For the most part, tags — the markup
elements of HTML and XHTML — are simple to understand and use,
since they are made up of common words, abbreviations, and notations.
For instance, the
</i> tags respectively tell the browser to
start and stop italicizing the text characters that come between
them. Accordingly, the syllable
“simp” in our barebones example
above would appear italicized on a browser display.
The HTML and XHTML standards and their various extensions define how and where you place tags within a document. Let’s take a closer look at that syntactic sugar that holds together all documents.
tag consists of a tag
name, sometimes followed by an optional list of
tag attributes, all placed between opening and
closing brackets (
>). The simplest tag is nothing more than a
name appropriately enclosed in brackets, such as
More complicated tags contain one or more
attributes, which specify or modify the behavior
of the tag.
According to the HTML standard, tag and attribute names are not
case-sensitive. There’s no difference in effect
<HeaD>; they are all equivalent. With
XHTML, case is important: all current standard
tag and attribute names are in lowercase.
For both HTML and XHTML, the values that you assign to a particular attribute may be case-sensitive, depending on your browser and server. In particular, file location and name references — or uniform resource ...