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High Performance Silicon Imaging

Book Description

Silicon imaging is a fast growing area of the semiconductor industry. Its use in cell phone cameras is already well established, and emerging applications include web, security, automotive and digital cinema cameras. High performance silicon imaging covers the fundamentals of silicon image sensors, with a focus on existing performance issues and potential solutions. It then considers several applications for the technology.

Part one begins with a review of the fundamental principles of photosensing and the operational principles of silicon image sensors. It then focuses in on charged coupled device (CCD) image sensors and metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. The performance issues considered include image quality, sensitivity, data-transfer rate, system level integration, rate of power consumption and the potential for 3D imaging. Part two then provides a detailed discussion of how CMOS technology can be used in a range of areas, including in mobile devices, image sensors for automotive applications, sensors for several forms of scientific imaging, and sensors for medical applications.

High performance silicon imaging will be an excellent resource for both academics and engineers working in the optics, photonics, semiconductor and electronics industries.



  • Covers the fundamentals of silicon-based image sensors and technical advances, focussing on performance issues
  • Looks at image sensors in applications such as mobile phones, scientific imaging, TV broadcasting, automotive and biomedical applications

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contributor contact details
  5. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  6. Part I: Fundamentals
    1. 1. Fundamental principles of photosensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 The human vision system
      4. 1.3 Photometry and radiometry
      5. 1.4 History of photosensing
      6. 1.5 Early developments in photodetector technology
      7. 1.6 References
    2. 2. Operational principles of silicon image sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Silicon phototransduction
      4. 2.3 Principles of charged coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) photosensing technologies
      5. 2.4 Metal-oxide-semiconductor-capacitor (MOS-C) structure-based photodetectors
      6. 2.5 <em xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops">p-n</em> junction-based photodetectors junction-based photodetectors
      7. 2.6 Noise considerations in pixel structures
      8. 2.7 High-performance pixel structures
      9. 2.8 Miniaturization and other development strategies followed in image sensor technologies
      10. 2.9 Hybrid and 3D detector technologies
      11. 2.10 Conclusion
      12. 2.11 References
    3. 3. Charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Charge coupled device (CCD) design, architecture and operation
      4. 3.3 Illumination modes
      5. 3.4 Imaging parameters and their characterization
      6. 3.5 Conclusion and future trends
      7. 3.6 References
    4. 4. Backside illuminated (BSI) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Challenges facing a scaled-down frontside illuminated (FSI) sensor
      4. 4.3 Basics of backside illuminated (BSI) sensor process integration
      5. 4.4 Interface solutions to BSI sensors
      6. 4.5 Conclusion
      7. 4.6 References
    5. 5. Circuits for high performance complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 High resolution image sensors
      4. 5.3 Low noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors
      5. 5.4 High speed image sensors
      6. 5.5 Low power image sensors
      7. 5.6 Wide dynamic range sensors
      8. 5.7 Other high performance designs
      9. 5.8 Conclusion
      10. 5.9 References
    6. 6. Smart cameras on a chip: using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to create smart vision chips
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 The concept of a smart camera on a chip
      4. 6.3 The development of vision chip technology
      5. 6.4 From special-purpose chips to smart computational chips
      6. 6.5 From video rate applications to high-speed image processing chips
      7. 6.6 Future trends
      8. 6.7 Conclusion
      9. 6.8 References
  7. Part II: Applications
    1. 7. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for mobile devices
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Core image/video capture technology requirements and advances in mobile applications
      4. 7.3 Emerging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) ‘sensor-embedded’ technologies
      5. 7.4 Mobile image sensor architecture and product considerations
      6. 7.5 Future trends
      7. 7.6 Conclusion
      8. 7.7 References
    2. 8. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for automotive applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Automotive applications
      3. 8.2 Vision systems
      4. 8.3 Sensing systems
      5. 8.4 Requirements for automotive image sensors
      6. 8.5 Future trends
      7. 8.6 References
    3. 9. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for use in space
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 General requirements for use of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in space
      4. 9.3 Comparison of CMOS sensors and charge coupled devices (CCDs) for space applications
      5. 9.4 CMOS sensors for space applications
      6. 9.5 References
    4. 10. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for high-performance scientific imaging
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Detection in silicon
      4. 10.3 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for the detection of charged particles
      5. 10.4 CMOS sensors for X-ray detection
      6. 10.5 Future trends
      7. 10.6 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 10.7 References
    5. 11. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) sensors for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM)
      4. 11.3 Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) detectors and pixels
      5. 11.4 FLIM system-on-chip
      6. 11.5 Future trends
      7. 11.6 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 11.7 References
    6. 12. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) X-ray sensors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Intra-oral and extra-oral dental X-ray imaging
      4. 12.3 Medical radiography, fluoroscopy and mammography
      5. 12.4 CMOS image sensor (CIS)-based flat panel display (FPD) technology
      6. 12.5 Pixel design considerations for CMOS-based FPDs
      7. 12.6 Key parameters for X-ray sensors
      8. 12.7 X-ray sensors: types and requirements
      9. 12.8 Direct X-ray sensors
      10. 12.9 Conclusion and future trends
      11. 12.10 References
    7. 13. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and charge coupled device (CCD) image sensors in high-definition TV imaging
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Broadcast camera performance
      4. 13.3 Modulation transfer function (MTF), aliasing and resolution
      5. 13.4 Aliasing and optical low pass filtering
      6. 13.5 Opto-electrical matching and other parameters
      7. 13.6 Standards for describing the performance of broadcast cameras
      8. 13.7 Charge coupled device (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors used in broadcast cameras
      9. 13.8 Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
      10. 13.9 Bit size, pixel count and other issues
      11. 13.10 Three-dimensional and ultra high-defi nition (UHD) television
      12. 13.11 Conclusion
      13. 13.12 Sources of further information and advice
      14. 13.13 References
    8. 14. High-performance silicon imagers and their applications in astrophysics, medicine and other fields
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Solid-state imaging detectors: principles of operation
      4. 14.3 Scientific imaging detectors
      5. 14.4 Readout structures
      6. 14.5 Photon counting detectors
      7. 14.7 Planetary and astronomy applications
      8. 14.8 Commercial applications of high-performance imaging detectors
      9. 14.9 Brief note on biological and medical applications
      10. 14.10 References and further reading
  8. Index