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HTML & CSS: The Good Parts

Cover of HTML & CSS: The Good Parts by Ben Henick Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. HTML & CSS: The Good Parts
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Preface
      1. The Who and What of This Book
      2. Objectives of This Book
      3. Conventions Used in This Book
      4. Using Code Examples
      5. Safari® Books Online
      6. How to Contact O’Reilly
      7. Acknowledgments
    3. 1. Hypertext at the Core
      1. The Web Without Links
      2. URIs
    4. 2. Working with HTML Markup
      1. HTML Syntax
      2. Rendering Modes, Flavors of HTML, and Document Type Declarations
      3. Beautiful Parts: Universal Attributes
      4. Separating Content, Structure, Presentation, and Behavior
      5. Browsers, Parsing, and Rendering
    5. 3. CSS Overview
      1. Connecting Stylesheets to HTML Documents
      2. Choosing the Elements You Want to Style: Writing Selectors
      3. Rule Conflicts, Priority, and Precedence
      4. CSS Property and Value Survey
      5. CSS Units
      6. Key CSS Layout Properties
    6. 4. Developing a Healthy Relationship with Standards
      1. The Broad Landscape of Web-Related Standards
      2. Why Web Standards?
      3. Taking the Middle Road: Standards-Friendliness
    7. 5. Effective Style and Structure
      1. The Four Habits of Effective Stylists
      2. CSS Zen and the Stylist’s Experience
      3. Information Architecture and Web Usability
    8. 6. Solving the Puzzle of CSS Layout
      1. The CSS Box Model and Element Size Control
      2. Quirks Mode and Strict Mode
      3. auto Values
      4. Margins, Borders, and Padding
      5. Element Flow
      6. Using the display Property to Change an Element’s Flow
      7. The float and clear Properties
      8. Implementing Multicolumn Layouts
      9. CSS Positioning Properties
      10. The visibility and z-index Properties
      11. Obtaining Precise Navigation Source Order and Layout
      12. Layout Types and Canvas Grids
    9. 7. Working with Lists
      1. Ordered and Unordered Lists
      2. Other Uses for Lists
      3. Styling Navigation Elements
      4. Definition Lists
    10. 8. Headings, Hyperlinks, Inline Elements, and Quotations
      1. Headings and Good Writing
      2. Styling Heading Elements
      3. Link Markup
      4. Styling Links
      5. Adding Semantic Value with Inline Elements
      6. Quotations
    11. 9. Colors and Backgrounds
      1. Color Theory and Web Color Practice
      2. CSS Backgrounds
      3. Composing Background Images
      4. Bitmapped Copy and Fahrner Image Replacement
      5. Reducing Server Load with Sprites
    12. 10. (Data) Tables
      1. The Disadvantages of Layout Tables
      2. The Parts of a Data Table
      3. Composing Cells
      4. Table Headers, Footers, and Heading Cells
    13. 11. Images and Multimedia
      1. Replaced Elements
      2. Preparing Images for Production
      3. Image Production
      4. Working with Color Profiles
      5. Image Optimization
      6. Publishing Images
      7. Styling Images and Plug-in Content
      8. Adding Motion and Sound: Using SWFObject to Insert Flash Videos and Presentations
      9. Inserting Unwrapped Multimedia
    14. 12. Web Typography
      1. A Brief History of Letterforms
      2. A Visual Glossary of Typography
      3. Aliasing and Anti-Aliasing
      4. Type Styles, Readability, and Legibility
      5. Sizing Type
      6. Working with Typefaces and Fonts
      7. Character Encoding in Brief
      8. Creating Balanced Type Treatments
      9. Typographical Miscellany in CSS
      10. The Practice of Good Web Typography
    15. 13. Clean and Accessible Forms
      1. Building Effective Forms
      2. Assessment and Structure
      3. Basic Form Structure, Presentation, and Behavior
      4. Prototyping and Layout
      5. Required Fields and Other Submission Constraints
      6. Creating Accessible Forms
      7. Form Features in HTML5
    16. 14. The Bad Parts
      1. The Numbing Nature of Internet Explorer (Especially IE 6)
      2. Systemic Ugliness
      3. HTML’s Bad Neighborhoods and Cul-de-Sacs
      4. CSS Travesties
      5. The Awful Parts
      6. Picking Up the Pieces
    17. A. URIs, Client-Server Architecture, and HTTP
      1. The Underlying Client-Server Architecture
      2. What Every Web Developer Should Know About HTTP
      3. MIME Types, in Brief
      4. Controlling Request Volume
    18. Glossary
    19. Index
    20. About the Author
    21. Colophon
    22. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
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Styling Images and Plug-in Content

The layout behavior of inline-block elements, such as images, makes it rarely ideal to publish images without the benefit of at least some styling.

Composing Image Layout Within a Column

In practice, it will become a habit to justify images to column margins, or center them within their parent column; the styles used are shown in Figure 11-6.

The property/value pairs shown include an explicit reference to display: block, which is provided to normalize layout behavior. When used with a class selector, it can also reduce the work required to style accompanying captions.

Captioning Images

Adding a caption to images formatted like those suggested by Figure 11-6 is most easily done in one of two ways:

  • Mat the original image, set bitmapped type in the new negative space, and supply values for the alt and title attributes that reflect the caption text.

  • Follow the image with the caption text, and enclose both in a div element (or less often a paragraph) that’s supplied with layout styles similar to those suggested in the figure.

Typical CSS property/value pairs for formatting inline images

Figure 11-6. Typical CSS property/value pairs for formatting inline images

The first of these captioning implementations requires less markup than the alternative, and ensures that the image will always be presented in an apparent context. Its principal drawback is that it increases bandwidth use out of proportion to the amount of added content. ...

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