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Hospitality, Travel, and Tourism

Book Description

Over generations, human society has woven a rich tapestry of culture, art, architecture, and history, personified in artifacts, monuments, and landmarks arrayed across the globe. Individual communities are looking to exploit these local treasures for the benefit of the travelers who come to see them. Hospitality, Travel, and Tourism: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications considers the effect of cultural heritage and destinations of interest on the global economy from the viewpoints of both visitor and host. This broadly-focused, multi-volume reference will provide unique insights for travelers, business leaders, sightseers, cultural preservationists, and others interested in the unique variety of human ingenuity and innovation around the world.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: The Building and Management of the Nation Brand
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BRAND FOR POLAND: CASE STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Cultural Product Management from Environment to Territorial Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. BACKGROUND: ENVIRONMENT AND CONTEXT
      4. 2. GOVERNMENT BODIES AND TRENDS
      5. 3. TERRITORY, CULTURAL PRODUCT, USERS
      6. 4. RELATIONSHIPS SYSTEM OF CULTURAL ENTERPRISES
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 3: Tourism Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SYNTHESES
      4. DISCUSSION
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: An Overview on Presentation of Entertainment in Newspapers' Weekend Supplements
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPARE TIME, ENTERTAINMENT, AND MEDIA RELATIONSHIP
      4. TURKISH MEDIA AND ENTERTAINMENT
      5. RESEARCH AND FINDINGS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 5: A Business Model for Accessible Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. THE RECONFIGURATION PATH OF THE BUSINESS MODEL
      4. 2. THE BUSINESS MODEL FOR ACCESSIBLE CULTURAL TOURISM
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      8. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 6: Customer-Centric Strategies in Place Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
      4. THE CONSTRUCTS OF PERSONALITY AND LOCAL DISTRICTS
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Tourism Demand Forecasting Based on a Neuro-Fuzzy Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. NEURO-FUZZY SYSTEMS
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    8. Chapter 8: The Competitiveness of the European Union Tourism Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FACTORS DETERMINING COMPETITIVENESS IN THE TOURISM INDUSTRY
      5. KEY CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPETITIVENESS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM INDUSTRY
      6. GENERAL OUTLOOK OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM INDUSTRY
      7. TRIPS OF EU RESIDENTS: 2011 PATTERNS
      8. SWOT ANALYSIS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION TOURISM INDUSTRY
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ADDITIONAL READING
      13. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: The Evolving Value of eTourism for Suppliers and Visitors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES AND ADVANTAGES FOSTERED BY ETOURISM TO DIFFERENT TOURISM STAKEHOLDERS
      5. TRAVEL 2.0 AS A WEB-BASED TOOL EMPOWERING VISITORS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 10: Using the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behavior (DTPB) to Explain the Intention to Book Tourism Products Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. DATA ANALYSIS
      7. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 11: A Semantic Framework for Touristic Information Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. SEMANTIC SYSTEMS FOR THE TOURISTIC DOMAIN
      4. 3. SEMANTIC MODEL FOR THE TOURISTIC DOMAIN
      5. 4. SOURCES FOR TOURISTIC DATA
      6. 5. INTEGRATION OF TOURISTIC INFORMATION SOURCES
      7. 6. TOURISTIC SCENARIOS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION FOR THE FUTURE
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    12. Chapter 12: Gap Analysis and Infrastructure Requirement for Tourism Development in the State of West Bengal
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. 3. OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
      5. 4. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      6. 5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
      7. WILCOXON SIGNED TEST SAMPLES MODEL
      8. 6. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
      9. 7. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Medical Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INNOVATION IN CONTEXT OF MEDICAL TOURISM
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR MEDICAL TOURISM
      6. MANAGERIAL AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS - RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 14: The Rise of “Environmental Sustainability Knowledge” in Business Strategy and Entrepreneurship
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEPENDENCE ON THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT FOR ONGOING SUCCESS
      4. THE ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY KNOWLEDGE-BASED VIEW OF TOURISM OPERATORS
      5. THE KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY KNOWLEDGE
      6. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY KNOWLEDGE ENABLED BY IT
      7. ENVIRONMENTAL REPORTING SYSTEMS
      8. EDUCATING STAFF ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY KNOWLEDGE
      9. EDUCATING THE PUBLIC ABOUT ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY KNOWLEDGE
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 15: Cultural Heritage Information System (CHIS)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE CHIS FRAMEWORK
      4. 3. THE CHIS ARCHITECTURE
      5. 4. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS
      6. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 16: Evaluating Destination Marketing Organizations' Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL REVIEW
      4. EMPIRICAL REVIEW
      5. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 17: A Modified Fuzzy Hierarchical TOPSIS Model for Hotel Website Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ATTRIBUTES FOR EVALUATING HOTEL WEBSITE USEFULNESS
      4. APPLICATIONS OF FUZZY MODELS
      5. MODIFIED FUZZY HIERARCHICAL TOPSIS
      6. EVALUATING HOTEL WEBSITES WITH THE PROPOSED MODEL
      7. THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS
      8. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      9. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 18: An Assessment Methodology for Hotel Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. RESEARCH METHOD AND DATA
      5. 4. RESULTS OF APPLYING THE WAI TO HOTEL WEBSITES
      6. 5. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
      7. 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 19: E-Marketing and the Hotel Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      4. WEB USAGE BY HOTELS: USING WPI AS A TOOL
      5. REVIEW OF PARAMETERS FOR EACH HOTEL BASED ON SEARCH ENGINE AND ONLINE PRESENCE
      6. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 20: Place @-Branding and European Capitals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INVESTIGATING E-BRANDING IDENTITY THROUGH THE CITY VISITING CARDS
      4. FLYING OVER THE HISTORIC EUROPEAN CAPITALS WITH GOOGLE EARTH
      5. INVESTIGATING E-BRANDING IMAGE THROUGH SOCIAL NETWORKS
      6. E-BRANDING IDENTITY AND E-BRANDING IMAGE: THE TWO PROFILES OF THE HISTORIC EUROPEAN CAPITALS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    7. Chapter 21: E-Relationship for Web-Based Tourism Promotion
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. IS / IT FOR WEB-BASED TOURISM PROMOTION
      4. TRUST AND THE ROLE OF THE INTERFACE
      5. TRUST INDUCING DESIGN FRAMEWORK: A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL
      6. HEURISTIC AND USER TESTING: A COMPLEMENTARY APPROACH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 22: Tourism Promotion through Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SURVEY OF EXISTING LITERATURE
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
      6. POLICY IMPLICATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 23: Climate Information Sources (CISs) and Tourist Satisfaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. ANALYSIS
      6. OTHER RESULTS
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 24: Discovering and Characterizing Places of Interest Using Flickr and Twitter
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. DATA ACQUISITION
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. EVALUATION
      7. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION
      8. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 25: The Effect of Web 2.0 Usage in E-Service Quality in Hospitality
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE IMPORTANCE OF THE INTERNET AND INTERNET-BASED MARKETING
      4. E-MARKETING IN HOSPITALITY: THEORETICAL REVIEW
      5. TRENDS OF WEB 2.0 IMPLEMENTATION IN E-MARKETING IN E- HOSPITALITY MARKETING
      6. QUALITY OF SERVICE OF THE WEB SITE IN ELECTRONIC SERVICE QUALITY (E-SQ)
      7. SCIENTIFIC MODELS FOR E-SQ EVALUATION IN HOSPITALITY
      8. EMPIRICAL RESEARCH: THE USAGE OF WEB 2.0 IN HOSPITALITY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 26: Tourism E-Booking and ‘E-Purchasing'
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BOOKING ACCOMMODATIONS ON-LINE
      4. BOOKING TRANSPORTATION ON-LINE
      5. DATA AND MODEL OF WORK
      6. PRESENTATION OF THE SAMPLE
      7. RESULTS
      8. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 27: Tourism Mobile Application Usability
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE
      4. RESEARCH DESIGN
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 28: Adding Personalization and Social Features to a Context-Aware Application for Mobile Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. GIVEMEAPLAN
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 29: Empirical Evaluation of Smartphone Augmented Reality Browsers in an Urban Tourism Destination Context
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. MOTIVATION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS
      5. ASSOCIATION OF AR ANNOTATIONS AND PHYSICAL ENTITIES
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. DESIGN FRAMEWORK FOR AR BROWSERS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 30: Digital Heritage Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
  8. Section 3: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 31: The Implementation of Rural Heritage Measures in Ukraine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESULTS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 32: Communicating Nation Brands through Mass and Social Media
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CHALLENGES IN MANAGING NATION BRANDS AND COUNTRY REPUTATION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 33: Export Marketing Communications of Public Sector in Promoting Tourism Destination of a Greek Island
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 34: The Promotion of European Tourism in the Emerging Countries
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. NAVIGATION
      4. TRANSITION
      5. STRATEGY IN THE DIFFUSION OF CONTENTS AND CONFORMATION OF THE UNIVERSE OF STUDY
      6. A FIRST ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE TO DETECT THE POSSIBLE POTENTIAL TOURISTS SEIZED WITH THE PYRAMIDAL SYSTEM
      7. LESSONS LEARNED
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX: COMMENTS
    5. Chapter 35: Islamic Tourism in South Africa
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF MUSLIMS IN SOUTH AFRICA
      4. FINDING A THEORETICAL COMPASS: ISLAMIC TOURISM THROUGH A POSTMODERN LENS
      5. CONCEPTUALIZING THE ISLAMIC TOURIST IN SOUTH AFRICA: INTEGRATIONIST VS. SPECIALIST
      6. TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA: RECENT TRENDS IN VISITS AND EXPENDITURE
      7. A PRAGMATIC APPROACH: ISLAMIC TOURISM AS AN EMERGING MARKET
      8. TOURIST DESTINATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA
      9. ISLAMIC TOURIST DESTINATIONS
      10. SOME POPULAR TOURIST DESTINATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
      13. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 36: “Cozinha da Madeira”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASE STUDY: “COZINHA DA MADEIRA”
      4. EXPERIENCE PROTOTYPING
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 37: E-Business Adoption Framework in the Hospitality Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 38: ICT and Skills Transfer
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CREATION OF THE GTVC AND SKILL DELIVERY PROCESS
      5. DESCRIPTION OF SKILL-TRANSFER DELIVERY STRATEGY
      6. POTENTIAL BARRIERS AND SUGGESTIONS TO OVERCOME THESE BARRIERS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 39: Impact of Social Media in Service Innovations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. KEY FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, LIMITATIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 40: Hospitality Innovations in the Emerging Experience Economy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE THROUGH INNOVATION STRATEGY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. THE OBEROI GROUP: A PIONEER IN HOSPITALITY IN INDIA
      6. THE INCEPTION OF THE OBEROI RESORTS
      7. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE NEW SERVICE DEVELOPMENT
      8. THE OBEROI EXPERIENCES
      9. EMPLOYEES AS KEY DRIVERS OF INNOVATION
      10. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      11. CHALLENGES RELATED TO HOSPITALITY SERVICE INNOVATIONS
      12. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      13. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ADDITIONAL READING
      16. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 41: Sports Tourism Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPORTS TOURISM
      4. MOTIVATION
      5. INVOLVEMENT
      6. SPORTS TOURISM RESEARCH
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 42: Sport Events as a Tool for City Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SPORT EVENTS
      4. SPORTS EVENT TOURISM
      5. EVENTS AS STRATEGIC TOOL OF CITY MARKETING
      6. STUDY CASE: SPANISH SWIMMING MASTER CHAMPIONSHIP
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES
    13. Chapter 43: Entertainment and Food Tourism in the Backdrop of Late Modernity and a Reflection on Turkey
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FOOD TOURISM
      5. THE CASE OF TURKEY
      6. SOLUTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 44: Food Tour of India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CULTURE
      4. FOODS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 45: Consumer Loyalty to an Airline
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 4: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 46: The Role of Website Features in Creating Loyalty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. MODEL AND HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
      5. 4. METHODOLOGY
      6. 5. FINDINGS
      7. 6. IMPLICATIONS
      8. 7. LIMITATION AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 47: Perceived Risk in E-Commerce and the Development of Loyalty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. EMPIRICAL STUDY
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 48: Customer Relationship and Satisfaction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 49: Discovering Opinions from Customers' Unstructured Textual Reviews Written in Different Natural Languages
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATION OF THE PROBLEM
      4. MARKETING: CUSTOMER OPINION ANALYSIS
      5. CHALLENGES OF THE FUTURE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 50: Customer Satisfaction Evaluation for Greek Online Travel Agencies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MUSA METHOD
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGICAL FRAME
      6. RESULTS
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 51: Critical Success Factors for Positive User Experience in Hotel Websites
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. A CONTEXTUAL DEFINITION OF USABILITY
      4. 3. USABILITY EVALUATION METHODS
      5. 4. HERZBERG’S TWO FACTOR THEORY
      6. 5. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR WEB USABILITY
      7. 6. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS
      8. 7. HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT
      9. 8. METHODOLOGY
      10. 9. RESULTS
      11. 10. DATA ANALYSIS
      12. 11. MODEL DEVELOPMENT
      13. 12. DISCUSSION
      14. 13. LIMITATIONS
      15. REFERENCES
      16. APPENDIX
    7. Chapter 52: Consumer Preferences and Key Aspects of Tourism and Hospitality Marketing on Island Destinations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 53: Factors Influencing Tourists' Motivational Determinants for Promotion of Tourism Destination
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE SURVEY
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. STUDY AREA
      6. TOURISM MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS
      7. DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
      8. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
      9. POLICY IMPLICATION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 54: The Reflections of the Recent Global Economic Crisis on the Turkish Tourism Sector
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 55: Public Perception of Costs Associated with Major Sporting Events
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. RESIDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF MAJOR SPORTING EVENTS
      4. 3. COSTS OR NEGATIVE IMPACTS ASSOCIATED WITH SPORTING EVENTS
      5. 4. A STUDY OF THREE SPORTING EVENTS HOSTED IN THE CITY OF VALENCIA
      6. 5. PERCEPTION OF THE COSTS IN THE CASE OF THE THREE SPORTING EVENTS HELD IN VALENCIA
      7. 6. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    11. Chapter 56: The Transfer from a Major Sport Event to a Sponsoring Brand
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPROACH TO A SPORTS SPONSORSHIP MODEL
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 57: Pro-Poor Development through Tourism in Economically Backward Tribal Region of Odisha, India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
      3. METHODS
      4. SCHEDULED TRIBES OF INDIA
      5. TRIBAL POPULATION OF INDIA (STATE WISE PERCENTAGE)
      6. TRIBAL TOURISM
      7. TRIBAL ECONOMY
      8. FINDINGS
      9. RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 58: The Influence of Travel Experience on Mature Travelers' Quality of Life
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODS
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 59: What Do We Know about Europe?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. DEMOGRAPHY AND EDUCATION
      4. 2. SOCIETY
      5. 3. ECONOMY
      6. 4. HEALTH
      7. 5. LIFESTYLE
      8. 6. SATISFACTION AND IMPORTANCE
      9. 7. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS
      10. 8. VALUE OF FOOD BASKET
      11. 9. LEISURE TIME
      12. 10. MEDIA CONSUMPTION
      13. 11. CONCLUSION
      14. REFERENCES
      15. ENDNOTES
      16. APPENDIX
    15. Chapter 60: Simulating Impacts on Regional Economies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. THE MODEL
      4. 3. SIMULATION PROPERTIES
      5. 4. CASE STUDY
      6. 5. METHODOLOGY AND DATA
      7. 6. RESULTS
      8. 7. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
  10. Section 5: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 61: Resource Integration and Value Co-Creation in Cultural Heritage Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION: THE CHANGED VIEW OF CULTURAL VALUE
      3. 2. RECENT CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT LITERATURE ADVANCES
      4. 3. RESOURCE AND ACTOR VARIETY IN CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT
      5. 4. RESOURCE INTEGRATION AND VALUE CO-CREATION
      6. 5. THE CONTRIBUTION OF TO THE UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING OF RESOURCE INTEGRATION AND VALUE CO-CREATION
      7. 6. RESOURCE INTEGRATION AND VALUE CO-CREATION IN CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT
      8. 7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:
    2. Chapter 62: Cultural Heritage Management at the Local Level
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR DESIGNING THE E-GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK
      4. 3. RESULTS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. Chapter 63: Open, User, and Smart Innovation in Cultural Firms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN, USER, AND SMART INNOVATION: A POSSIBLE DEFINITION AND ITS THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. THE EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING FOR CULTURAL FIRMS
      5. THE SMART INNOVATION AND THE CREATION OF EXPERIENCE IN CULTURAL FIRMS
      6. THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION
      7. THE SYSTEMIC INNOVATION
      8. FINAL REFLECTIONS AND HINTS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 64: Contemporary Art Museums' Marketing Strategies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE MARKETING STRATEGIES OF CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUMS
      5. ORIENTATIONS OF THE MARKETING STRATEGIES OF CONTEMPORARY ART MUSEUMS AND ITS MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      6. CASE STUDY: THE ISTANBUL MODERN ART MUSEUM
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 65: Museum Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND, ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
      3. KEY CONCEPTS OF MUSEUM COMMUNICATION
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER: RESOURCE-HOLDER RELATIONS AND MUSEUM COMMUNICATION AREAS
      5. GENERAL PUBLIC RELATIONS AND CORPORATE CITIZENSHIP COMMUNICATION
      6. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND WEB 2.0 FOR MUSEUM COMMUNICATION
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    6. Chapter 66: Price Effectiveness in Hotels
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. MARKET SEGMENTATION
      5. PRICING STRATEGIES ADOPTED BY EACH HOTEL
      6. CHALLENGES AND THE ROUTE FORWARD TO BEST PRICING STRATEGY
    7. Chapter 68: A Case Study on Customer Experiential Management at High Five Hotels Pvt. Ltd, Nashik
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION TO THEME
      3. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      4. CURRENT SITUATION, CHALLENGES, AND GOALS
      5. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
      6. THE PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES
      7. OUTCOME OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY
      8. LESSONS LEARNED
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 69: Customer Relations Management Applications in the Tourism Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE FRONT OFFICE DEPARTMENT IN TOURISM ESTABLISHMENTS
      4. CUSTOMER RELATIONS MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM ESTABLISHMENTS
      5. METHOD
      6. FINDINGS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 70: Handling Customer Complaints in the Hospitality Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESEARCH FINDINGS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 71: Selecting the Optimal Vendor of Customer Relationship Management System for Medical Tourism Industry Using Delphi and AHP
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. MODEL AND APPLICATIONS
      5. 4. CONCLUSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 72: Challenges in Representing Local Image Collections
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 73: Knowledge Management and Quality in Croatian Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KNOWLEDGE AND QUALITY: A BASIS FOR ENHANCING THE COMPETITIVENESS OF CROATIA’S HOTEL INDUSTRY
      5. ISSUES AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT, QUALITY, AND INNOVATIONS IN TOURISM
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 74: Reducing Costs of Knowledge Transfer in Tourism Development Using Historical Materials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH BACKGROUND
      4. OUTLINE OF KUKURI
      5. DEVELOPMENT OF TOUR COURSE BY USING KUKURI
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 76: Rough Set Analysis and Short-Medium Term Tourist Services Demand Forecasting
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ROUGH SETS THEORY: SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS
      4. ROUGH SETS AND TOURISM
      5. DATA SET AND SOFTWARE PACKAGES
      6. MAIN RESULTS
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH MAIN RESULTS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
  11. Section 6: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 75: Managing Chaos in Nonlinear Economic Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 77: Leisure Time Marketing in the Context of the Entertainment Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LEISURE TIME INITIATIVES AND IMPLICATIONS
      5. EMERGING MARKETING ASPECTS
      6. COMPETITIVE DIMENSIONS OF LEISURE TIME MARKETING
      7. LEISURE TIME MARKETING CATEGORIZATION
      8. TARGET MARKET SELECTION PROCESS
      9. MARKETING MIX FOR LEISURE TIME MARKETING INITIATIVES
      10. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      11. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 78: A New Frontier in the Satisfaction of the Cultural Tourist
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. THE CULTURAL TOURISM IN THE INTERNET AGE
      4. 2. CULTURAL TOURISM AND INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
      5. 3. RESEARCH MODEL
      6. 4. QR CODE IN THE SECTOR OF CULTURAL TOURISM: FREQUENCY AND MAIN SCOPES
      7. 5. QR CODE IN THE SECTOR OF CULTURAL TOURISM: THE MEASURE OF THE LEVEL OF TOURIST SATISFACTION
      8. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. Chapter 79: Digital Resources and Approaches Adopted by User-Centred Museums
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. WHAT CHALLENGES? WHAT FUTURE?
      4. 3. WHAT VISITORS FOR WHICH MUSEUMS?
      5. 4. INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA
      6. 5. THE MUSEUM AS KNOWLEDGE SYSTEM
      7. 6. MUSEUMS, SOCIAL MEDIA, AND DIGITAL STRATEGY
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. Chapter 80: Exploring the Development of New Tourism Activities in the Municipality of Kerkini by Using the Area's Natural Resources Sustainably, Municipality of Kerkini, Greece
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROJECT
      4. MAPPING PROJECT
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
    6. Chapter 81: Web Divide and Paper Unite
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TOURIST INFORMATION: ORIENTATION AND ACCESIBILITY
      4. CORPUS OF ANALYSIS, EVALUATION AND RESULTS
      5. LEARNED LESSONS AND FUTURE WORKS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 82: Consumer Confidence in Responsible Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW: THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 83: Framework Oriented Approach to Eco-Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW ON “FRAMEWORK ORIENTED APPROACH TO ECO-TOURISM”
      4. OBJECTIVE
      5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      6. CASE ANALYSIS
      7. FRAMEWORK
      8. MANAGERIAL IMPACT
      9. LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    9. Chapter 84: Study on Low-Carbon Economy Model and Method of Chinese Tourism Industry
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. OUTLINE
      3. INTRODUCTION
      4. 1. CONNOTATION OF LOW-CARBON ECONOMY
      5. 2. STUDY ON LOW-CARBON FRAMEWORK AND DEVELOPMENT MODEL IN TOURISM
      6. 3. DEMONSTRATION ANALYSIS ON LOW-CARBON TOURISM AREA
      7. 4. RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      8. 5. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 85: Green Digital Enterprise and Chaos Theory in Tourism Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
      3. CHAOS THEORY AND THE TOURISM SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA
      4. TOWARD A STRONGER EMPHASIS ON ECO TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA?
      5. CHALLENGES IN ECO-TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA-LAND REFORMS AND A NEED FOR INSTITUTION BUILDING
      6. HOW KNOWLEDGE CAN LEAD TO NEW INSIGHTS WITHIN ECO TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA
      7. KNOWLEDGE CREATION AND INNOVATIONS IN ECO-TOURISM IN SOUTH AFRICA
      8. CONCLUSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND FUTURE RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 86: (Re)Engineering Cultural Heritage Contexts using Creative Human Computer Interaction Techniques and Mixed Reality Methodologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT ARE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR EFFECTIVE DIGITAL INTERVENTION WITHIN THE CULTURAL HERITAGE SECTOR?
      4. WHAT ARE THE AFFORDANCES OF MIXED AND AUGMENTED REALITY?
      5. WHAT MOBILE AND LOCATION BASED TECHNOLOGY IS CURRENTLY BEING UTILISED WITHIN CULTURAL HERITAGE APPLICATIONS?
      6. KEY PROJECTS
      7. CASE STUDY ONE
      8. CASE STUDY TWO
      9. DESIGN GUIDELINES
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 87: Technology Intervention for the Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH)
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. BACKGROUND
      4. 3. TYPES OF ICH
      5. 4. EMERGING MUSEUMS
      6. 5. AUGMENTED LEARNING
      7. 6. AN IMMERSIVE ICH PROTOTYPE FOR CHILDREN
      8. 7. SUMMARY
      9. REFERENCES
    13. Chapter 88: Creative Tourism and Cultural Heritage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. 1. CULTURAL TOURISM FROM THE DEMAND PERSPECTIVE
      4. 2. THE RELEVANCE OF CULTURAL TOURISM
      5. 3. THE DEMAND FOR CULTURAL TOURISM
      6. 4. CURRENT TRENDS AND NEW FORMS OF CULTURAL TOURISM
      7. 5. THE RESPONSES OF TOURIST DESTINATIONS
      8. 6. ONGOING CHANGES AS A PREMISE FOR RETHINKING THE CULTURAL OFFERING OF POMPEII
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. ENDNOTES
    14. Chapter 89: Using Word Trees, Word Networks, and Tag Clouds to Provide Meaningful Insights
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. 3. METHODOLOGY
      5. 4. FINDINGS
      6. 5. IMPLICATIONS
      7. 6. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
      8. 7. LIMITATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCH
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX
    15. Chapter 90: The Travel Machine
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TRAVEL MACHINE INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE AND SCREEN DESIGNS
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      11. APPENDIX: ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
    16. Chapter 91: Innovation in Medical Tourism Service Marketing
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. MARKETING-MIX STRATEGIES FOR MEDICAL TOURISM: FOR POSSIBLE INNOVATIONS
      5. MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS: IN REFERENCE TO INDIAN MEDICAL TOURISM INDUSTRY
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    17. Chapter 92: Space Tourism
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SELECTION OF KEY ASPECTS
      4. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
    18. Chapter 67: Total Quality Management in Tourism Companies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. 1. INTRODUCTION
      3. 2. STUDY METHODOLOGY
      4. 3. THEORETICAL SIDE
      5. 4. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS
      6. 5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES