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Heat and Thermodynamics

Book Description

The book is meant for an introductory course on Heat and Thermodynamics. Emphasis has been given to the fundamentals of thermodynamics. The book uses variety of diagrams, charts and learning aids to enable easy understanding of the subject. Solved numerical problems interspersed within the chapters will help the students to understand the physical significance of the mathematical derivations.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Mathematical Preliminaries
    1. 1.1 Partial Differentiation
    2. 1.2 Definition of Mechanical Work
    3. 1.3 Energy
    4. 1.4 Conservative Field of Force
    5. 1.5 Non-conservative System of Forces
    6. 1.6 Gamma Functions and some Integrations
  8. Chapter 2. Thermometry
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 General Theory of Thermometry
    3. 2.3 Liquid Thermometer
    4. 2.4 Gas Thermometer
    5. 2.5 Resistance Thermometer
    6. 2.6 Thermocouple Thermometers
    7. 2.7 Low and High Temperature Thermometry
    8. Solved Problems
    9. Problems
    10. Questions
  9. Chapter 3. The Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
    1. 3.1 On the Nature of Heat: The Caloric Theory of Heat
    2. 3.2 Friction Methods for Determining J. Joule’s Method
    3. 3.3 Work Done During Expansion of a Gas at Constant Pressure
    4. 3.4 Callendar and Barnes’ Steady Flow Method
    5. 3.5 Newton’s Law of Cooling
    6. 3.6 Specific Heat of a Gas by Joly’s Differential Steam Caloriemeter
    7. 3.7 Determination of Specific Heat of a Gas at Constant Pressure by Regnault’s Method
    8. 3.8 Determination of γby Clement and Desorme’s Method
    9. Solved Problems
    10. Problems
    11. Questions
  10. Chapter 4. Kinetic Theory of Gases
    1. 4.1 Macroscopic and Microscopic Points of View
    2. 4.2 Derivation of the Pressure Exerted by a Perfect Gas
    3. 4.3 Distribution Function of Velocities
    4. 4.4 Elastic Collisions
    5. 4.5 Energy of Gas Molecules
    6. 4.6 Finite Volume of a Molecule, Mean Free Path
    7. 4.7 The Transport Phenomena
    8. 4.8 Viscosity of Gases at Low Pressures
    9. 4.9 Collisions with a Solid Boundary: Pressure Exerted by a Gas Introducing Mean Free Path Concept
    10. 4.10 Kinetic Theory of Conduction of Heat Through a Gas
    11. 4.11 Theory of Self-Diffusion in a Gas
    12. 4.12 Thermal Transpiration
    13. 4.13 Evidences of Molecular Motion
    14. Solved Problems
    15. Problems
    16. Questions
  11. Chapter 5. Equations of State
    1. 5.1 Equation of State of Perfect Gas
    2. 5.2 Van der Waals’ Equation of State
    3. 5.3 Determination of the Constants a and b
    4. 5.4 Discussions on Van der Waals’ Equation
    5. 5.5 Comparison of Van der Waals’ Equation with Andrews’ Experimental Curves
    6. 5.6 Experimental Determination of Critical Constants
    7. 5.7 Reduced Equation of State and Law of Corresponding States
    8. 5.8 Merits and Demerits of Van der Waals’ Equation
    9. 5.9 Boyle Temperature from Van der Waals’ Equation 5.10 Other Equations of State
    10. Solved Problems
    11. Problems
    12. Questions
  12. Chapter 6. Change of State
    1. 6.1 Deduction of Clausius-Clapeyron’s Equations
    2. 6.2 Specific Heat of Saturated Vapours
    3. 6.3 Internal and External Latent Heats
    4. 6.4 Deduction of Clapeyron’s Equations from Thermodynamic Potential
    5. 6.5 The Steam Line, the Hoar Frost Line and the Ice Line
    6. 6.6 The Phase Rule
    7. 6.7 Thermodynamics of Solutions
    8. Solved Problems
    9. Problems
    10. Questions
  13. Chapter 7. The Joule–Thomson Cooling Effect
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 The Theory of The Experiment
    3. 7.3 Calculation of Amount of Cooling
    4. 7.4 Calculation of Cooling Co-efficient from Van Der Waals’ Equation
    5. 7.5 Condition for Liquefaction of Gases
    6. 7.6 Regenerative Cooling
    7. 7.7 Method of Adiabatic Demagnetization
    8. 7.8 Liquefaction of Air
    9. 7.9 Liquefaction of Hydrogen
    10. 7.10 Liquefaction of Helium
    11. 7.11 Properties of Liquid Helium
    12. 7.12 Measurement of Low Temperature
    13. 7.13 Measurement of Specific Heat at Low Temperatures
    14. 7.14 Refrigerating Mechanism
    15. 7.15 Air Conditioning Machine
    16. 7.16 Effects of Chlorofluoro Carbons (CFCS) on Ozone Layer
    17. 7.17 Applications of Substances at Low Temperature
    18. Solved Problems
    19. Problems
    20. Questions
  14. Chapter 8. First Law of Thermodynamics
    1. 8.1 Principle of Conservation of Energy
    2. 8.2 The Thermodynamic State and Thermodynamic Co-ordinates
    3. 8.3 Specific Heats and Latent Heats
    4. 8.4 The Energy Equation
    5. 8.5 Atmosphere in Convective Equilibrium
    6. 8.6 The Isothermal and Adiabatic Curves
    7. Solved Problems
    8. Problems
    9. Questions
  15. Chapter 9. The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    1. 9.1 Limitations of the First Law of Thermodynamics
    2. 9.2 The Spontaneous Process
    3. 9.3 The Heat Engine
    4. 9.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
    5. 9.5 Carnot’s Theorem
    6. 9.6 Efficiency of a Carnot’s Engine is Independent of Nature of the Working Substance
    7. 9.7 The Thermodynamic or Kelvin Scale of Temperature
    8. 9.8 Centigrade Scale and Absolute Scale
    9. 9.9 Conversion of Real-Gas Thermometer Scale to Perfect-Gas Thermometer Scale or Absolute Thermodynamic Scale
    10. 9.10 Entropy
    11. 9.11 Calculation of Efficiency of Rankine’s Cycle
    12. 9.12 Efficiency of Diesel Cycle
    13. 9.13 Efficiency of Otto Cycle
    14. 9.14 Third Law of Thermodynamics
    15. Solved Problems
    16. Problems
    17. Questions
  16. Chapter 10. Thermodynamic Relations
    1. 10.1 Maxwell’s Relations
    2. 10.2 Relation Between the Thermodynamic Functions
    3. 10.3 Specific Heat Equations
    4. Solved Problems
    5. Problems
    6. Questions
  17. Chapter 11. Conduction of Heat
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Rectilinear Flow of Heat
    3. 11.3 Ingen-Hausz’s method
    4. 11.4 Experiment of Despretz, Wiedemann and Franz for Comparison of Conductivities of Two Different Materials
    5. 11.5 Forbes’ Method
    6. 11.6 Conductivity of Poor Conductors
    7. 11.7 Spherical Shell Method
    8. 11.8 Cylindrical Shell Method
    9. 11.9 Periodic Flow of Heat
    10. 11.10 Angstrom’s Experiment
    11. 11.11 Conductivity of Earth’s Crust
    12. 11.12 Wiedemann-Franz Law
    13. 11.13 Jaeger and Diesselhorst Method
    14. Solved Problems
    15. Problems
    16. Questions
  18. Chapter 12. Radiation
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Some Fundamental Concepts and Definitions
    3. 12.3 Prevost’s Theory of Exchanges
    4. 12.4 Kirchhoff’s Law of Radiation
    5. 12.5 Analogy Between Black Body Radiation and Perfect Gas
    6. 12.6 Boltzmann’s Ether Engine
    7. 12.7 Thermodynamics of Radiation
    8. 12.8 The Wavelength-Temperature Displacement Law
    9. 12.9 Forms of the Distribution Function f(l)
    10. 12.10 The Equipartition Principle
    11. 12.11 The Rayleigh-Jeans Radiation Formula
    12. 12.12 The Dynamical and Thermodynamical State of a System
    13. 12.13 Planck’s Radiation Formula
    14. 12.14 Jean’s Method of Deduction of Planck’s Radiation Formula
    15. 12.15 Specific Heats of Substances
    16. 12.16 Deviations from Dulong and Petit’s Laws
    17. 12.17 Einstein’s Theory of Specific Heat
    18. 12.18 Debye’s Theory of Specific Heat
    19. 12.19 Specific Heat of Gases
    20. 12.20 Experimental Determination of Stefan’s Constant
    21. 12.21 Measurement of High Temperatures by Radiation
    22. 12.22 Determination of Solar Constant
    23. Solved Problems
    24. Problems
    25. Questions
  19. Chapter 13. Introduction to Statistical Thermodynamics
    1. 13.1 Significance of Statistics
    2. 13.2 Some Basic Concepts
    3. 13.3 Stirling’s Theorem
    4. 13.4 Mathematical Probability
    5. 13.5 Statistical Methods of a Molecular System
    6. 13.6 Liouville’s Theorem
    7. 13.7 Boltzmann’s Relation Between Entropy and Probability
    8. 13.8 Calculation of Statistical Probability and Number of Cells According to Quantum Statistics
    9. 13.9 Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and Classical Statistics
    10. 13.10 Distribution Law According to the Three Statistics
    11. 13.11 Equilibrium State According to the Three Statistics
    12. 13.12 Law of Distribution of Molecular Velocities According to Classical or Maxwell–Boltzmann Statistics
    13. 13.13 Application of Bose–Einstein Distribution Law to Photon Gas
    14. 13.14 Application of Fermi-Dirac Distribution Law to Electron Gas
    15. 13.15 Comparison of the Three Statistics
    16. 13.16 Criticism of the Three Statistics
    17. Solved Problems
    18. Problems
    19. Questions
  20. Notes
  21. Copyright