You are previewing How the Internet Works, Eighth Edition.
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How the Internet Works, Eighth Edition

Book Description

Simple, clear explanations walk you through every technology

Detailed explanations walk you through the technology.

The Internet has changed the world... and, with everything from blogs to podcasts, Internet phones to video, it’s still changing the world. Now, it’s easy to understand how it all works! This book’s big, brilliant, full-color illustrations and clear explanations make it all incredibly simple!

DISCOVER HOW THE INTERNET REALLY WORKS... IT’S AMAZINGLY EASY!

This new edition has been completely updated for today’s hottest Internet technologies, Web connections, hardware, communications and entertainment services, and much more!

•    See how the Internet can deliver any kind of information, anywhere: web pages, email, music, video, phone calls, and more!

•    Understand the most exciting new Internet technologies, from blogs and podcasting to wikis and BitTorrent

•    Discover how your connection to the Internet works... wireless, cable modem, DSL, even cellphones

•    Go behind the scenes with today’s most sophisticated websites, applications, and services

•    Protect yourself from the latest Internet dangers, including phishing, web surveillance, and wireless hacking 

Preston Gralla is the award-winning author of more than 30 books, including How the Internet Works, Complete Idiot’s Guide to Internet Privacy and Security, Complete Idiot’s Guide to Protecting Your Child Online, and How Wireless Works. He has written

frequently about security issues, computer technology, the Internet, and has been a columnist for many magazines, websites

and newspapers.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. About The Author
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. We Want to Hear from You!
  5. Reader Services
  6. Introduction
  7. 1. Understanding the Internet’s Underlying Architecture
    1. 1. What Is the Internet?
      1. How the Internet Comes Together
      2. An Internet Timeline
    2. 2. How Computer Networks Send Data Across the Internet
      1. How Networks Talk with Each Other
      2. How Networks Link to the Internet
    3. 3. How TCP/IP Works
      1. How the Internet’s Basic TCP/IP Protocols Work
      2. How IPv6 Works
    4. 4. Understanding the Internet’s Software Structure
      1. How Client/Server Architecture Works
    5. 5. How Internet Addresses and Domains Work
      1. Understanding Internet Addresses and Domains
      2. How Domain Name System Servers Work
      3. How Static and Dynamic IP Addresses Work
      4. How Network Address Translation Works
    6. 6. How Routers Work
      1. How Routers Send Data to Their Destination
  8. 2. Connecting to the Internet
    1. 7. How Computers Connect to the Internet
      1. How America Online Connects to the Internet
      2. Connecting Your Computer to the Internet
      3. How a Modem Makes Its Connection
      4. How DSL Makes Its High-Speed Connection
    2. 8. How Internet/Television Connections Work
      1. How Cable Modems Work
      2. How Internet-Enhanced TV Works
      3. How IPTV Works
    3. 9. How Wireless Connections and WiFI Work
      1. How to Access the Internet via a Satellite Connection
      2. How Cell Phones Access the Internet
      3. How Bluetooth Works
      4. How Wireless (WiFi) Networks Work
      5. How Public Wireless Hot Spots Work
      6. How WiMax Works
    4. 10. How Home Networks Work
      1. How Home Networks Let You Share Your Internet Connection
      2. How a Wireless Media and Music Server Works
  9. 3. Communicating on the Internet
    1. 11. How Email Works
      1. How Email Is Delivered Over the Internet
      2. How Email Software Works
      3. How a Mailing List Works
      4. How Email Is Sent Between Networks
      5. How BlackBerries Deliver Email
      6. How White Page Directories (LDAP) Work
      7. How Encryption Can Keep Email Private
    2. 12. How Email Spam Works
      1. How Email Spam Is Sent
      2. How Email Spam Is Blocked
    3. 13. How Newsgroups Work
      1. How Usenet Works
    4. 14. How Internet Chat and Instant Messaging Work
      1. How IRC Works
      2. How Instant Messaging Works
      3. How Chat Rooms Throw a Party
    5. 15. How Skype and VoIP Work
      1. How VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Works
      2. How Skype Works
    6. 16. How Blogging and RSS Work
      1. How Blogging Works
      2. How RSS Works
  10. 4. How the World Wide Web Works
    1. 17. How Web Pages Work
      1. How the World Wide Web Works
      2. How Web Pages Are Organized on a Website
      3. How Websites Are Constructed
    2. 18. How Web Browsers Work
      1. How a Web Browser Works
      2. What Common Browser Error Messages Mean
    3. 19. How Markup Languages Work
      1. How HTML Works
      2. How Dynamic HTML Works
      3. How XML Works
      4. How AJAX Works
    4. 20. How Hypertext Works
      1. How Hyperlinks Work
    5. 21. How URLs Work
      1. How URLs Are Structured
      2. How URLs Help Retrieve Web Documents
    6. 22. How Image Maps and Interactive Forms Work
      1. How Image Maps Work
      2. How Interactive Forms Work
    7. 23. How Web Host Servers Work
      1. How Web Server Software Works
    8. 24. How Websites Work with Databases
      1. How the Web Works with Databases
    9. 25. How .NET and Web Services Work
      1. Understanding .NET and Web Services
    10. 26. How Grid Computing Works
      1. Understanding How Grid Computing Works
  11. 5. Using the World Wide Web
    1. 27. How Internet Searching Works
      1. How Internet Search Engines Work
      2. How Meta-Search Software Works
    2. 28. How Google Works
      1. How Google Searches the Internet
      2. What Google Knows About You
    3. 29. How Map Sites Work
      1. How Map Sites Work
      2. How Google Earth Works
    4. 30. How Wikis and the Wikipedia Work
      1. How the Wikipedia Works
  12. 6. Using Common Internet Tools
    1. 31. How Telnet Works
      1. Understanding Telnet
    2. 32. How FTP Works
      1. How an FTP Session Works
      2. How File Compression Works
    3. 33. How Agents Work
      1. Agents on the Internet
    4. 34. How Java, ActiveX, and JavaScript Work
      1. How Java Works
      2. How ActiveX Works
      3. How JavaScript Works
    5. 35. How CGI Scripting Works
      1. Understanding CGI Scripting
  13. 7. Enjoying Entertainment and Multimedia on the Internet
    1. 36. How Music and Audio Work on the Internet
      1. How RealPlayer Streaming Audio Works
      2. How MP3 Music Files Work
      3. How Internet Radio Broadcasting Works
    2. 37. How iPods, iTunes, and Podcasting Work
      1. How iPods Work
      2. How iTunes Works
      3. How Podcasting Works
    3. 38. How Music Sharing and File Sharing Work
      1. How Peer-to-Peer Software Shares Files and Music
      2. How BitTorrent Works
    4. 39. How Multicast IP and the MBone Work
      1. How Multicast IP Travels Along the MBone
    5. 40. How Virtual Reality Is Created by VRML
      1. How Virtual Reality Is Created by VRML
    6. 41. How Animation on the Web Works
      1. How Client Pull and Server Push Animation Work
        1. Client Pull
        2. Server Push
      2. How Shockwave Works
      3. How Flash Works
  14. 8. Shopping and Doing Business on the Internet
    1. 42. How Intranets Work
      1. Using an Intranet Within a Company
      2. How Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) Work
    2. 43. Shopping on the Internet
      1. How Online Buying Works
      2. How Online Shopping Carts Work
      3. How eBay Sells Everything
  15. 9. Protecting Yourself on the Internet
    1. 44. How Firewalls Work
      1. How Corporate Firewalls Work
      2. How Personal Firewalls Work
      3. How Proxy Servers Work
    2. 45. How Hackers Can Cripple the Internet and Attack Your PC
      1. How Smurf Attacks and DOS Attacks Work
      2. How Hackers Can Attack Your Computer
      3. How Email Viruses Travel in Your Email
      4. How Zombies and Bot Networks Work
      5. How Hackers Exploit Browsers
    3. 46. The Dangers of Wireless Networking
      1. How War Drivers Invade Your Network
      2. How “Evil Twin” Hacks Work
      3. How Paris Hilton’s Cell Phone Was Hacked
      4. How Wireless Network Protection Works
    4. 47. How Viruses Work
      1. How Viruses Infect Computers
      2. How Worms Work
    5. 48. How Internet Sites Can Invade Your Privacy
      1. How Cookies Work
      2. How Websites Track Your Activities
      3. How Web Bugs Can Invade Your Privacy
      4. How Internet Passports Work
    6. 49. The Dangers of Spyware and Phishing
      1. How Spyware Works
      2. Following the Spyware Money Trail
      3. How Phishing Works
      4. Following the Phishing Money Trail
      5. How to Protect Against Spyware
    7. 50. Cryptography, Privacy, and Digital Certificates
      1. How Cryptosystems Work
      2. How Digital Certificates Ensure Internet Security
    8. 51. How Government and Workplace Surveillance Work
      1. How the National Security Agency’s Echelon Spy System Works
      2. How the FBI’s Carnivore System Invaded Your Privacy
      3. How Internet Workplace Surveillance Works
    9. 52. Parental Controls on the Internet
      1. How Parental Controls Work
  16. Glossary