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High-pT Physics in the Heavy Ion Era

Book Description

Aimed at graduate students and researchers in the field of high-energy nuclear physics, this book provides an overview of the basic concepts of large transverse momentum particle physics, with a focus on pQCD phenomena. It examines high-pT probes of relativistic heavy-ion collisions and will serve as a handbook for those working on RHIC and LHC data analyses. Starting with an introduction and review of the field, the authors look at basic observables and experimental techniques, concentrating on relativistic particle kinematics, before moving onto a discussion about the origins of high-pT physics. The main features of high-pT physics are placed within a historical context and the authors adopt an experimental outlook, highlighting the most important discoveries leading up to the foundation of modern QCD theory. Advanced methods are described in detail, making this book especially useful for newcomers to the field.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction and overview
    1. 1.1 Elementary particle physics
    2. 1.2 The fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions
    3. 1.3 A new paradigm for the structure of matter
    4. 1.4 The particle zoo
    5. 1.5 The first high pT physics, the search for the W boson
    6. 1.6 From Bjorken scaling to QCD to the QGP
    7. 1.7 Relativistic heavy ion collisions and the QGP
    8. 1.8 High energy physics and techniques in the RHI physicist’s toolkit
  8. 2. Basic observables
    1. 2.1 Observables
    2. 2.2 Inclusive single particle reactions
    3. 2.3 Semi-inclusive reactions – ET and multiplicity distributions
  9. 3. Some experimental techniques
    1. 3.1 Relation of observables to experimental techniques
    2. 3.2 Some details of experimental technique and analysis
    3. 3.3 Measurement of the momentum of a charged particle
    4. 3.4 Lorentz transformations, kinematics, spectra of decay products
    5. 3.5 Methods of direct single photon measurements
  10. 4. The search for structure
    1. 4.1 Rutherford scattering
    2. 4.2 Hofstadter – measurement of radii of nuclei and the proton
    3. 4.3 DIS – deeply inelastic electron scattering
    4. 4.4 Sum rules, Bjorken scaling and the parton model
  11. 5. Origins of high pT physics – the search for the W boson
    1. 5.1 Why were some people studying “high pT” physics in the 1960s?
    2. 5.2 The absence of high pT single leptons leads to lepton pair measurements
    3. 5.3 The November revolution
  12. 6. Discovery of hard scattering in p–p collisions
    1. 6.1 Bjorken scaling and the parton model in p–p collisions
    2. 6.2 ISR data, notably CCR 1972–1973
    3. 6.3 Constituent interchange model (CIM), 1972
    4. 6.4 First prediction using “QCD” 1975 – WRONG!
    5. 6.5 Experimental improvements, theoretical improvements
    6. 6.6 State of the art at Fermilab 1977 – but misleading!
  13. 7. Direct single lepton production and the discovery of charm
    1. 7.1 The CCRS experiment at the CERN-ISR
    2. 7.2 Experimental issues in direct single lepton production
    3. 7.3 The discovery of direct single lepton production
    4. 7.4 The direct single electrons are the first observation of charm
  14. 8. J/Ψ, ϒ and Drell–Yan pair production
    1. 8.1 Di-lepton production in the parton model: Drell–Yan pairs
    2. 8.2 J/Ψ production
    3. 8.3 Are J/Ψ and ϒ production due to hard scattering?
    4. 8.4 Measurements of Drell–Yan pair production
  15. 9. Two particle correlations
    1. 9.1 Hard scattering in the parton model
    2. 9.2 Two particle correlation measurements
    3. 9.3 Same-side and spectator region measurements
    4. 9.4 Early direct searches for jets, isotropy of jT
    5. 9.5 Symmetric di-hadron cross sections
    6. 9.6 Measurement of dσ ab→cd/d cos θ* for parton–parton scattering
  16. 10. Direct photon production
  17. 11. The search for jets
    1. 11.1 Origins of ET – the search for jets
    2. 11.2 Does history provide a guide for the future?
    3. 11.3 The systematics of transverse energy emission in p– p and p– ¯p collisions
    4. 11.4 The use of ET distributions in p–p collisions: the study of jets
    5. 11.5 Experimental issues
  18. 12. QCD in hard scattering
    1. 12.1 Status of theory and experiment circa 1982
    2. 12.2 Jets since 1982
    3. 12.3 The factorization theorem for pQCD
    4. 12.4 Parton distribution and fragmentation functions
    5. 12.5 Parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions in nuclei
    6. 12.6 Elements of QCD for experimentalists
    7. 12.7 Explicit tests of QCD: αs(Q2), Σab(cos*)
    8. 12.8 xT scaling
  19. 13. Heavy ion physics in the high pT era
    1. 13.1 Relativistic heavy ion collisions and dense nuclear matter
    2. 13.2 Experimental issues in A + A compared to p–p collisions
  20. 14. RHIC and LHC
    1. 14.1 The road to RHIC
    2. 14.2 Proposals for experiments
    3. 14.3 Hard scattering at RHIC
    4. 14.4 Hard scattering at the LHC
    5. 14.5 Conclusion
  21. Appendix A: Probability and statistics
  22. Appendix B: Methods of Monte Carlo calculations
  23. Appendix C: TAB and the Glauber Monte Carlo calculation
  24. Appendix D: Fits including systematic errors
  25. Appendix E: The shape of the xE distribution triggered by a jet fragment, for example, π0
  26. Appendix F: kT phenomenology and Gaussian smearing
  27. References
  28. Index