You are previewing HTML, XHTML, and CSS Bible, Fifth Edition.
O'Reilly logo
HTML, XHTML, and CSS Bible, Fifth Edition

Book Description

An essential update to the key web authoring standards of HTML, XHTML, and CSS

The existence of Web pages depends on three vital technologies: HTML (base language that Web pages are written in), XHTML (standards that define how to write HTML pages), and CSS (standard that applies formatting styles to Web pages). This new edition provides you with critical coverage of these three Web authoring standards, and places special focus on the upcoming releases of HTML 5 and CSS 3.

Serving as a tutorial and reference, this comprehensive resource explains the basic structure and necessary formatting to create a static (non-changing) and dynamic (changing) page on the Internet.

  • HTML, XHTML, and CSS are the three major Web authoring standards for creating either a static or dynamic Web page

  • Guides you through using HTML to create Web documents and introduces updates to HTML 5

  • Demonstrates best practices for using tools and utilities to create Web documents

  • Includes coverage of the new CSS 3 and tips and tricks for maximizing its abilities

Helpful examples round out this essential guide and will get you up and running with HTML, XHMTL, and CSS in no time!

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About the Author
  3. Credits
  4. Acknowledgments
  5. Introduction
    1. A Brief History of the Internet and the World Wide Web
    2. What This Book Covers
      1. HTML 4.01/XHTML 1.1
      2. CSS 2.1
    3. User Agent (Browser) Coverage
    4. Web 2.0
    5. Terminology
    6. Who Should Read This Book?
    7. This Is Not a Web Design Book
    8. What Is Contained in This Book?
      1. Part I: Creating Content with HTML
      2. Part II: HTML Tools and Variants
      3. Part III: Controlling Presentation with CSS
      4. Part IV: Additional CSS Tools
      5. Reference Appendixes
    9. How to Use This Book
      1. The sequential read
      2. A targeted or random read
    10. Conventions and Features
      1. Tips, Notes, and Cross-References
      2. Code
        1. Code in text
        2. Code listings
    11. Companion Website
  6. I. Creating Content with HTML
    1. 1. What Is a Markup Language?
      1. 1.1. What Are We Doing Here?
      2. 1.2. Understanding Hypertext
      3. 1.3. Understanding Markup Instructions
      4. 1.4. Understanding Markup Language
      5. 1.5. Summary
    2. 2. HTML Values and Units
      1. 2.1. Basic Tag Attribute Format
      2. 2.2. Common Attributes
        1. 2.2.1. Tag identifiers—IDs and classes
          1. 2.2.1.1. IDs
          2. 2.2.1.2. Classes
      3. 2.3. Text and Comments
        1. 2.3.1. Comments
        2. 2.3.2. CDATA sections
      4. 2.4. Uniform Resource Indicators
      5. 2.5. Language and International Options
        1. 2.5.1. Language code
        2. 2.5.2. Text direction
      6. 2.6. Summary
    3. 3. What Goes into a Web Document?
      1. 3.1. Specifying Document Type
      2. 3.2. Overall Document Structure: HTML, Head, and Body
        1. 3.2.1. The <html> tag
        2. 3.2.2. The <head> tag
        3. 3.2.3. The <body> tag
      3. 3.3. Style Definitions
      4. 3.4. Block Elements: Markup for Paragraphs and Other Blocks of Content
        1. 3.4.1. Formatted paragraphs
        2. 3.4.2. Headings
        3. 3.4.3. Quoted text
        4. 3.4.4. List elements
        5. 3.4.5. Preformatted text
        6. 3.4.6. Divisions
      5. 3.5. Inline Elements: Markup for Characters
        1. 3.5.1. Basic inline tags
        2. 3.5.2. Spanning text
      6. 3.6. Special Characters (Entities)
      7. 3.7. Organizational Elements
        1. 3.7.1. Tables
        2. 3.7.2. Forms
      8. 3.8. Linking to Other Pages
      9. 3.9. Images
      10. 3.10. Comments
      11. 3.11. Scripts
      12. 3.12. Putting It All Together
      13. 3.13. Summary
    4. 4. The HEAD Elements
      1. 4.1. Specifying the Document Title
      2. 4.2. Providing Information to Search Engines
      3. 4.3. Setting the Default Path
      4. 4.4. Script Sections
      5. 4.5. Style Sections
      6. 4.6. Specifying Profiles
      7. 4.7. Background Color and Background Images
        1. 4.7.1. Specifying the document background color
        2. 4.7.2. Specifying the document background image
      8. 4.8. Summary
    5. 5. Text Structuring Essentials
      1. 5.1. Formatting Paragraphs
      2. 5.2. Line Breaks
      3. 5.3. Divisions
      4. 5.4. Rules
      5. 5.5. Block Quotes
      6. 5.6. Preformatted Text
      7. 5.7. Summary
    6. 6. Character Formatting Essentials
      1. 6.1. Methods of Text Control
        1. 6.1.1. The <font> tag
        2. 6.1.2. Emphasis and other text tags
        3. 6.1.3. CSS text control
      2. 6.2. Bold and Italic Text
      3. 6.3. Use of Emphasis Instead of Italics
      4. 6.4. Monospace (Typewriter) Fonts
      5. 6.5. Superscripts and Subscripts
      6. 6.6. Abbreviations
      7. 6.7. Marking Editorial Insertions and Deletions
      8. 6.8. Grouping Inline Elements with the Span Tag
      9. 6.9. Summary
    7. 7. Lists
      1. 7.1. Understanding Lists
      2. 7.2. Ordered (Numbered) Lists
      3. 7.3. Unordered (Bulleted) Lists
      4. 7.4. Definition Lists
      5. 7.5. Nested Lists
      6. 7.6. Summary
    8. 8. Links
      1. 8.1. What's in a Link?
      2. 8.2. Linking to a Web Page
      3. 8.3. Absolute versus Relative Links
      4. 8.4. Link Targets
      5. 8.5. Link Titles
      6. 8.6. Keyboard Shortcuts and Tab Order
        1. 8.6.1. Keyboard shortcuts
        2. 8.6.2. Tab order
      7. 8.7. Creating an Anchor
      8. 8.8. Choosing Link Colors
      9. 8.9. Link Destination Details
      10. 8.10. The Link Tag
      11. 8.11. Summary
    9. 9. Tables
      1. 9.1. Parts of an HTML Table
      2. 9.2. Table Width and Alignment
      3. 9.3. Cell Spacing and Padding
      4. 9.4. Borders and Rules
        1. 9.4.1. Table borders
        2. 9.4.2. Table rules
      5. 9.5. Rows
      6. 9.6. Cells
      7. 9.7. Table Captions
      8. 9.8. Row Groups—Header, Body, and Footer
      9. 9.9. Background Colors
      10. 9.10. Spanning Columns and Rows
      11. 9.11. Grouping Columns
      12. 9.12. Formatting with Tables
        1. 9.12.1. Rudimentary Formatting with Tables
        2. 9.12.2. Real-world examples
          1. 9.12.2.1. Floating page
        3. 9.12.3. Odd graphics and text combinations
        4. 9.12.4. Navigational menus and blocks
        5. 9.12.5. Multiple columns
      13. 9.13. Summary
    10. 10. Frames
      1. 10.1. Frames Overview
      2. 10.2. Framesets and Frame Documents
        1. 10.2.1. Creating a frameset
          1. 10.2.1.1. The frameset tag
          2. 10.2.1.2. The frame tag
        2. 10.2.2. Frame margins, borders, and scroll bars
        3. 10.2.3. Permitting or prohibiting user modifications
      3. 10.3. Targeting Links to Frames
      4. 10.4. Nested Framesets
      5. 10.5. Inline Frames
      6. 10.6. Summary
    11. 11. Forms
      1. 11.1. Understanding Forms
      2. 11.2. Inserting a Form
        1. 11.2.1. HTTP GET
        2. 11.2.2. HTTP POST
        3. 11.2.3. Additional <form> attributes
      3. 11.3. Field Labels
      4. 11.4. Text Input Boxes
      5. 11.5. Password Input Boxes
      6. 11.6. Radio Buttons
      7. 11.7. Check Boxes
      8. 11.8. List Boxes
      9. 11.9. Large Text Input
      10. 11.10. Hidden Fields
      11. 11.11. Buttons
      12. 11.12. Images
      13. 11.13. File Fields
      14. 11.14. Submit and Reset Buttons
      15. 11.15. Tab Order and Keyboard Shortcuts
      16. 11.16. Preventing Changes
      17. 11.17. Fieldsets and Legends
      18. 11.18. Using Events with Forms
      19. 11.19. Form Scripts and Script Services
        1. 11.19.1. Download a handler
        2. 11.19.2. Use a script service
      20. 11.20. Summary
    12. 12. Colors and Images
      1. 12.1. Web Color Basics
      2. 12.2. Other Means to Specify Colors
      3. 12.3. The Evolution of Color on the Web
      4. 12.4. Using Proper Means to Specify Colors
      5. 12.5. Image Formats for the Web
        1. 12.5.1. Image compression
        2. 12.5.2. Compression options
        3. 12.5.3. GIF
        4. 12.5.4. JPEG
        5. 12.5.5. PNG
      6. 12.6. Creating Graphics
        1. 12.6.1. Essential functions
        2. 12.6.2. Progressive JPEGs and interlaced GIFs
        3. 12.6.3. Using transparency
        4. 12.6.4. Animated images
      7. 12.7. Inserting an Image
      8. 12.8. Image Alignment
      9. 12.9. Specifying Text to Display for Nongraphical Browsers
      10. 12.10. Sizing an Image
      11. 12.11. Image Borders
      12. 12.12. Image Maps
        1. 12.12.1. Specifying an image map
        2. 12.12.2. Specifying clickable regions
          1. 12.12.2.1. Specifying regions using anchor tags
          2. 12.12.2.2. Specifying regions using area tags
        3. 12.12.3. Putting it all together
      13. 12.13. Summary
    13. 13. Multimedia
      1. 13.1. Animated Images
      2. 13.2. Animation and Video Formats, Plug-ins, and Players
        1. 13.2.1. Popular formats and players (plug-ins)
          1. 13.2.1.1. Flash
          2. 13.2.1.2. RealOne
          3. 13.2.1.3. QuickTime
          4. 13.2.1.4. YouTube
        2. 13.2.2. Windows Media Player
      3. 13.3. Embedding Media via the Object Tag
      4. 13.4. Embedding a Windows Media Player Using <object>
      5. 13.5. Embedding YouTube Videos
      6. 13.6. Adding Sound to Web Pages
      7. 13.7. Creating Multimedia Files
      8. 13.8. A Final Word About Multimedia
      9. 13.9. Summary
    14. 14. Special Characters
      1. 14.1. Understanding Character Encodings
      2. 14.2. Special Characters
      3. 14.3. En and Em Spaces and Dashes
      4. 14.4. Copyright and Trademark Symbols
      5. 14.5. Currency Symbols
      6. 14.6. "Real" Quotation Marks
      7. 14.7. Arrows
      8. 14.8. Accented Characters
      9. 14.9. Greek and Mathematical Characters
      10. 14.10. Other Useful Entities
      11. 14.11. Summary
    15. 15. Internationalization and Localization
      1. 15.1. Internationalization and Localization
      2. 15.2. Translating Your Web Site
      3. 15.3. Understanding Unicode
        1. 15.3.1. Basic Latin (U + 0000–U + 007F)
          1. 15.3.1.1. ISO-8859-1
          2. 15.3.1.2. Latin-1 Supplement (U + 00 C0 - U + 00FF)
          3. 15.3.1.3. Latin Extended-A (U + 0100 - U + 017F)
          4. 15.3.1.4. Latin Extended-B and Latin Extended Additional
      4. 15.4. Summary
    16. 16. Scripts
      1. 16.1. Client-Side versus Server-Side Scripting
        1. 16.1.1. Client-side scripting
        2. 16.1.2. Server-side scripting
      2. 16.2. Setting the Default Scripting Language
      3. 16.3. Including a Script
      4. 16.4. Calling an External Script
      5. 16.5. Triggering Scripts with Events
      6. 16.6. Hiding Scripts from Older Browsers
      7. 16.7. Summary
    17. 17. Dynamic HTML
      1. 17.1. The Need for DHTML
      2. 17.2. How DHTML Works
      3. 17.3. The Document Object Model
        1. 17.3.1. The history of the DOM
        2. 17.3.2. Understanding the DOM
        3. 17.3.3. DOM node properties and methods
        4. 17.3.4. Traversing and changing a document's nodes
      4. 17.4. The JavaScript DOM
        1. 17.4.1. The window object
        2. 17.4.2. The document object
        3. 17.4.3. The form object
        4. 17.4.4. The location object
        5. 17.4.5. The history object
        6. 17.4.6. The self object
      5. 17.5. Using Event Handlers
      6. 17.6. Accessing an Element by Its ID
      7. 17.7. Cross-Browser Compatibility Issues
        1. 17.7.1. Browser detection: querying for identification
        2. 17.7.2. Browser detection: object detection
      8. 17.8. DHTML Examples
      9. 17.9. Form Automation: Check boxes
        1. 17.9.1. Rollovers
        2. 17.9.2. Collapsible menus
          1. 17.9.2.1. How they work
      10. 17.10. Summary
    18. 18. The Future of HTML: HTML5
      1. 18.1. More Publishing and Layout Features
      2. 18.2. Accessible Multimedia
      3. 18.3. Changes: Elements and Attributes
        1. 18.3.1. New elements
        2. 18.3.2. New attributes by element
        3. 18.3.3. New input types (form input element)
        4. 18.3.4. New global attributes
        5. 18.3.5. Deprecated elements
        6. 18.3.6. Deprecated attributes
      4. 18.4. Summary
  7. II. HTML Tools and Variants
    1. 19. Web Development Software
      1. 19.1. Text-Oriented Editors
        1. 19.1.1. Simple text editors
        2. 19.1.2. Smart text editors
        3. 19.1.3. HTML-specific editors
      2. 19.2. WYSIWYG HTML Editors
        1. 19.2.1. NetObjects Fusion
        2. 19.2.2. Dreamweaver
        3. 19.2.3. Firefox Add-ons
      3. 19.3. Other Tools
        1. 19.3.1. Graphics editors
        2. 19.3.2. Adobe Flash
      4. 19.4. Summary
    2. 20. Publishing Your Site
      1. 20.1. Introducing FTP
      2. 20.2. FTP Clients
      3. 20.3. Notable FTP Clients
      4. 20.4. Principles of Web Server File Organization
      5. 20.5. Summary
    3. 21. An Introduction To XML
      1. 21.1. XML Basics
      2. 21.2. XML Syntax
        1. 21.2.1. XML Declaration and DOCTYPE
        2. 21.2.2. Elements
        3. 21.2.3. Attributes
        4. 21.2.4. Comments
        5. 21.2.5. Non-parsed data
        6. 21.2.6. Entities
        7. 21.2.7. Namespaces
        8. 21.2.8. Stylesheets
      3. 21.3. Working with Document Type Definitions
        1. 21.3.1. Using elements in DTDs
          1. 21.3.1.1. Using element declaration syntax for empty elements
          2. 21.3.1.2. Using element declaration syntax for elements with PCDATA
          3. 21.3.1.3. Using element declaration syntax for elements with child elements
          4. 21.3.1.4. Declaring the number of occurrences for elements
        2. 21.3.2. Using attributes in DTDs
        3. 21.3.3. Using entities in DTDs
        4. 21.3.4. Using PCDATA and CDATA in DTDs
      4. 21.4. Introducing XML Schemas
      5. 21.5. Working with Schemas
      6. 21.6. Using XML
        1. 21.6.1. Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
        2. 21.6.2. XML editing
        3. 21.6.3. XML parsing
      7. 21.7. Summary
    4. 22. Creating Mobile Documents
      1. 22.1. Understanding the Evolution of the Mobile Web
        1. 22.1.1. The first, dark years of mobility
        2. 22.1.2. The Open Mobile Alliance and other standards
        3. 22.1.3. The bottom line
      2. 22.2. XHTML Basic 1.1
        1. 22.2.1. The XHTML Basic 1.1 doctype
        2. 22.2.2. XHTML Basic 1.1 elements
        3. 22.2.3. Special considerations
          1. 22.2.3.1. Screen size
          2. 22.2.3.2. Balancing content for bandwidth and cost
          3. 22.2.3.3. Input restrictions
          4. 22.2.3.4. Easy URLs
          5. 22.2.3.5. Small images
          6. 22.2.3.6. Descriptive alt attributes and link text
          7. 22.2.3.7. Reliable navigation schemes
          8. 22.2.3.8. Limit complex display structures
      3. 22.3. Mobile Web Development Tools
      4. 22.4. Summary
    5. 23. Tidying and Validating Your Documents
      1. 23.1. Tidying Your HTML Code
        1. 23.1.1. HTML Tidy
        2. 23.1.2. Getting HTML Tidy
        3. 23.1.3. Running HTML Tidy
      2. 23.2. Validating Your Code
        1. 23.2.1. Specifying the correct document type declaration
        2. 23.2.2. Validation tools
        3. 23.2.3. Understanding validation output
      3. 23.3. Additional Testing and Validation
        1. 23.3.1. Testing with a variety of user agents
        2. 23.3.2. Testing for a variety of displays
      4. 23.4. Summary
    6. 24. HTML Tips and Tricks
      1. 24.1. Preloading Images
      2. 24.2. Controlling Text Breaks in Table Cells
      3. 24.3. Stretching Title Bars
      4. 24.4. Simulating Newspaper Columns
      5. 24.5. Including Image Size for Fast Display
      6. 24.6. Protecting E-mail Addresses
      7. 24.7. Automating Forms
        1. 24.7.1. Manipulating form objects
        2. 24.7.2. Validating form input
      8. 24.8. Modifying the User Agent Environment
        1. 24.8.1. The concept
        2. 24.8.2. The implementation
        3. 24.8.3. The JavaScript functions
      9. 24.9. Summary
  8. III. Controlling Presentation with CSS
    1. 25. CSS Basics
      1. 25.1. The Purpose of Styles
      2. 25.2. Styles and HTML
      3. 25.3. CSS Levels 1, 2, and 3
      4. 25.4. Defining Styles
      5. 25.5. Cascading Styles
      6. 25.6. Summary
    2. 26. Style Definitions
      1. 26.1. The Style Definition Format
      2. 26.2. Understanding Selectors
        1. 26.2.1. Matching elements by type
        2. 26.2.2. Matching using the universal selector
        3. 26.2.3. Matching elements by class
        4. 26.2.4. Matching elements by identifier
        5. 26.2.5. Matching elements by specific attributes
        6. 26.2.6. Matching child, descendant, and adjacent sibling elements
          1. 26.2.6.1. Understanding document hierarchy
            1. 26.2.6.1.1. Ancestors and descendants
            2. 26.2.6.1.2. Parents and children
            3. 26.2.6.1.3. Siblings
          2. 26.2.6.2. Selecting by hierarchy
      3. 26.3. Understanding Style Inheritance
      4. 26.4. Using Pseudo-Classes
        1. 26.4.1. Anchor styles
        2. 26.4.2. The :first-child pseudo-class
        3. 26.4.3. The :lang pseudo-class
      5. 26.5. Pseudo-Elements
        1. 26.5.1. First line
        2. 26.5.2. First letter
        3. 26.5.3. Before and after
      6. 26.6. Shorthand Expressions
      7. 26.7. Summary
    3. 27. CSS Values and Units
      1. 27.1. General Property Value Rules
      2. 27.2. Property Value Metrics
        1. 27.2.1. Keyword values
        2. 27.2.2. Real-world measures
        3. 27.2.3. Screen measures
        4. 27.2.4. Relational measures
        5. 27.2.5. Color and URL functions
        6. 27.2.6. Aural metrics
      3. 27.3. Summary
    4. 28. CSS Inheritance and Cascade
      1. 28.1. Inheritance
      2. 28.2. Cascade
      3. 28.3. Specificity
      4. 28.4. Summary
    5. 29. Font Properties
      1. 29.1. Understanding Fonts
      2. 29.2. Font Types
      3. 29.3. Font Sizing
      4. 29.4. Font Styling
      5. 29.5. Line Spacing
      6. 29.6. Embedding Fonts in a Document
      7. 29.7. Summary
    6. 30. Text Formatting
      1. 30.1. Aligning Text
        1. 30.1.1. Controlling horizontal alignment
        2. 30.1.2. Controlling vertical alignment
      2. 30.2. Indenting Text
      3. 30.3. Controlling White Space Within Text
        1. 30.3.1. Clearing floating objects
        2. 30.3.2. The white-space property
      4. 30.4. Controlling Letter and Word Spacing
      5. 30.5. Specifying Capitalization
      6. 30.6. Using Text Decorations
      7. 30.7. Autogenerated Text
      8. 30.8. Using CSS Table Properties
      9. 30.9. Controlling Table Attributes
        1. 30.9.1. Table borders
        2. 30.9.2. Table border spacing
        3. 30.9.3. Collapsing borders
        4. 30.9.4. Borders on empty cells
      10. 30.10. Table Layout
      11. 30.11. Aligning and Positioning Captions
      12. 30.12. Summary
    7. 31. CSS Lists
      1. 31.1. An Overview of Lists
      2. 31.2. CSS Lists—Any Element Will Do
      3. 31.3. List Style Type
      4. 31.4. Positioning of Markers
      5. 31.5. Using Images as List Markers
      6. 31.6. Summary
    8. 32. Padding, Margins, and Borders
      1. 32.1. The CSS Box Formatting Model
      2. 32.2. Element Padding
      3. 32.3. Element Borders
        1. 32.3.1. Border width
        2. 32.3.2. Border style
        3. 32.3.3. Border color
        4. 32.3.4. Border property shortcuts
        5. 32.3.5. Border spacing
      4. 32.4. Element Margins
      5. 32.5. Dynamic Outlines
      6. 32.6. Summary
    9. 33. Colors and Backgrounds
      1. 33.1. Element Colors
        1. 33.1.1. Foreground colors
        2. 33.1.2. Background colors
      2. 33.2. Background Images
        1. 33.2.1. Repeating and scrolling images
        2. 33.2.2. Positioning background images
        3. 33.2.3. The background shortcut property
      3. 33.3. Summary
    10. 34. CSS Layouts
      1. 34.1. Understanding CSS Positioning
        1. 34.1.1. Static positioning
        2. 34.1.2. Relative positioning
        3. 34.1.3. Absolute positioning
        4. 34.1.4. Fixed positioning
      2. 34.2. Specifying the Element Position
      3. 34.3. Floating Elements to the Left or Right
      4. 34.4. Defining an Element's Width and Height
        1. 34.4.1. Specifying exact sizes
        2. 34.4.2. Specifying maximum and minimum sizes
        3. 34.4.3. Controlling element overflow
      5. 34.5. Stacking Elements in Layers
      6. 34.6. Controlling Element Visibility
      7. 34.7. Summary
    11. 35. Pseudo-Elements and Generated Content
      1. 35.1. The Content Property
      2. 35.2. Pseudo-Elements
        1. 35.2.1. :first-line
        2. 35.2.2. :first-letter
        3. 35.2.3. :before and :after
      3. 35.3. Quotation Marks
      4. 35.4. Numbering Elements Automatically
        1. 35.4.1. The counter object
        2. 35.4.2. Changing the counter value
        3. 35.4.3. A counter example: chapter and section numbers
        4. 35.4.4. Custom list numbers
      5. 35.5. Summary
    12. 36. Dynamic HTML with CSS
      1. 36.1. Accessing CSS Properties with JavaScript
      2. 36.2. Useful CSS Manipulation
        1. 36.2.1. Hiding and showing text
        2. 36.2.2. Picture zooming
        3. 36.2.3. Menu buttons with rollovers
      3. 36.3. Summary
    13. 37. Media Styles and Defining Documents for Printing
      1. 37.1. Understanding CSS Media Types
        1. 37.1.1. Specifying media types
          1. 37.1.1.1. Specifying one style's media type
          2. 37.1.1.2. Specifying a group of styles' media type
          3. 37.1.1.3. Specifying an external style sheet's media type
      2. 37.2. Setting Up Documents for Printing
        1. 37.2.1. The page box formatting model
        2. 37.2.2. Defining the page size with the @page rule
          1. 37.2.2.1. Setting up the page size with the size property
          2. 37.2.2.2. Setting margins with the margin property
          3. 37.2.2.3. Including crop and cross marks
        3. 37.2.3. Controlling page breaks
          1. 37.2.3.1. Using the page-break-before and page-break-after properties
          2. 37.2.3.2. Using the page-break-inside property
        4. 37.2.4. Handling widows and orphans
        5. 37.2.5. Preparing documents for double-sided printing
      3. 37.3. Creating a Multimedia Document
        1. 37.3.1. The online (screen media) document
        2. 37.3.2. Reformatting the page
      4. 37.4. Summary
    14. 38. The Future of CSS: CSS3
      1. 38.1. Just Better
      2. 38.2. Modularity
      3. 38.3. Using CSS3 Properties Today
      4. 38.4. More Control over Selections
      5. 38.5. Revisiting the Brass Ring of CSS: Rounded Corners
      6. 38.6. Summary
  9. IV. Additional CSS Tools
    1. 39. User Interface Styles
      1. 39.1. Changing the Cursor
      2. 39.2. User Interface Colors
      3. 39.3. User Interface Fonts
      4. 39.4. Summary
    2. 40. Testing and Validating CSS
      1. 40.1. Testing Syntax As You Create Styles
      2. 40.2. A Word About Formatting
      3. 40.3. Validating CSS
      4. 40.4. Firefox Add-ons for CSS Editing
      5. 40.5. Summary
    3. 41. CSS Tips and Tricks
      1. 41.1. Hanging Indents
      2. 41.2. Expanding Buttons
      3. 41.3. Pull Quotes
      4. 41.4. Tabbed Menus
        1. 41.4.1. Rounded Boxes
        2. 41.4.2. Flowing Elements
        3. 41.4.3. Flowing Text
      5. 41.5. Summary
  10. A. XHTML Element Quick Reference
    1. A.1. Element Listings
      1. A.1.1. <a>
        1. A.1.1.1. Context
        2. A.1.1.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.1.3. Usage example
      2. A.1.2. <abbr>
        1. A.1.2.1. Context
        2. A.1.2.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.2.3. Usage example
      3. A.1.3. <acronym>
        1. A.1.3.1. Context
        2. A.1.3.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.3.3. Usage example
        4. A.1.3.4. <address>
        5. A.1.3.5. Context
        6. A.1.3.6. Attributes
        7. A.1.3.7. Usage example
      4. A.1.4. <area>
        1. A.1.4.1. Context
        2. A.1.4.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.4.3. Usage example
      5. A.1.5. <b>
        1. A.1.5.1. Context
        2. A.1.5.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.5.3. Usage example
      6. A.1.6. <base>
        1. A.1.6.1. Context
        2. A.1.6.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.6.3. Usage example
      7. A.1.7. <bdo>
        1. A.1.7.1. Context
        2. A.1.7.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.7.3. Usage example
      8. A.1.8. <big>
        1. A.1.8.1. Context
        2. A.1.8.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.8.3. Usage example
      9. A.1.9. <blockquote>
        1. A.1.9.1. Context
        2. A.1.9.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.9.3. Usage example
      10. A.1.10. <body>
        1. A.1.10.1. Context
        2. A.1.10.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.10.3. Usage example
      11. A.1.11. <br>
        1. A.1.11.1. Context
        2. A.1.11.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.11.3. Usage example
      12. A.1.12. <button>
        1. A.1.12.1. Context
        2. A.1.12.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.12.3. Usage example
      13. A.1.13. <caption>
        1. A.1.13.1. Context
        2. A.1.13.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.13.3. Usage example
      14. A.1.14. <cite>
        1. A.1.14.1. Context
        2. A.1.14.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.14.3. Usage Example
      15. A.1.15. <code>
        1. A.1.15.1. Context
        2. A.1.15.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.15.3. Usage Example
      16. A.1.16. <col>
        1. A.1.16.1. Context
        2. A.1.16.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.16.3. Usage example
      17. A.1.17. <colgroup>
        1. A.1.17.1. Context
        2. A.1.17.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.17.3. Usage example
      18. A.1.18. <dd>
        1. A.1.18.1. Context
        2. A.1.18.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.18.3. Usage example
      19. A.1.19. <del>
        1. A.1.19.1. Context
        2. A.1.19.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.19.3. Usage example
      20. A.1.20. <dfn>
        1. A.1.20.1. Context
        2. A.1.20.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.20.3. Usage example
      21. A.1.21. <div>
        1. A.1.21.1. Context
        2. A.1.21.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.21.3. Usage example
      22. A.1.22. <dl>
        1. A.1.22.1. Context
        2. A.1.22.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.22.3. Usage example
      23. A.1.23. <dt>
        1. A.1.23.1. Context
        2. A.1.23.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.23.3. Usage example
      24. A.1.24. <em>
        1. A.1.24.1. Context
        2. A.1.24.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.24.3. Usage example
      25. A.1.25. <fieldset>
        1. A.1.25.1. Context
        2. A.1.25.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.25.3. Usage example
      26. A.1.26. <form>
        1. A.1.26.1. Context
        2. A.1.26.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.26.3. Usage example
      27. A.1.27. <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>
        1. A.1.27.1. Context
        2. A.1.27.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.27.3. Usage example
      28. A.1.28. <head>
        1. A.1.28.1. Context
        2. A.1.28.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.28.3. Usage example
      29. A.1.29. <hr>
        1. A.1.29.1. Context
        2. A.1.29.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.29.3. Usage example
      30. A.1.30. <html>
        1. A.1.30.1. Context
        2. A.1.30.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.30.3. Usage example
      31. A.1.31. <i>
        1. A.1.31.1. Context
        2. A.1.31.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.31.3. Usage example
      32. A.1.32. <img>
        1. A.1.32.1. Context
        2. A.1.32.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.32.3. Usage example
      33. A.1.33. <input>
        1. A.1.33.1. Context
        2. A.1.33.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.33.3. Usage example
      34. A.1.34. <ins>
        1. A.1.34.1. Context
        2. A.1.34.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.34.3. Usage example
      35. A.1.35. <kbd>
        1. A.1.35.1. Context
        2. A.1.35.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.35.3. Usage example
      36. A.1.36. <label>
        1. A.1.36.1. Context
        2. A.1.36.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.36.3. Usage example
      37. A.1.37. <legend>
        1. A.1.37.1. Context
        2. A.1.37.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.37.3. Usage example
      38. A.1.38. <li>
        1. A.1.38.1. Context
        2. A.1.38.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.38.3. Usage example
      39. A.1.39. <link>
        1. A.1.39.1. Context
        2. A.1.39.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.39.3. Usage example
      40. A.1.40. <map>
        1. A.1.40.1. Context
        2. A.1.40.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.40.3. Usage example
      41. A.1.41. <meta>
        1. A.1.41.1. Context
        2. A.1.41.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.41.3. Usage example
      42. A.1.42. <noscript>
        1. A.1.42.1. Context
        2. A.1.42.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.42.3. Usage example
      43. A.1.43. <object>
        1. A.1.43.1. Context
        2. A.1.43.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.43.3. Usage example
      44. A.1.44. <ol>
        1. A.1.44.1. Context
        2. A.1.44.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.44.3. Usage example
      45. A.1.45. <optgroup>
        1. A.1.45.1. Context
        2. A.1.45.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.45.3. Usage example
      46. A.1.46. <option>
        1. A.1.46.1. Context
        2. A.1.46.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.46.3. Usage example
      47. A.1.47. <p>
        1. A.1.47.1. Context
        2. A.1.47.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.47.3. Usage example
      48. A.1.48. <param>
        1. A.1.48.1. Context
        2. A.1.48.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.48.3. Usage example
      49. A.1.49. <pre>
        1. A.1.49.1. Context
        2. A.1.49.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.49.3. Usage example
      50. A.1.50. <q>
        1. A.1.50.1. Context
        2. A.1.50.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.50.3. Usage example
      51. A.1.51. <samp>
        1. A.1.51.1. Context
        2. A.1.51.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.51.3. Usage example
      52. A.1.52. <script>
        1. A.1.52.1. Context
        2. A.1.52.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.52.3. Usage example
      53. A.1.53. <select>
        1. A.1.53.1. Context
        2. A.1.53.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.53.3. Usage example
      54. A.1.54. <small>
        1. A.1.54.1. Context
        2. A.1.54.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.54.3. Usage example
      55. A.1.55. <span>
        1. A.1.55.1. Context
        2. A.1.55.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.55.3. Usage example
      56. A.1.56. <strong>
        1. A.1.56.1. Context
        2. A.1.56.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.56.3. Usage example
      57. A.1.57. <style>
        1. A.1.57.1. Context
        2. A.1.57.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.57.3. Usage example
      58. A.1.58. <sub>
        1. A.1.58.1. Context
        2. A.1.58.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.58.3. Usage example
      59. A.1.59. <sup>
        1. A.1.59.1. Context
        2. A.1.59.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.59.3. Usage example
      60. A.1.60. <table>
        1. A.1.60.1. Context
        2. A.1.60.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.60.3. Usage example
      61. A.1.61. <tbody>
        1. A.1.61.1. Context
        2. A.1.61.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.61.3. Usage example
      62. A.1.62. <td>
        1. A.1.62.1. Context
        2. A.1.62.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.62.3. Usage example
      63. A.1.63. <textarea>
        1. A.1.63.1. Context
        2. A.1.63.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.63.3. Usage example
      64. A.1.64. <tfoot>
        1. A.1.64.1. Context
        2. A.1.64.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.64.3. Usage example
      65. A.1.65. <th>
        1. A.1.65.1. Context
        2. A.1.65.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.65.3. Usage example
      66. A.1.66. <thead>
        1. A.1.66.1. Context
        2. A.1.66.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.66.3. Usage example
      67. A.1.67. <title>
        1. A.1.67.1. Context
        2. A.1.67.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.67.3. Usage example
      68. A.1.68. <tr>
        1. A.1.68.1. Context
        2. A.1.68.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.68.3. Usage example
      69. A.1.69. <tt>
        1. A.1.69.1. Context
        2. A.1.69.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.69.3. Usage example
      70. A.1.70. <ul>
        1. A.1.70.1. Context
        2. A.1.70.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.70.3. Usage example
      71. A.1.71. <var>
        1. A.1.71.1. Context
        2. A.1.71.2. Attributes
        3. A.1.71.3. Usage example
    2. A.2. Event Attributes
      1. A.2.1. Standard events
      2. A.2.2. Other Events
    3. A.3. Other Common Attributes
      1. A.3.1. Core attributes
      2. A.3.2. Internationalization attributes
      3. A.3.3. Common color codes
  11. B. HTML Special Characters Quick Reference
  12. C. CSS 2.1 Properties Quick Reference
    1. C.1. Property Listings
      1. C.1.1. Property List: Quick Reference
      2. C.1.2. Background
        1. C.1.2.1. background-image
        2. C.1.2.2. background-repeat
        3. C.1.2.3. background-attachment
        4. C.1.2.4. background-position
        5. C.1.2.5. background-color
        6. C.1.2.6. background
      3. C.1.3. List
        1. C.1.3.1. list-style-type
        2. C.1.3.2. list-style-position
        3. C.1.3.3. list-style-image
        4. C.1.3.4. list-style
      4. C.1.4. Generated content
        1. C.1.4.1. content
        2. C.1.4.2. quotes
        3. C.1.4.3. counter-increment
        4. C.1.4.4. counter-reset
      5. C.1.5. Font and text
        1. C.1.5.1. text-align
        2. C.1.5.2. text-decoration
        3. C.1.5.3. text-indent
        4. C.1.5.4. text-transform
        5. C.1.5.5. color
        6. C.1.5.6. font-family
        7. C.1.5.7. font-size
        8. C.1.5.8. font-style
        9. C.1.5.9. font-variant
        10. C.1.5.10. font-weight
        11. C.1.5.11. font
        12. C.1.5.12. letter-spacing
        13. C.1.5.13. word-spacing
        14. C.1.5.14. white-space
      6. C.1.6. Text direction
        1. C.1.6.1. unicode-bidi
        2. C.1.6.2. direction
      7. C.1.7. Block
        1. C.1.7.1. margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
        2. C.1.7.2. margin
        3. C.1.7.3. padding-left, padding-right, padding-top, padding-bottom
        4. C.1.7.4. padding
        5. C.1.7.5. clip
        6. C.1.7.6. overflow
        7. C.1.7.7. height, width
        8. C.1.7.8. max-height, max-width
        9. C.1.7.9. min-height, min-width
        10. C.1.7.10. line-height
        11. C.1.7.11. vertical-align
      8. C.1.8. Positioning
        1. C.1.8.1. visibility
        2. C.1.8.2. display
        3. C.1.8.3. position
        4. C.1.8.4. float
        5. C.1.8.5. top, bottom, left, right
        6. C.1.8.6. z-index
        7. C.1.8.7. clear
      9. C.1.9. Borders
        1. C.1.9.1. border-color, border-top-color, border-bottom-color, border-left-color, border-right-color
        2. C.1.9.2. border-style, border-top-style, border-bottom-style, border-left-style, border-right-style
        3. C.1.9.3. border-width, border-top-width, border-bottom-width, border-left-width, border-right-width
        4. C.1.9.4. border
        5. C.1.9.5. outline-color
        6. C.1.9.6. outline-style
        7. C.1.9.7. outline-width
        8. C.1.9.8. outline
      10. C.1.10. Table
        1. C.1.10.1. table-layout
        2. C.1.10.2. border-collapse
        3. C.1.10.3. border-spacing
        4. C.1.10.4. empty-cells
        5. C.1.10.5. caption-side
      11. C.1.11. Printing
        1. C.1.11.1. page-break-after, page-break-before
        2. C.1.11.2. page-break-inside
        3. C.1.11.3. orphans
        4. C.1.11.4. widows
      12. C.1.12. Miscellaneous
        1. C.1.12.1. cursor
  13. D. CSS 2.1 Selectors Quick Reference
    1. D.1. Basic Element Selectors
    2. D.2. Descendant Selectors
    3. D.3. Child Selectors
    4. D.4. Adjacent Sibling Selectors
    5. D.5. Class Selectors
    6. D.6. ID Selectors
    7. D.7. Attribute Selectors
  14. E. Pseudo-Elements and Pseudo-Classes Quick Reference
    1. E.1. Pseudo-Elements
    2. E.2. Pseudo-Classes