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High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals by W. S. Zaengl, E. Kuffel, John Kuffel

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Chapter 9 Design and testing of external insulation

Conventional air-insulated substations represent a large majority of installed high-voltage substations. They range in voltage from distribution levels to 765 kV systems. The external insulation generally utilized in these outdoor substations takes the form of insulators (posts, suspension and pin types) and housings. These types of apparatus are generally broken into classifications based on manufacturing and materials.

The two broad categories of insulators are ceramic and polymeric. Ceramic insulators include those constructed from porcelain and glass. Polymeric insulators, often referred to as non-ceramic insulators (NCIs), are made up of various designs, usually incorporating a fibre glass ...

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