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Healthcare and the Effect of Technology: Developments, Challenges and Advancements

Book Description

Healthcare and the Effect of Technology: Developments, Challenges and Advancements bridges the gap between today's empirical research findings and healthcare practice. It provides the reader with information on current technological integrations, potential uses for technology in healthcare, and the implications—both positive and negative—of health informatics for one's health. Technology in healthcare can improve efficiency, make patient records more accessible, increase professional communication, create global health networking, and increase access to healthcare. However, it is important to consider the ethical, confidential, and cultural implications technology in healthcare may impose. That is what makes this book is a must-read for policymakers, human resource professionals, management personnel, as well as for researchers, scholars, students, and healthcare professionals.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Preface
  5. Acknowledgment
  6. 1. Introduction and Overview of Technology in Health Care
    1. 1. Health in the Digital World: Transformational Trends
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. KEY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS DISSECTED
        1. Personalization
        2. Connectivity
        3. Social Networking
        4. Co-Creation
      4. CULTURAL CLASH: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY TRENDS VERSUS HEALTH SYSTEM TRADITIONS
      5. E-HEALTH TRANSFORMATION: ACTION STEPS TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. 2. The Effectiveness of Health Informatics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      4. CLINICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND CLINICAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS (CDSS) IN THE 21ST CENTURY: THE IMPACT ON HEALTH CARE QUALITY, COSTS, AND OUTCOMES
      5. PUTTING HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (HIT) TO USE
        1. Overcoming the Limitations of Paper-Based Records
        2. Some Reasons for Limited Diffusion of Health Information Technology & Electronic Health Records
        3. Particular Features of Electronic Health Records That Offer Advantages over Paper Records
        4. Standardization and Integration of Technologies
        5. Implementing Health Information Technology
        6. Adverse Effects of Health Information Technology
      6. METHODS OF ASSESSING COST-EFFECTIVENESS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 3. Closing the Gap: E-Health and Optimization of Patient Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Vocabulary
        2. Historical Overview
      3. E-HEALTH: A TOOL FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PATIENT CARE
        1. Who Needs E-Health?
        2. E-Health Acceptance
        3. E-Health Resources for Optimization of Patient Care
        4. Who is in Charge of Introducing E-Health Applications?
        5. How Can E-Health Optimize Patients' Care?
        6. New Trends
        7. Cultural Differences
        8. Cost Effectiveness
        9. E-Health International Players
        10. What are the E-Health Challenges?
        11. Networking as Prerequisite for Success
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    4. 4. Risks and Benefits of Technology in Health Care
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS
        1. Advantages
        2. Disadvantages
        3. Discussion
      3. ONLINE MEDICAL INFORMATION
        1. Demographics
        2. Advantages
        3. Disadvantages
        4. Discussion
      4. TECHNOLOGY AND RELATIONSHIPS
        1. Advantages
        2. Disadvantages
        3. Discussion
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
  7. 2. The Use of Technology: From the Individual to the Community
    1. 5. The Computer-Assisted Patient Consultation: Promises and Challenges
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE COMPUTER ENABLED (OR DISABLED) CONSULTATION: AN IN-DEPTH LOOK
        1. Efficiency vs. Risk
        2. The Computer as a Third Player in the Patient-Doctor Encounter
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. LIMITATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 6. The Electronic Patient Record: A Practicing Physician's Perspective
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MEDICAL ISSUES
        1. Monitoring: Evolution of the 747 Cockpit
        2. Recording Speed: IT Ramifications of the "Code Record"
        3. The Medical Record: What you Don't Know May be Lethal to the Patient
        4. Logic of Diagnosis
        5. Training Physicians to Use New Software
        6. Fatigue and Medical Error
        7. Other Benefits of the EPR to Patients and Providers
      4. NURSING ISSUES
        1. Nursing Standards of Care and Documentation
      5. QUALITY ASSURANCE ISSUES
        1. Risk Stratification in Quality Assurance: Why IT Support is Essential
      6. MANAGEMENT ISSUES
        1. "IT is Killing Us!"
        2. Nursing Time: Where Does it Really go?
        3. Strategic Management is related to Business Intelligence by Quantitative Measures of Organizational Performance
      7. HUMAN RESOURCES ISSUES
        1. Return on Investment on Training: Making IT Actually Work
        2. Train Like You are Going to Fight
        3. The Role of Simulation in Effective Health Care Team Training
        4. Perspectives on Shared Governance: Why IT Must Support Ongoing Analysis of Turnover for HR
      8. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ISSUES
        1. Bad Informatics: Why Poorly Structured Systems and Software Impede Health Care
        2. Health Informatics
      9. LEGAL ISSUES
        1. Criminal Liability
        2. Civil Liability
      10. REGULATORY ASPECTS
        1. Human Resources Policy Issues and Regulations
        2. HR and IT Ramifications of Nursing Scope of Practice
      11. CONCLUSION
      12. REFERENCES
    3. 7. Extending Health Services to Rural Communities: Telepediatrics in Queensland
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT
        1. Telemedicine
      5. TELEPEDIATRICS
        1. Mobile Telemedicine
        2. Indigenous Health Screening
      6. EVIDENCE FOR FEASIBILITY, QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, AND COST-SAVINGS
      7. BARRIERS TO EXPANSION OF TELEMEDICINE
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. 8. Health Service Quality Information Comparison: A Preliminary Investigation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. AN OVERVIEW OF HEALTH ISSUES IN THE UNITED STATES
        1. The Overall Health System
      4. THE ACCREDITATION SYSTEM FOR HEALTH SERVICES
      5. HEALTH INFORMATION PROVISION TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC
        1. The Challenge of Health Information Provision
        2. Use Comparison-Shopping for Health Information Provision
        3. The Potential Challenges of Comparison-Shopping for Health Services
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
  8. 3. Who will put it in Place?
    1. 9. Systems Engineering and Health Informatics: Context, Content, and Implementation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT
        1. Decision Making
          1. Data for Decision Making
      4. CONTENT
        1. Systems Engineering and Health Care
      5. IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Systems Engineering: Health Informatics within the Organizational Structure
        2. Systems Engineers, Health Informaticians: Education and Training
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 10. Healthcare among the People: Teams of Leaders Concept (ToL) and the World of Technology-Oriented Global Healthcare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBAL HEALTH CARE IN CRISIS
        1. The Missing Doctor
        2. The Missing Money
        3. The Price of New Arrivals
      4. HEALTH CARE AND ADVANCED INFORMATION AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Big Problems of the Small, but Vital
        2. Big Headaches of the "Big Hitters"
        3. One More Chasm: The Cognitive Gap
        4. Is it Simply a Matter of Strategy?
      5. MATTERS MILITARY
        1. The "Healthcare Governing Triad" and the Importance of Strategy
        2. The Concept of Deployment and Employment of a "Healthcare Force"
        3. Similarities
        4. Coherence of Effort: Problems of Command and Control in Global Health Care Operations
      6. Health Care among the People
      7. THE CONCEPT OF "TEAMS OF LEADERS" (ToL)
      8. WHAT IS ToL?
        1. ToL as Knowledge Generator and Evidence-Based, Best Practices Generator
        2. ToL as an "Action Swarm" Builder
        3. ToL as the Generator of "Actionable Knowledge"
        4. Why ToL?
        5. Dissemination and Synthesis of Multidisciplinary Knowledge
        6. ToL as a "Force-Multiplier"
        7. ToL as a Builder of Flexible Strategies
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
  9. 4. Challenges: Privacy and Data Record Linkage
    1. 11. Will Privacy Concerns Derail the Electronic Health Record?: Balancing the Risks and Benefits
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS
      4. INFORMATION GOVERNANCE
        1. Principles of Fair Information Practices
        2. Public Perceptions of Privacy and Confidentiality
          1. The Public's Concerns
        3. Privacy Protective Behaviour
        4. Locking Away Information
        5. Opting Out
      5. SECONDARY USES OF HEALTH DATA
      6. SOLUTIONS - OVERCOMING THE PRIVACY BARRIER
        1. Privacy by Design
        2. Data Stewards - The Health Information Management Professional
        3. The Need for Privacy Impact Assessments/Risk Assessments
      7. THE FUTURE
        1. The Personal Health Record
      8. WEB RESOURCES
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. 12. New Technology and Implications for Healthcare and Public Health: The Case of Probabilistic Record Linkage
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF RECORD LINKAGE CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES
      4. RELEVANCE OF RECORD LINKAGE IN HEALTH CARE
      5. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO RECORD LINKAGE
        1. Deterministic (Direct/Exact) Record Linkage
        2. Probabilistic Record Linkage
        3. Unsupervised Record Linkage
      6. APPLICATIONS AND BENEFITS OF PROBABILISTIC RECORD LINKAGE IN HEALTH CARE
      7. A VALUE CONFLICT: INFORMATION PRIVACY VERSUS UTILITY AND FLOW
      8. FUNCTIONALITY AND PRICES OF RECORD LINKAGE SOFTWARE
        1. Ability to Designate Blocking Variables
        2. Ability to Standardize Addresses and Names
        3. Price
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  10. 5. Challenges: Ethics
    1. 13. Biobanking: Justice, Social Consensus, and the Marginalized
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOCIAL CONSENSUS AS THE BASIS OF SOUND PUBLIC POLICY
      4. POLICY CRITERIA FOR A JUST SOCIETY
      5. THE UNITED KINGDOM MODEL
      6. LEARNING FROM THE EXPERIENCES OF COUNTRIES ENGAGED IN SIMILAR PROJECTS
        1. North America
          1. Genetic Studies among Native Americans in North America
          2. The Salt River Tribe
          3. The Nuu-Chah-Nulth of British Columbia
          4. The Havasupai Tribe of Arizona
          5. The National Geographic Genomic Project in Alaska
      7. OTHER COUNTRIES AND REGIONS
        1. Australia
        2. South America
        3. China
        4. Taiwan
      8. OTHER PROGRAMS AND POLICIES THAT RAISE ISSUES RELATED TO BIOBANKING
        1. Genetic Engineering of Crops
        2. The Unanticipated Effects of the Biofuel Initiatives
        3. Iceland's Database of Medical Records
        4. The International Economic Crisis of 2008-2009 and Health Care in the United States
      9. THE ETHICAL CHALLENGES
      10. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Functional Neuroimaging, Free Will, and Privacy
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OVERVIEW OF FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING
        1. The Role of Structural and Functional Imaging
        2. Overview of Clinical and Research Applications of fMRI
        3. Overview of the fMRI Technique
        4. Practical and Theoretical Limitations of fMRI
        5. Issues Pertaining to fMRI Data Analysis
        6. Issues Pertaining to the fMRI Image
      4. OVERVIEW OF NATURALISTIC VIEWS OF THE MIND
      5. ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS
        1. The Impact on Free Will
        2. Brain Imaging, Mind Reading, and Privacy
      6. FUTURE ISSUES
      7. REFERENCES
  11. 6. Future Uses of Technology
    1. 15. Integrating Supports for Ubiquitous Eldercare
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ELDERCARE REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN GUIDELINES
        1. Eldercare Requirements
        2. Eldercare Design Guidelines
          1. Ubiquitous Assistance
          2. Ubiquitous Care Networking
      4. ELDERCARE SOLUTIONS
        1. Ubiquitous Assistance Solutions
          1. Solutions for Aging in Place
          2. Solutions for Assisted Living Environments
        2. Ubiquitous Care Networking Solutions
          1. Solutions for Aging in Place
          2. Solutions for Assisted Living Environments
      5. INTEGRATING SUPPORTS FOR UBIQUITOUS ELDERCARE
      6. THE ANGELAH MIDDLEWARE
      7. THE ANGELAH MODEL
        1. The ANGELAH Architecture
          1. Monitoring and Assistance Layer
          2. Response Management Layer
          3. Group Collaboration Layer
      8. INSIGHTS ON ERDM (EMERGENCY RESPONSE DECISION MAKING) IMPLEMENTATION
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
    2. 16. Implications of Web 2.0 Technology on Healthcare: A Biomedical Semantic Blog Case Study
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEVELOPING A SMART PLATFORM OF PARTICIPATION = RIA + WEB 3.0
      4. BUILDING A BIOMEDICAL SMART PLATFORM OF PARTICIPATION
        1. Selecting a Programming Framework for the GAS Blog
          1. Active Server Pages (ASP)
          2. Java Server Pages (JSP)
          3. PHP
        2. Selecting a Weblog Platform for the GAS Blog
          1. WordPress
          2. TypePad
          3. Blogsmith
          4. Movable Type
      5. INTRODUCING SEMANTICS TO THE GAS SYSTEM
        1. Adding SCORM Semantics to the GAS Blog
          1. Adding FOAF Semantics to the GAS Blog
        2. GAS Blog Navigation
          1. Collaborative Navigation
          2. Generic Navigation
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 17. Technology Transforming Healthcare: Tipping Points, Strange Attractors, and a Singularity
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TRANSFORMATION DRIVERS
      4. INTELLIGENCE
      5. TIPPING POINTS
      6. STRANGE ATTRACTORS
      7. SINGULARITY
      8. FUTURE DIRECTIONS: ON THE WAY TO THE SINGULARITY
        1. What is the Enterprise's Boundary?
          1. Has the Boundary of Health Care Enterprises Changed?
        2. Quality Improvement Processes
        3. No Human Error
        4. New Security
        5. Change from Discrete to Continuous
        6. Control Goes Puff!
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  12. Compilation of References
  13. About the Contributors