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Heat and Mass Transfer, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Heat and Mass Transfer is designed for the core paper on Heat and Mass Transfer for the undergraduate students of mechanical engineering, and offers theory in brief, detailed derivations, plenty of examples and numerous exercise problems. This unique approach helps students apply principles to applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Preface
  5. 1. Basic Modes of Heat Transfer
    1. 1.1 Heat
    2. 1.2 Temperature
    3. 1.3 Heat Transfer Modes
      1. 1.3.1 Conduction Heat Transfer
      2. 1.3.2 Convection Heat Transfer
      3. 1.3.3 Combined Convection and Conduction and Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient
      4. 1.3.4 Radiation Heat Transfer
      5. 1.3.5 Combined Convection and Radiation
    4. 1.4 Conclusions
    5. Example Problems
    6. Review Questions
    7. Objective Questions
    8. Exercise Problems
  6. 2. One-dimensional Steady-state Conduction
    1. 2.1 Fourier’s Law
    2. 2.2 General Energy Equation
    3. 2.3 Plane Wall (Slab): Constant Surface Temperature Without Heat Generation
      1. 2.3.1 In a Slab With Convection Boundaries
      2. 2.3.2 One-dimensional Steady-state Conduction Through a Composite Slab
      3. 2.3.3 A Slab With Heat Generation and Uniform Thermal Conductivity
      4. 2.3.4 One-dimensional Steady-state Heat Conduction in a Slab With Variable Thermal Conductivity
    4. 2.4 A Hollow Cylinder Without Heat Generation
      1. 2.4.1 A Hollow Cylinder With Convection Boundaries
      2. 2.4.2 A Solid Cylinder With Heat Generation
    5. 2.5 A Hollow Sphere Without Heat Generation
      1. 2.5.1 A Hollow Sphere With Convection Heat Transfer and Without Heat Generation
      2. 2.5.2 A Hollow Composite Sphere Without Heat Generation
      3. 2.5.3 Solid Sphere With Heat Generation
      4. 2.5.4 Logarithmic Mean Area for Hollow Cylinder and Sphere
      5. 2.5.5 Thermal Contact Resistance
    6. 2.6 Critical Thickness of Insulation
    7. 2.7 Fins
      1. 2.7.1 Rectangular Fin
      2. 2.7.2 Triangular Fin
      3. 2.7.3 Efficiency of Fin
      4. 2.7.4 Effectiveness of Fin
    8. 2.8 Conclusions
    9. Example Problems
    10. Review Questions
    11. Objective Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  7. 3. Transient Heat Conduction
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Lumped Parameter Analysis (Infinite Thermal Conductivity)
      1. 3.2.1 Significance of Biot and Fourier Numbers
    3. 3.3 Semi-infinite Solids
      1. 3.3.1 Constant Heat Flux on Semi-infinite Solid
      2. 3.3.2 Convection Boundary Conditions
      3. 3.3.3 Use of Transient–Temperature Charts
      4. 3.3.4 Slab
      5. 3.3.5 Long Cylinder
      6. 3.3.6 Sphere
    4. 3.4 Multidimensional Systems
    5. 3.5 Periodic Heat Flow
      1. 3.5.1 Semi-infinite Solid-surface Temperature Varied Periodically
    6. 3.6 Freezing/Melting
      1. 3.6.1 Flat Liquid/Solid Surface
      2. 3.6.2 Freezing of Liquid at a Temperature Higher than Freezing Point
    7. 3.7 Conclusions
    8. Example Problems
    9. Review Questions
    10. Objective Questions
    11. Exercise Problems
  8. 4. Natural Convection
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Natural Convection Heat Transfer over a Vertical Plate
      1. 4.2.1 Integral Method
      2. 4.2.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient
    3. 4.3 Empirical Relations for Free Convection
      1. 4.3.1 Vertical Planes and Cylinders
      2. 4.3.2 Horizontal Plates
      3. 4.3.3 Inclined Plates
      4. 4.3.4 Vertical Cylinders
      5. 4.3.5 Horizontal Cylinders
      6. 4.3.6 Spheres
    4. 4.4 Free Convection in Enclosed Spaces
    5. 4.5 Concentric Cylinders
    6. 4.6 Concentric Spheres
    7. 4.7 Combined Free and Forced Convection (Mixed Convection)
    8. 4.8 Combined Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer
    9. 4.9 Conclusions
    10. Example Problems
    11. Review Questions
    12. Objective Questions
    13. Exercise Problems
  9. 5. Forced Convection
    1. 5.1 Convective Heat Transfer
    2. 5.2 Velocity Boundary Layer
    3. 5.3 Laminar Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
    4. 5.4 Thermal Boundary Layer
    5. 5.5 Energy Equation of the Boundary Layer
    6. 5.6 Thermal Boundary Layer Analysis
    7. 5.7 Constant Heat Flux
    8. 5.8 External Forced Convection
      1. 5.8.1 Laminar Flow on Isothermal Plate
      2. 5.8.2 Laminar Flow Parallel to Plane Surfaces
      3. 5.8.3 Flow Across Cylinders (Cross Flow Over Cylinders)
      4. 5.8.4 Flow Over/Across Spheres
      5. 5.8.5 Fluid Flow Over/Across Banks of Tubes
      6. 5.8.6 Pressure Drop
    9. 5.9 Forced Convection Inside Tubes and Ducts
      1. 5.9.1 Laminar Flow in Tubes With Constant Wall Temperature and Heat Fluid
      2. 5.9.2 Turbulent Flow
    10. 5.10 Conclusions
    11. Example Problems
    12. Review Questions
    13. Objective Questions
    14. Exercise Problems
  10. 6. Boiling
    1. 6.1 Boiling Heat Transfer
    2. 6.2 Boiling Curve
      1. 6.2.1 Zone I: Free Convection
      2. 6.2.2 Zone II: Nucleate Boiling
      3. 6.2.3 Zone III: Film Boiling
    3. 6.3 Empirical Correlations for Boiling
    4. 6.4 Nucleate Pool Boiling
    5. 6.5 Critical Heat Flux for Nucleate Pool Boiling
    6. 6.6 Film Boiling
    7. 6.7 Flow Boiling or Forced Convection Boiling
    8. 6.8 Conclusions
    9. Example Problems
    10. Review Questions
    11. Objective Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  11. 7. Condensation
    1. 7.1 Condensation on Vertical Surfaces (Nusselt Theory)
    2. 7.2 Condensation on Horizontal Surface
    3. 7.3 Reynolds Number for Condensate Flow
    4. 7.4 Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficients from Experiments
    5. 7.5 Dropwise Condensation
    6. 7.6 Influence of Noncondensable Gases
    7. 7.7 Conclusions
    8. Example Problems
    9. Review Questions
    10. Objective Questions
    11. Exercise Problems
  12. 8. Heat Exchangers
    1. 8.1 Classification of Heat Exchangers
    2. 8.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of Heat Exchangers
    3. 8.3 Fouling Factors
    4. 8.4 Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
      1. 8.4.1 LMTD for Parallel-flow Heat Exchangers
      2. 8.4.2 LMTD for Counter-flow Heat Exchangers
      3. 8.4.3 LMTD for Cross-flow Heat Exchangers
    5. 8.5 The NTU Method
      1. 8.5.1 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness of Various Types of Heat Exchangers
    6. 8.6 Heat Transfer Enhancement
    7. 8.7 Compact Heat Exchangers
    8. 8.8 Conclusions
    9. Example Problems
    10. Review Questions
    11. Objective Questions
    12. Exercise Problems
  13. 9. Radiation Heat Transfer
    1. 9.1 Emissive Power
    2. 9.2 Planck’s Law
    3. 9.3 Wien’s Displacement Law
    4. 9.4 Stefan–Boltzman Law
    5. 9.5 Kirchhoff’s Law
    6. 9.6 Black Body Radiation Function
    7. 9.7 Intensity of Radiation (I)
    8. 9.8 Lambert’s Cosine Law
    9. 9.9 Radiation Shape Factor (F)
    10. 9.10 Properties of Shape Factor
    11. 9.11 Shape Factor Algebra
    12. 9.12 Electrical Analogy for Thermal Radiation
      1. 9.12.1 Two Infinite Parallel Plates
      2. 9.12.2 Concentric Cylinders or Spheres
      3. 9.12.3 Small Body Lies Inside a Large Enclosure
    13. 9.13 Radiation Shields
    14. 9.14 Gas Radiation
    15. 9.15 Conclusions
    16. Example Problems
    17. Review Questions
    18. Objective Questions
    19. Exercise Problems
  14. 10. Modeling and Analysis
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Basics of Modeling
    3. 10.3 Predictive Models
      1. 10.3.1 Physical Models
      2. 10.3.2 Analog Models
      3. 10.3.3 Mathematical Models
    4. 10.4 Governing Equations
      1. 10.4.1 Elliptic Governing Equation for Steady-state Conduction Heat Transfer Problems
      2. 10.4.2 Parabolic Governing Equations for Transient Conduction Heat Transfer Problems
      3. 10.4.3 Hyperbolic Governing Equations for Convection Heat Transfer Problems
      4. 10.4.4 Integral Forms
    5. 10.5 Numerical Methods
      1. 10.5.1 Numerical Solutions – Finite Difference Methods
    6. 10.6 Monte Carlo Method
      1. 10.6.1 Numerical Solution Concepts
    7. 10.7 Conclusions
    8. Example Problems
    9. Exercise Problems
  15. 11. Experimental Heat Transfer
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Heat Transfer Experiments
      1. 11.2.1 Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Solids
      2. 11.2.2 Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Liquids and Gases
      3. 11.2.3 Convection Heat Transfer Measurement
      4. 11.2.4 Heat Flux Measurement
      5. 11.2.5 Measurement of Emissivity
      6. 11.2.6 Reflectivity and Transmissivity Measurements
    3. 11.3 Temperature Measurement
      1. 11.3.1 Thermometers
      2. 11.3.2 Fluid Expansion Thermometer
      3. 11.3.3 Temperature Measurement Using Electrical Methods
      4. 11.3.4 Temperature Measurement Using Thermal Radiation
      5. 11.3.5 High-speed Gas Flow Temperature Measurement
      6. 11.3.6 Solar Radiation
    4. 11.4 Dimensional Analysis
      1. 11.4.1 Primary Dimensions
      2. 11.4.2 Forces
      3. 11.4.3 Significance of Non-dimensional Numbers
      4. 11.4.4 Model Experiments and Criteria for Similitude
      5. 11.4.5 Buckingham π Theorem
    5. 11.5 Conclusions
    6. Example Problems
    7. Review Questions
    8. Objective Questions
    9. Exercise Problems
  16. 12. Mass Transter
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Modes of Mass Transfer
    3. 12.3 Fick’s Laws of Diffusion
    4. 12.4 Equimolar Diffusion
    5. 12.5 Isothermal Evaporation
    6. 12.6 Mass Transfer Coefficient in Convection
    7. 12.7 Mass Transfer Through Boundary Layer
    8. 12.8 Evaporation Processes in the Atmosphere
    9. 12.9 Conclusions
    10. Example Problems
    11. Review Questions
    12. Objective Questions
    13. Exercise Problems
  17. Appendix A
  18. Appendix B
  19. Appendix C
  20. Acknowledgements
  21. Copyright