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High-Frequency Integrated Circuits

Book Description

A transistor-level, design-intensive overview of high speed and high frequency monolithic integrated circuits for wireless and broadband systems from 2 GHz to 200 GHz, this comprehensive text covers high-speed, RF, mm-wave and optical fiber circuits using nanoscale CMOS, SiGe BiCMOS and III-V technologies. Step-by-step design methodologies, end-of-chapter problems and practical simulation and design projects are provided, making this an ideal resource for senior undergraduate and graduate courses in circuit design. With an emphasis on device-circuit topology interaction and optimization, it gives circuit designers and students alike an in-depth understanding of device structures and process limitations affecting circuit performance.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. High-Frequency Integrated Circuits
  3. The Cambridge RF and Microwave Engineering Series
  4. Title Page
  5. Copyright Page
  6. Endorsements
  7. Contents
  8. Preface
  9. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 High-frequency circuits in wireless, fiber-optic, and imaging systems
    2. 1.2 A brief history of high-frequency integrated circuits
    3. 1.3 What does the future hold?
    4. 1.4 The high-frequency IC design engineer
    5. References
  10. 2 High-frequency and high-data-rate communication systems
    1. 2.1 Wireless and fiber-optic communication systems
    2. 2.2 Radio transceivers
    3. 2.3 Modulation techniques
    4. 2.4 Receiver architectures
    5. 2.5 Transmitter architectures
    6. 2.6 Receiver specification
    7. 2.7 Transmitter specification
    8. 2.8 Link budget
    9. 2.9 Phased arrays
    10. 2.10 Examples of other system applications
    11. Summary
    12. Problems
    13. References
  11. 3 High-frequency linear noisy network analysis
    1. 3.1 Two-port and multi-port network parameters
    2. 3.2 Noise
    3. 3.3 Two-port and multi-port noise
    4. 3.4 Noise in circuits with negative feedback
    5. Summary
    6. Problems
    7. References
  12. 4 High-frequency devices
    1. 4.1 High-frequency active devices
    2. 4.2 The nanoscale MOSFET
    3. 4.3 The heterojunction bipolar transistor
    4. 4.4 The high electron mobility transistor
    5. 4.5 High-frequency passive components
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  13. 5 Circuit analysis techniques for high-frequency integrated circuits
    1. 5.1 Analog versus high-frequency circuit design
    2. 5.2 Impedance matching
    3. 5.3 Tuned circuit topologies and analysis techniques
    4. 5.4 Techniques to maximize bandwidth
    5. 5.5 Challenges in differential circuits at high frequency
    6. 5.6 Non-linear techniques
    7. Summary
    8. Problems
    9. References
  14. 6 Tuned power amplifier design
    1. What is a tuned power amplifier?
    2. 6.1 Tuned PA fundamentals
    3. 6.2 Classes of tuned PAs and the associated voltage waveforms
    4. 6.3 Linear modulation of PAs
    5. 6.4 Class A PA design methodology
    6. 6.5 Non-idealities in PAs
    7. 6.6 Implementation examples of CMOS and SiGe HBT mm-wave PAs
    8. 6.7 Efficiency enhancement techniques
    9. 6.8 Power combining techniques
    10. Summary
    11. Problems
    12. References
  15. 7 Low-noise tuned amplifier design
    1. 7.1 LNA specification and figure of merit
    2. 7.2 Design goals for tuned LNAs
    3. 7.3 Low-noise design philosophy and theory
    4. 7.4 LNAs with inductive degeneration
    5. 7.5 Power-constrained CMOS LNA design
    6. 7.6 Low-current CMOS inverter LNAs
    7. 7.7 Low-voltage LNA topologies
    8. 7.8 Other LNA topologies
    9. 7.9 Differential LNA design methodology
    10. 7.10 Process variation in tuned LNAs
    11. 7.11 Impact of temperature variation in tuned LNAs
    12. 7.12 Low-noise bias networks for LNAs
    13. 7.13 MOSFET layout in LNAs
    14. Summary
    15. Problems
    16. References
  16. 8 Broadband low-noise and transimpedance amplifiers
    1. 8.1 Low-noise broadband high-speed digital receivers
    2. 8.2 Transimpedance amplifier specification
    3. 8.3 Transimpedance amplifier design
    4. 8.4 Other broadband low-noise amplifier topologies
    5. 8.5 DC offset compensation and VGA-TIA topologies
    6. Summary
    7. Problems
    8. References
  17. 9 Mixers, switches, modulators, and other control circuits
    1. What is a mixer?
    2. 9.1 Mixer fundamentals
    3. 9.2 Mixer specification
    4. 9.3 Mixer topologies
    5. 9.4 Design methodology for downconverters
    6. 9.5 Upconverter mixer design methodology
    7. 9.6 Examples of mm-wave Gilbert cell mixers
    8. 9.7 Image-reject and single-sideband mixer topologies
    9. 9.8 Mixer simulation
    10. 9.9 Switches, phase shifters, and modulators
    11. 9.10 Gilbert cell layout
    12. Problems
    13. References
  18. 10 Design of voltage-controlled oscillators
    1. What is an oscillator?
    2. 10.1 VCO fundamentals
    3. 10.2 Low-noise VCO topologies
    4. 10.3 VCO simulation techniques
    5. 10.4 VCO design methodology
    6. 10.5 Frequency scaling and technology porting of CMOS VCOs
    7. 10.6 VCO layout
    8. 10.7 Mm-wave VCO examples
    9. Summary
    10. Problems
    11. References
  19. 11 High-speed digital logic
    1. 11.1 Systems using high-speed logic
    2. 11.2 High-speed digital logic families
    3. 11.3 Inductive peaking
    4. 11.4 Inductive broadbanding
    5. 11.5 Design methodology for maximum data rate
    6. 11.6 BiCMOS MOS-HBT logic
    7. 11.7 Pseudo-CML logic
    8. 11.8 Other bipolar, MOS and BiCMOS CML, and ECL gates
    9. 11.9 Dividers
    10. 11.10 CML/ECL gate layout techniques
    11. Summary
    12. Problems
    13. References
  20. 12 High-speed digital output drivers with waveshape control
    1. What is a high-speed digital output driver?
    2. 12.1 Types of high-speed drivers
    3. 12.2 Driver specification and FoMs
    4. 12.3 Driver architecture and building blocks
    5. 12.4 Output buffers
    6. 12.5 Predriver
    7. 12.6 Examples of distributed output drivers operating at 40Gb/s and beyond
    8. 12.7 High-speed DACs
    9. Summary
    10. Problems
    11. References
  21. 13 SoC examples
    1. What is a high-frequency SoC?
    2. 13.1 Design methodology for high-frequency SoCs
    3. 13.2 Transceiver architectures, packaging, and self-test for mm-wave radio, radar, and imaging sensors
    4. 13.3 60GHz phased array in SiGe BiCMOS versus 65nm CMOS
    5. 13.4 77GHz 4-channel automotive radar transceiver in SiGe HBT technology
    6. 13.5 70–80GHz active imager in SiGe HBT technology
    7. 13.6 150–168GHz active imaging transceiver with on-die antennas in SiGe BiCMOS technology
    8. Summary
    9. Problems
    10. References
  22. Appendix 1 Trigonometric identities
  23. Appendix 2 Baseband binary data formats and analysis
  24. Appendix 3 Linear matrix transformations
  25. Appendix 4 Fourier series
  26. Appendix 5 Exact noise analysis for a cascode amplifier with inductive degeneration
  27. Appendix 6 Noise analysis of the common-emitter amplifier with transformer feedback
  28. Appendix 7 Common-source amplifier with shunt–series transformer feedback
  29. Appendix 8 HiCUM level 0 model for a SiGe HBT
  30. Appendix 9 Technology parameters
  31. Appendix 10 Analytical study of oscillator phase noise
  32. Appendix 11 Physical constants
  33. Appendix 12 Letter frequency bands
  34. Index