. GIF
        2. 5.2.1.2. Interlacing, transparency, and animation
        3. 5.2.1.3. JPEG
        4. 5.2.1.4. PNG
      2. 5.2.2. When to Use Images
      3. 5.2.3. When to Use Text
      4. 5.2.4. Speeding Image Downloads
      5. 5.2.5. JPEG, PNG, or GIF?
      6. 5.2.6. The <img> Tag
        1. 5.2.6.1. The src attribute
        2. 5.2.6.2. The lowsrc attribute
        3. 5.2.6.3. The alt and longdesc attributes
        4. 5.2.6.4. The align attribute
        5. 5.2.6.5. Wrapping text around images
        6. 5.2.6.6. Centering an image
        7. 5.2.6.7. Align and <center> are deprecated
        8. 5.2.6.8. The border attribute
        9. 5.2.6.9. Removing the image border
        10. 5.2.6.10. The height and width attributes
        11. 5.2.6.11. Resizing and flood-filling images
        12. 5.2.6.12. Problems with height and width
        13. 5.2.6.13. The hspace and vspace attributes
        14. 5.2.6.14. The ismap and usemap attributes
        15. 5.2.6.15. The class, dir, event, id, lang, style, and title attributes
        16. 5.2.6.16. The name, onAbort, onError, onLoad, and other event attributes
        17. 5.2.6.17. Combining <img> attributes
      7. 5.2.7. Video Extensions
        1. 5.2.7.1. The dynsrc attribute
        2. 5.2.7.2. The controls attribute
        3. 5.2.7.3. The loop attribute
        4. 5.2.7.4. The start attribute
        5. 5.2.7.5. Combining movie <img> attributes
    3. 5.3. Document Colors and Background Images
      1. 5.3.1. Additions and Extensions to the <body> Tag
        1. 5.3.1.1. The bgcolor attribute
        2. 5.3.1.2. The background attribute
        3. 5.3.1.3. The bgproperties attribute
        4. 5.3.1.4. The text attribute
        5. 5.3.1.5. The link, vlink, and alink attributes
        6. 5.3.1.6. The leftmargin attribute
        7. 5.3.1.7. The topmargin attribute
        8. 5.3.1.8. The style and class attributes
        9. 5.3.1.9. Mixing and matching body attributes
      2. 5.3.2. Extending a Warning
        1. 5.3.2.1. Problems with background images
        2. 5.3.2.2. Problems with background, text, and link colors
        3. 5.3.2.3. And then again
    4. 5.4. Background Audio
      1. 5.4.1. The <bgsound> Tag
        1. 5.4.1.1. The src attribute
        2. 5.4.1.2. The loop attribute
      2. 5.4.2. Alternative Audio Support
    5. 5.5. Animated Text
      1. 5.5.1. The <marquee> Tag
        1. 5.5.1.1. The align attribute
        2. 5.5.1.2. The behavior, direction, and loop attributes
        3. 5.5.1.3. The bgcolor attribute
        4. 5.5.1.4. The height and width attributes
        5. 5.5.1.5. The hspace and vspace attributes
        6. 5.5.1.6. The scrollamount and scrolldelay attributes
    6. 5.6. Other Multimedia Content
      1. 5.6.1. Embedded Versus Referenced Content
      2. 5.6.2. Referencing Audio, Video, and Images
      3. 5.6.3. Appropriate Linking Styles
      4. 5.6.4. Embedding Other Document Types
  9. 6. Links and Webs
    1. 6.1. Hypertext Basics
    2. 6.2. Referencing Documents: The URL
      1. 6.2.1. Writing a URL
        1. 6.2.1.1. Handling reserved and unsafe characters
      2. 6.2.2. Absolute and Relative URLs
        1. 6.2.2.1. Relative schemes and servers
        2. 6.2.2.2. Relative document directories
        3. 6.2.2.3. Using relative URLs
      3. 6.2.3. The http URL
        1. 6.2.3.1. The http server
        2. 6.2.3.2. The http port
        3. 6.2.3.3. The http path
        4. 6.2.3.4. The http document fragment
        5. 6.2.3.5. The http search parameter
        6. 6.2.3.6. Sample http URLs
      4. 6.2.4. The file URL
        1. 6.2.4.1. The file server
        2. 6.2.4.2. The file path
        3. 6.2.4.3. Sample file URLs
      5. 6.2.5. The mailto URL
        1. 6.2.5.1. Defining mail header fields
      6. 6.2.6. The ftp URL
        1. 6.2.6.1. The ftp user and password
        2. 6.2.6.2. The ftp server and port
        3. 6.2.6.3. The ftp path and typecode
        4. 6.2.6.4. Sample ftp URLs
      7. 6.2.7. The javascript URL
        1. 6.2.7.1. The javascript URL arguments
      8. 6.2.8. The news URL
        1. 6.2.8.1. Accessing entire newsgroups
        2. 6.2.8.2. Accessing single messages
      9. 6.2.9. The nntp URL
        1. 6.2.9.1. The nntp server and port
        2. 6.2.9.2. The nntp newsgroup and article
        3. 6.2.9.3. Sample nntp URLs
      10. 6.2.10. The telnet URL
        1. 6.2.10.1. The Telnet user and password
        2. 6.2.10.2. The Telnet server and port
      11. 6.2.11. The gopher URL
        1. 6.2.11.1. The gopher server and port
        2. 6.2.11.2. The gopher path
    3. 6.3. Creating Hyperlinks
      1. 6.3.1. The <a> Tag
        1. 6.3.1.1. Allowed content
        2. 6.3.1.2. The href attribute
        3. 6.3.1.3. The name and id attributes
        4. 6.3.1.4. The event attributes
        5. 6.3.1.5. The rel and rev attributes
        6. 6.3.1.6. The style and class attributes
        7. 6.3.1.7. The lang and dir attributes
        8. 6.3.1.8. The target attribute
        9. 6.3.1.9. The title attribute
        10. 6.3.1.10. The charset, hreflang, and type attributes
        11. 6.3.1.11. The coords and shape attributes
        12. 6.3.1.12. The accesskey and tabindex attributes
      2. 6.3.2. Linking to Other Documents
      3. 6.3.3. Linking Within a Document
    4. 6.4. Creating Effective Links
      1. 6.4.1. Lists of Links
      2. 6.4.2. Inline References
      3. 6.4.3. Linking Dos and Don'ts
      4. 6.4.4. Using Images and Links
    5. 6.5. Mouse-Sensitive Images
      1. 6.5.1. Server-Side Image Maps
        1. 6.5.1.1. Server-side considerations
      2. 6.5.2. Client-Side Image Maps
      3. 6.5.3. The <map> Tag
        1. 6.5.3.1. The name attribute
        2. 6.5.3.2. The class, id, style, and title attributes
        3. 6.5.3.3. The event attributes
      4. 6.5.4. The <area> Tag
        1. 6.5.4.1. The alt attribute
        2. 6.5.4.2. The coords attribute
        3. 6.5.4.3. The href attribute
        4. 6.5.4.4. The nohref attribute
        5. 6.5.4.5. The notab, taborder, and tabindex attributes
        6. 6.5.4.6. The event attributes
        7. 6.5.4.7. The shape attribute
        8. 6.5.4.8. The target attribute
        9. 6.5.4.9. The title attribute
        10. 6.5.4.10. The class, dir, id, lang, and style attributes
      5. 6.5.5. A Client-Side Image-Map Example
      6. 6.5.6. Handling Other Browsers
      7. 6.5.7. Effective Use of Mouse-Sensitive Images
    6. 6.6. Creating Searchable Documents
      1. 6.6.1. The <isindex> Tag (Deprecated)
        1. 6.6.1.1. The prompt attribute
        2. 6.6.1.2. The query URL
        3. 6.6.1.3. The action attribute
        4. 6.6.1.4. The class, dir, id, lang, style, and title attributes
        5. 6.6.1.5. Server dependencies
    7. 6.7. Relationships
      1. 6.7.1. The <base> Header Element
        1. 6.7.1.1. The href attribute
        2. 6.7.1.2. The target attribute
        3. 6.7.1.3. Using <base>
      2. 6.7.2. The <link> Header Element
        1. 6.7.2.1. The href attribute
        2. 6.7.2.2. The rel and rev attributes
        3. 6.7.2.3. The title attribute
        4. 6.7.2.4. The type attribute
        5. 6.7.2.5. How browsers might use <link>
        6. 6.7.2.6. Other <link> attributes
    8. 6.8. Supporting Document Automation
      1. 6.8.1. The <meta> Header Element
        1. 6.8.1.1. The name attribute
        2. 6.8.1.2. The content attribute
        3. 6.8.1.3. The http-equiv attribute
        4. 6.8.1.4. The charset attribute
        5. 6.8.1.5. The scheme attribute
      2. 6.8.2. The <nextid> Header Element (Archaic)
        1. 6.8.2.1. The n attribute
  10. 7. Formatted Lists
    1. 7.1. Unordered Lists
      1. 7.1.1. The <ul> Tag
        1. 7.1.1.1. The type attribute
        2. 7.1.1.2. Compact unordered lists
        3. 7.1.1.3. The style and class attributes
        4. 7.1.1.4. The lang and dir attributes
        5. 7.1.1.5. The id and title attributes
        6. 7.1.1.6. The event attributes
    2. 7.2. Ordered Lists
      1. 7.2.1. The <ol> Tag
        1. 7.2.1.1. The start attribute
        2. 7.2.1.2. The type attribute
        3. 7.2.1.3. Compact ordered lists
        4. 7.2.1.4. The class, dir, id, lang, event, style, and title attributes
    3. 7.3. The <li> Tag
      1. 7.3.1. Changing the Style and Sequence of Individual List Items
        1. 7.3.1.1. The type attribute
        2. 7.3.1.2. The value attribute
        3. 7.3.1.3. The style and class attributes
        4. 7.3.1.4. The class, dir, id, lang, event, style, and title attributes
    4. 7.4. Nesting Lists
      1. 7.4.1. Nested Unordered Lists
      2. 7.4.2. Nested Ordered Lists
    5. 7.5. Definition Lists
      1. 7.5.1. The <dl> Tag
        1. 7.5.1.1. More compact definition lists
        2. 7.5.1.2. The class, dir, id, lang, style, title, and event attributes
      2. 7.5.2. The <dt> Tag
        1. 7.5.2.1. Formatting text with <dt>
        2. 7.5.2.2. The class, dir, id, lang, style, title, and event attributes
      3. 7.5.3. The <dd> Tag
        1. 7.5.3.1. The class, dir, id, lang, style, title, and event attributes
    6. 7.6. Appropriate List Usage
    7. 7.7. Directory Lists
      1. 7.7.1. The <dir> Tag (Deprecated)
        1. 7.7.1.1. The <dir> attributes
    8. 7.8. Menu Lists
      1. 7.8.1. The <menu> Tag (Deprecated)
  11. 8. Cascading Style Sheets
    1. 8.1. The Elements of Styles
      1. 8.1.1. Inline Styles: The style Attribute
      2. 8.1.2. Document-Level Stylesheets
        1. 8.1.2.1. The type attribute
        2. 8.1.2.2. The media attribute
        3. 8.1.2.3. The dir, lang, and title attributes
      3. 8.1.3. Style-Free Browsers
      4. 8.1.4. External Stylesheets
        1. 8.1.4.1. Linked external stylesheets
        2. 8.1.4.2. Imported external stylesheets
      5. 8.1.5. Media-Specific Styles
      6. 8.1.6. Linked Versus Imported Stylesheets
      7. 8.1.7. Limitations of Current Browsers
      8. 8.1.8. Style Comments
      9. 8.1.9. Style Precedence
    2. 8.2. Style Syntax
      1. 8.2.1. The Basics
      2. 8.2.2. Multiple Selectors
      3. 8.2.3. Contextual Selectors
      4. 8.2.4. Universal, Child, and Adjacent Selectors
      5. 8.2.5. Attribute Selectors
      6. 8.2.6. Pseudoelements
    3. 8.3. Style Classes
      1. 8.3.1. Regular Classes
      2. 8.3.2. Generic Classes
      3. 8.3.3. ID Classes
      4. 8.3.4. Pseudoclasses
        1. 8.3.4.1. Hyperlink pseudoclasses
        2. 8.3.4.2. Interaction pseudoclasses
        3. 8.3.4.3. Nesting and language pseudoclasses
        4. 8.3.4.4. Browser support of pseudoclasses
      5. 8.3.5. Mixing Classes
      6. 8.3.6. Class Inheritance
    4. 8.4. Style Properties
      1. 8.4.1. Property Values
        1. 8.4.1.1. Keyword property values
        2. 8.4.1.2. Length property values
        3. 8.4.1.3. Percentage property values
        4. 8.4.1.4. URL property values
        5. 8.4.1.5. Color property values
        6. 8.4.1.6. Angle, time, and frequency property values
      2. 8.4.2. Property Inheritance
      3. 8.4.3. Font Properties
        1. 8.4.3.1. The font-family property
        2. 8.4.3.2. The font-size property
        3. 8.4.3.3. The font-stretch property
        4. 8.4.3.4. The font-size-adjust property
        5. 8.4.3.5. The font-style property
        6. 8.4.3.6. The font-variant property
        7. 8.4.3.7. The font-weight property
        8. 8.4.3.8. The font property
      4. 8.4.4. Font Selection and Synthesis
        1. 8.4.4.1. CSS2 font-matching steps
        2. 8.4.4.2. Basic font descriptors
        3. 8.4.4.3. The src descriptor
        4. 8.4.4.4. Advanced font descriptors
      5. 8.4.5. Color and Background Properties
        1. 8.4.5.1. The background-color property
        2. 8.4.5.2. The background-image property
        3. 8.4.5.3. The background-attachment property
        4. 8.4.5.4. The background-position property
        5. 8.4.5.5. The background-repeat property
        6. 8.4.5.6. The background property
        7. 8.4.5.7. The color property
      6. 8.4.6. Text Properties
        1. 8.4.6.1. The letter-spacing property
        2. 8.4.6.2. The line-height property
        3. 8.4.6.3. The text-align property
        4. 8.4.6.4. The text-decoration property
        5. 8.4.6.5. The text-indent property
        6. 8.4.6.6. The text-shadow property
        7. 8.4.6.7. The text-transform property
        8. 8.4.6.8. The vertical-align property
        9. 8.4.6.9. The word-spacing property
      7. 8.4.7. Box Properties
        1. 8.4.7.1. The CSS2 formatting model
        2. 8.4.7.2. The border properties
        3. 8.4.7.3. The border-color property
        4. 8.4.7.4. The border-width property
        5. 8.4.7.5. The border-style property
        6. 8.4.7.6. Borders in shorthand
        7. 8.4.7.7. The clear property
        8. 8.4.7.8. The clip property
        9. 8.4.7.9. The float property
        10. 8.4.7.10. The height property
        11. 8.4.7.11. The margin properties
        12. 8.4.7.12. The padding properties
        13. 8.4.7.13. The overflow property
        14. 8.4.7.14. The position properties
        15. 8.4.7.15. The visibility property
        16. 8.4.7.16. The width property
        17. 8.4.7.17. The z-index property
      8. 8.4.8. List Properties
        1. 8.4.8.1. The list-style-image property
        2. 8.4.8.2. The list-style-position property
        3. 8.4.8.3. The list-style-type property
        4. 8.4.8.4. The list-style property
        5. 8.4.8.5. Using list properties effectively
      9. 8.4.9. Table Properties
        1. 8.4.9.1. The border-collapse, border-spacing, and empty-cells properties
        2. 8.4.9.2. The caption-side property
        3. 8.4.9.3. The speak-header property
        4. 8.4.9.4. The table-layout property
      10. 8.4.10. Classification Properties
        1. 8.4.10.1. The display property
        2. 8.4.10.2. The white-space property
      11. 8.4.11. Generated Content Properties
        1. 8.4.11.1. The :before and :after pseudoelements
        2. 8.4.11.2. The content property
        3. 8.4.11.3. Specifying quotation marks
        4. 8.4.11.4. Creating counters
        5. 8.4.11.5. Using counters in your documents
        6. 8.4.11.6. Creating markers
      12. 8.4.12. Audio Properties
        1. 8.4.12.1. The volume property
        2. 8.4.12.2. Speaking properties
        3. 8.4.12.3. Voice characteristics
        4. 8.4.12.4. Pause properties
        5. 8.4.12.5. Cue properties
        6. 8.4.12.6. Audio mixing
        7. 8.4.12.7. Spatial positioning
      13. 8.4.13. Paged Media
        1. 8.4.13.1. Defining pages
        2. 8.4.13.2. Left, right, and first pages
        3. 8.4.13.3. Using named pages
        4. 8.4.13.4. Controlling pagination
        5. 8.4.13.5. Controlling widows and orphans
    5. 8.5. Tagless Styles: The <span> Tag
    6. 8.6. Applying Styles to Documents
      1. 8.6.1. To Style or Not to Style
      2. 8.6.2. Which Type of Stylesheet, and When
        1. 8.6.2.1. The pros and cons of external styles
        2. 8.6.2.2. The pros and cons of document-level styles
        3. 8.6.2.3. The pros and cons of inline styles
  12. 9. Forms
    1. 9.1. Form Fundamentals
    2. 9.2. The <form> Tag
      1. 9.2.1. The action Attribute
      2. 9.2.2. The enctype Attribute
        1. 9.2.2.1. The application/x-www-form-urlencoded encoding
        2. 9.2.2.2. The multipart/form-data encoding
        3. 9.2.2.3. The text/plain encoding
      3. 9.2.3. The accept-charset Attribute
      4. 9.2.4. The method Attribute
        1. 9.2.4.1. POST or GET?
        2. 9.2.4.2. Passing parameters explicitly
      5. 9.2.5. The target Attribute
      6. 9.2.6. The id, name, and title Attributes
      7. 9.2.7. The class, style, lang, and dir Attributes
      8. 9.2.8. The Event Attributes
    3. 9.3. A Simple Form Example
    4. 9.4. Using Email to Collect Form Data
      1. 9.4.1. Problems with Email Forms
    5. 9.5. The <input> Tag
      1. 9.5.1. Text Fields in Forms
        1. 9.5.1.1. Conventional text fields
        2. 9.5.1.2. Masked text controls
        3. 9.5.1.3. File-selection controls
      2. 9.5.2. Checkboxes
      3. 9.5.3. Radio Buttons
      4. 9.5.4. Action Buttons
        1. 9.5.4.1. Submission buttons
        2. 9.5.4.2. Reset buttons
        3. 9.5.4.3. Custom image buttons
        4. 9.5.4.4. Push buttons
        5. 9.5.4.5. Multiple buttons in a single form
      5. 9.5.5. Hidden Fields
    6. 9.6. The <button> Tag
      1. 9.6.1. The <button> Button
      2. 9.6.2. The type Attribute
    7. 9.7. Multiline Text Areas
      1. 9.7.1. The <textarea> Tag
        1. 9.7.1.1. The rows and cols attributes
        2. 9.7.1.2. The wrap attribute
    8. 9.8. Multiple-Choice Elements
      1. 9.8.1. The <select> Tag
        1. 9.8.1.1. The multiple attribute
        2. 9.8.1.2. The size attribute
      2. 9.8.2. The <option> Tag
        1. 9.8.2.1. The value attribute
        2. 9.8.2.2. The selected attribute
        3. 9.8.2.3. The label attribute
      3. 9.8.3. The <optgroup> Tag
        1. 9.8.3.1. The label attribute
    9. 9.9. General Form-Control Attributes
      1. 9.9.1. The id and title Attributes
      2. 9.9.2. The event Attributes
      3. 9.9.3. The style, class, lang, and dir Attributes
      4. 9.9.4. The tabindex, taborder ‼, and notab ‼ Attributes
      5. 9.9.5. The accesskey Attribute
      6. 9.9.6. The disabled and readonly Attributes
    10. 9.10. Labeling and Grouping Form Elements
      1. 9.10.1. The <label> Tag
        1. 9.10.1.1. Implicit and explicit associations
        2. 9.10.1.2. Other label attributes
      2. 9.10.2. Forming a Group
        1. 9.10.2.1. The <fieldset> tag
        2. 9.10.2.2. The <legend> tag
    11. 9.11. Creating Effective Forms
      1. 9.11.1. Browser Constraints
      2. 9.11.2. Handling Limited Displays
      3. 9.11.3. User-Interface Considerations
      4. 9.11.4. Creating Forms That Flow
      5. 9.11.5. Good Form, Old Chap
    12. 9.12. Forms Programming
      1. 9.12.1. Returning Results
      2. 9.12.2. Handling GET Forms
        1. 9.12.2.1. Using named parameters with GET applications
        2. 9.12.2.2. Using unnamed parameters with GET applications
      3. 9.12.3. Handling POST Forms
  13. 10. Tables
    1. 10.1. The Standard Table Model
      1. 10.1.1. Table Contents
      2. 10.1.2. An Example Table
      3. 10.1.3. Missing Features
    2. 10.2. Basic Table Tags
      1. 10.2.1. The <table> Tag
        1. 10.2.1.1. The align attribute (deprecated)
        2. 10.2.1.2. The bgcolor and background attributes
        3. 10.2.1.3. The border attribute
        4. 10.2.1.4. The frame and rules attributes
        5. 10.2.1.5. The bordercolor, bordercolorlight, and bordercolordark attributes
        6. 10.2.1.6. The cellspacing attribute
        7. 10.2.1.7. The cellpadding attribute
        8. 10.2.1.8. Combining the border, cellspacing, and cellpadding attributes
        9. 10.2.1.9. The cols attribute
        10. 10.2.1.10. The valign and nowrap attributes
        11. 10.2.1.11. The width and height attributes
        12. 10.2.1.12. The summary attribute
        13. 10.2.1.13. The hspace and vspace attributes
      2. 10.2.2. Common Table Attributes
        1. 10.2.2.1. The id and title attributes
        2. 10.2.2.2. The dir and lang attributes
        3. 10.2.2.3. The class and style attributes
        4. 10.2.2.4. The event attributes
      3. 10.2.3. The <tr> Tag
        1. 10.2.3.1. The align and valign attributes
        2. 10.2.3.2. The char and charoff attributes
        3. 10.2.3.3. The bgcolor and background attributes
        4. 10.2.3.4. The bordercolor, bordercolorlight, and bordercolordark attributes
        5. 10.2.3.5. The nowrap attribute
      4. 10.2.4. The <th> and <td> Tags
        1. 10.2.4.1. The align and valign attributes
        2. 10.2.4.2. The width attribute
        3. 10.2.4.3. The height attribute
        4. 10.2.4.4. The colspan attribute
        5. 10.2.4.5. The rowspan attribute
        6. 10.2.4.6. Combining the colspan and rowspan attributes
        7. 10.2.4.7. The nowrap attribute
        8. 10.2.4.8. The bgcolor and background attributes
        9. 10.2.4.9. The bordercolor, bordercolorlight, and bordercolordark attributes
        10. 10.2.4.10. The char and charoff attributes
        11. 10.2.4.11. The headers and scope attributes
        12. 10.2.4.12. The abbr attribute
        13. 10.2.4.13. The axis attribute
      5. 10.2.5. The <caption> Tag
        1. 10.2.5.1. The align and valign attributes
        2. 10.2.5.2. The many other attributes
    3. 10.3. Advanced Table Tags
      1. 10.3.1. Defining Table Sections
      2. 10.3.2. The <thead> Tag
      3. 10.3.3. The <tfoot> Tag
      4. 10.3.4. The <tbody> Tag
      5. 10.3.5. Using Table Sections
      6. 10.3.6. Defining Column Groups
      7. 10.3.7. The <colgroup> Tag
        1. 10.3.7.1. The span attribute
        2. 10.3.7.2. When to span and col
        3. 10.3.7.3. The other <colgroup> attributes
      8. 10.3.8. The <col> tag
        1. 10.3.8.1. The span attribute
        2. 10.3.8.2. The other <col> attributes
      9. 10.3.9. Using Column Groups
    4. 10.4. Beyond Ordinary Tables
  14. 11. Frames
    1. 11.1. An Overview of Frames
    2. 11.2. Frame Tags
      1. 11.2.1. What's in a Frame?
    3. 11.3. Frame Layout
      1. 11.3.1. The <frameset> Tag
        1. 11.3.1.1. The rows and cols attributes
        2. 11.3.1.2. The border, frameborder, framespacing, and bordercolor attributes
        3. 11.3.1.3. Frames and JavaScript
        4. 11.3.1.4. Other <frameset> attributes
      2. 11.3.2. Nesting <frameset> Tags
    4. 11.4. Frame Contents
      1. 11.4.1. The <frame> Tag
        1. 11.4.1.1. The src attribute
        2. 11.4.1.2. The name and id attributes
        3. 11.4.1.3. The noresize attribute
        4. 11.4.1.4. The scrolling attribute
        5. 11.4.1.5. The marginheight and marginwidth attributes
        6. 11.4.1.6. The frameborder and bordercolor attributes
        7. 11.4.1.7. The title and longdesc attributes
    5. 11.5. The <noframes> Tag
      1. 11.5.1. <noframes> Attributes
    6. 11.6. Inline Frames
      1. 11.6.1. The <iframe> Tag
        1. 11.6.1.1. The align attribute
        2. 11.6.1.2. The height and width attributes
      2. 11.6.2. Using Inline Frames
    7. 11.7. Named Frame or Window Targets
      1. 11.7.1. The target Attribute for the <a> Tag
      2. 11.7.2. Special Targets
      3. 11.7.3. The <base> Default Target
      4. 11.7.4. Traditional Link Behavior
    8. 11.8. XFrames
      1. 11.8.1. An XFrames Document
      2. 11.8.2. XFrames URLs
  15. 12. Executable Content
    1. 12.1. Applets and Objects
      1. 12.1.1. The Object Model
        1. 12.1.1.1. The applet model
        2. 12.1.1.2. The applet advantage
        3. 12.1.1.3. Using applets correctly
        4. 12.1.1.4. Writing applets
    2. 12.2. Embedded Content
      1. 12.2.1. The <object> Tag
        1. 12.2.1.1. The classid attribute
        2. 12.2.1.2. The codebase attribute
        3. 12.2.1.3. The archive attribute
        4. 12.2.1.4. The codetype attribute
        5. 12.2.1.5. The data attribute
        6. 12.2.1.6. The type attribute
        7. 12.2.1.7. The align, class, border, height, hspace, style, vspace, and width attributes
        8. 12.2.1.8. The declare attribute
        9. 12.2.1.9. The id, name, and title attributes
        10. 12.2.1.10. The shapes and usemap attributes
        11. 12.2.1.11. The standby attribute
        12. 12.2.1.12. The tabindex and notab attributes
        13. 12.2.1.13. The dir and lang attributes
        14. 12.2.1.14. Object event handling
        15. 12.2.1.15. Supporting incompatible browsers
      2. 12.2.2. The <param> Tag
        1. 12.2.2.1. The id, name, and value attributes
        2. 12.2.2.2. The type and valuetype attributes
      3. 12.2.3. The <applet> Tag (Deprecated)
        1. 12.2.3.1. Applet rendering
        2. 12.2.3.2. The align attribute
        3. 12.2.3.3. The alt attribute
        4. 12.2.3.4. The archive attribute
        5. 12.2.3.5. The code and codebase attributes
        6. 12.2.3.6. The name attribute
        7. 12.2.3.7. The height, hspace, vspace, and width attributes
        8. 12.2.3.8. The mayscript attribute
        9. 12.2.3.9. The title attribute
        10. 12.2.3.10. The object attribute
      4. 12.2.4. The <embed> Tag (Extension)
        1. 12.2.4.1. The align, border, height, hspace, vspace, and width attributes
        2. 12.2.4.2. The hidden attribute
        3. 12.2.4.3. The name attribute
        4. 12.2.4.4. The palette attribute
        5. 12.2.4.5. The pluginspage attribute
        6. 12.2.4.6. The src attribute
        7. 12.2.4.7. The type attribute
        8. 12.2.4.8. The units attribute
      5. 12.2.5. The <noembed> Tag (Extension)
    3. 12.3. JavaScript
      1. 12.3.1. The <script> Tag
        1. 12.3.1.1. The language and type attributes
        2. 12.3.1.2. The src and charset attributes
        3. 12.3.1.3. The defer attribute
      2. 12.3.2. The <noscript> Tag
      3. 12.3.3. JavaScript Event Handlers
        1. 12.3.3.1. Standard event handler attributes
        2. 12.3.3.2. The mouse-related events
        3. 12.3.3.3. The keyboard events
        4. 12.3.3.4. Document events
      4. 12.3.4. javascript URLs
      5. 12.3.5. JavaScript Entities
      6. 12.3.6. The <server> Tag
    4. 12.4. JavaScript Stylesheets (Antiquated)
      1. 12.4.1. JavaScript Stylesheet Syntax
        1. 12.4.1.1. External, document-level, and inline JSS
        2. 12.4.1.2. JSS values
        3. 12.4.1.3. Defining styles for tags
        4. 12.4.1.4. Defining style classes
        5. 12.4.1.5. Using contextual styles
      2. 12.4.2. JavaScript Stylesheet Properties
  16. 13. Dynamic Documents
    1. 13.1. An Overview of Dynamic Documents
      1. 13.1.1. Another Word of Caution
    2. 13.2. Client-Pull Documents
      1. 13.2.1. Uniquely Refreshing
      2. 13.2.2. The Refresh Header Contents
        1. 13.2.2.1. Refreshing the same document
        2. 13.2.2.2. Refreshing with a different document
        3. 13.2.2.3. Cycling between documents
      3. 13.2.3. Pulling Non-HTML Content
      4. 13.2.4. Combining Refresh with Other HTTP Header Fields
        1. 13.2.4.1. A random URL generator
      5. 13.2.5. Performance Considerations
    3. 13.3. Server-Push Documents
      1. 13.3.1. The Multipart/Mixed Media Type
      2. 13.3.2. The Multipart/X-Mixed-Replace Media Type
      3. 13.3.3. Exploiting Multipart Documents
        1. 13.3.3.1. Efficiency considerations
      4. 13.3.4. Creating a Server-Push Document
        1. 13.3.4.1. Server-push example application for NCSA and Apache httpd
  17. 14. Mobile Devices
    1. 14.1. The Mobile Web
      1. 14.1.1. Devices
        1. 14.1.1.1. Mobile phones
        2. 14.1.1.2. PDAs
        3. 14.1.1.3. Convergence devices
      2. 14.1.2. Cellular Access
        1. 14.1.2.1. Low speed
        2. 14.1.2.2. High-speed cellular access
        3. 14.1.2.3. WiFi
    2. 14.2. Device Considerations
      1. 14.2.1. Browser Constraints
      2. 14.2.2. Input Constraints
      3. 14.2.3. Network Constraints
      4. 14.2.4. Display Constraints
    3. 14.3. XHTML Basic
      1. 14.3.1. Supported Tags
        1. 14.3.1.1. Basic content
        2. 14.3.1.2. Images, objects, and scripting
        3. 14.3.1.3. Lists
        4. 14.3.1.4. Forms
        5. 14.3.1.5. Tables
        6. 14.3.1.6. Document header
      2. 14.3.2. Design Versus Intent
    4. 14.4. Effective Mobile Web Design
      1. 14.4.1. Understand Your User
      2. 14.4.2. Links and Navigation
      3. 14.4.3. Forms
      4. 14.4.4. Layout and Presentation
        1. 14.4.4.1. Stylesheets
        2. 14.4.4.2. Text fonts
        3. 14.4.4.3. Margins and spacing
      5. 14.4.5. Images
      6. 14.4.6. General Advice
  18. 15. XML
    1. 15.1. Languages and Metalanguages
      1. 15.1.1. Creation Versus Display
      2. 15.1.2. A Little History
    2. 15.2. Documents and DTDs
    3. 15.3. Understanding XML DTDs
      1. 15.3.1. Comments
      2. 15.3.2. Entities
      3. 15.3.3. Entity Declarations
      4. 15.3.4. Elements
    4. 15.4. Element Grammar
      1. 15.4.1. Sequence, Choice, Grouping, and Repetition
      2. 15.4.2. Multiple Grammar Rules
      3. 15.4.3. XML Element Grammar
      4. 15.4.4. Mixed Element Content
      5. 15.4.5. Empty Elements
    5. 15.5. Element Attributes
      1. 15.5.1. Attribute Values
      2. 15.5.2. Required and Default Attributes
    6. 15.6. Conditional Sections
    7. 15.7. Building an XML DTD
      1. 15.7.1. An XML Address DTD
      2. 15.7.2. Using the Address DTD
    8. 15.8. Using XML
      1. 15.8.1. Creating Your Own Markup Language
      2. 15.8.2. Document Exchange
      3. 15.8.3. Connecting Systems
      4. 15.8.4. Standardizing HTML
  19. 16. XHTML
    1. 16.1. Why XHTML?
      1. 16.1.1. XHTML Document Type Definitions
    2. 16.2. Creating XHTML Documents
      1. 16.2.1. Declaring Document Types
      2. 16.2.2. Understanding Namespaces
      3. 16.2.3. A Minimal XHTML Document
    3. 16.3. HTML Versus XHTML
      1. 16.3.1. Correctly Nested Elements
      2. 16.3.2. End Tags
      3. 16.3.3. Handling Empty Elements
      4. 16.3.4. Case Sensitivity
      5. 16.3.5. Quoted Attribute Values
      6. 16.3.6. Explicit Attribute Values
      7. 16.3.7. Handling Special Characters
      8. 16.3.8. The id and name Attributes
    4. 16.4. XHTML 1.1
      1. 16.4.1. Differences in XHTML 1.1
    5. 16.5. Should You Use XHTML?
      1. 16.5.1. The Dusty Deck Problem
      2. 16.5.2. Automatic Conversion
      3. 16.5.3. Lenient Browsers and Lazy Authors
      4. 16.5.4. Time, Money, and Standards
      5. 16.5.5. Man Versus Machine
      6. 16.5.6. What to Do?
  20. 17. Tips, Tricks, and Hacks
    1. 17.1. Top of the Tips
      1. 17.1.1. Design for Your Audience
      2. 17.1.2. Consistent Documents
    2. 17.2. Cleaning Up After Your HTML Editor
      1. 17.2.1. Where Did My Document Go?
      2. 17.2.2. When and Why to Edit the Editor
      3. 17.2.3. Use the Best
    3. 17.3. Tricks with Tables
      1. 17.3.1. Multicolumn Pages
        1. 17.3.1.1. Basic multicolumn layout
        2. 17.3.1.2. Straddle heads
      2. 17.3.2. Side Heads
      3. 17.3.3. Better Forms Layout
        1. 17.3.3.1. Basic forms layout
        2. 17.3.3.2. Building forms with nested tables
    4. 17.4. Tricks with Windows and Frames
      1. 17.4.1. Targeting Windows
      2. 17.4.2. Overriding Others' Targets
      3. 17.4.3. Multiple Frames in One Link
  21. A. HTML Grammar
    1. A.1. Grammatical Conventions
      1. A.1.1. Typographic and Naming Conventions
      2. A.1.2. Punctuation Conventions
        1. A.1.2.1. Alternation
        2. A.1.2.2. Repetition
        3. A.1.2.3. Optional elements
      3. A.1.3. More Details
      4. A.1.4. Predefined Nonterminals
    2. A.2. The Grammar
  22. B. HTML/XHTML Tag Quick Reference
    1. B.1. Core Attributes
    2. B.2. HTML Quick Reference
  23. C. Cascading Style Sheet Properties Quick Reference
  24. D. The HTML 4.01 DTD
  25. E. The XHTML 1.0 DTD
  26. F. Character Entities
  27. G. Color Names and Values
    1. G.1. Color Values
    2. G.2. Color Names
    3. G.3. The Standard Color Map
  28. H. Netscape Layout Extensions
    1. H.1. Creating Whitespace
      1. H.1.1. The <spacer> Tag (Antiquated)
        1. H.1.1.1. Creating horizontal space
        2. H.1.1.2. Creating vertical space
        3. H.1.1.3. Creating blocks of space
      2. H.1.2. Mimicking the <spacer> Tag
    2. H.2. Multicolumn Layout
      1. H.2.1. The <multicol> Tag (Antiquated)
        1. H.2.1.1. The cols attribute
        2. H.2.1.2. The gutter attribute
        3. H.2.1.3. The width attribute
        4. H.2.1.4. The style and class attributes
      2. H.2.2. Multiple Columns and Other Browsers
      3. H.2.3. Effective Multicolumn Layouts
    3. H.3. Layers
      1. H.3.1. The <layer> Tag (Antiquated)
        1. H.3.1.1. The name attribute
        2. H.3.1.2. The left and top attributes
        3. H.3.1.3. The above, below, and z-index attributes
        4. H.3.1.4. The background and bgcolor attributes
        5. H.3.1.5. The visibility attribute
        6. H.3.1.6. The width attribute
        7. H.3.1.7. The src attribute
        8. H.3.1.8. The clip attribute
        9. H.3.1.9. The style and class attributes
      2. H.3.2. The <ilayer> Tag (Antiquated)
        1. H.3.2.1. The top and left attributes
        2. H.3.2.2. Combining <layer> and <ilayer>
  29. Index
  30. Colophon
  31. Copyright