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Head First Networking

Cover of Head First Networking by Al Anderson... Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Dedication
  2. Special Upgrade Offer
  3. Advance Praise for Head First Networking
  4. Praise for other Head First books
  5. Authors of Head First Networking
  6. How to Use this Book: Intro
    1. Who is this book for?
      1. Who should probably back away from this book?
    2. We know what you’re thinking
    3. We know what your brain is thinking
    4. Metacognition: thinking about thinking
    5. Here’s what WE did:
    6. Here’s what YOU can do to bend your brain into submission
    7. Read Me
    8. The technical review team
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. Safari® Books Online
  7. 1. Fixing Physical Networks: Walking on Wires
    1. Coconut Airways has a network problem
      1. The booking system network cable is busted
    2. How do we fix the cable?
      1. But how do we do this?
    3. Introducing the CAT-5 cable
    4. The CAT-5 cable dissected
      1. So why are the pairs twisted?
    5. So what’s with all the colors?
    6. Let’s fix the broken CAT-5 cable
    7. A closer look at the RJ-45 connector
      1. So which wire goes where?
    8. So what are the physical steps?
    9. You fixed the CAT-5 cable
    10. Coconut Airways has more than one network
    11. Introducing the coaxial cable
    12. Coaxial networks are bus networks
    13. So can we fix the cable?
    14. The network’s still not working
    15. So what goes on inside a coaxial cable?
      1. But what if there’s a break in the conductor?
    16. What about connectors and terminators?
    17. Use toner-tracer sets to listen to electrons
    18. No sound means no electrons
      1. So how do we find the continuity break?
    19. You’ve fixed the coaxial cable
    20. Introducing fiber-optic cables
      1. Fiber-optics have connectors too
    21. The Coconut Airways cable’s over-bent
      1. So what’s a fusion splicer?
    22. How to fix fiber-optics with a fusion splicer
    23. A fiber-optic connector needs fitting too
    24. We’re nearly ready to fix the connector
    25. There are two types of fiber
      1. Single mode fiber
      2. Multimode fiber
    26. Which mode fiber should you use?
    27. Let’s fit the connector on the fiber-optic
      1. So which technique should we use?
    28. Coconut Airways is sky high
  8. 2. Planning Network Layouts: Networking in the Dark
    1. Ghost Watch needs your help!
    2. Every good network needs a good plan
    3. So how does the device list help us plan a network?
    4. How to plan a network layout
    5. Let’s plan the cabling with a floorplan
    6. Ready to plot some network cables?
    7. So where have we got to?
    8. We need to decide on the cable management hardware
    9. Uh oh! The cabling is a mess
    10. Ghost Watch needs cable management hardware
    11. Things that go bump...
    12. You’ve really cleaned up that noise and straightened out MOST of the cables!
      1. What’s in the closet?
    13. Let’s start by labeling the cables
    14. But there are still lots of cables
      1. But what else can we do?
    15. So what’s a patch panel?
    16. Behind the scenes of a patch panel
    17. The wires go into a punch down block
    18. Roll the cameras!
  9. 3. Tools and Troubleshooting: Into the Wire
    1. Mighty Gumball won the Super Bowl contract
    2. A toner and tracer can check for a signal...
    3. ... but can’t check for signal quality
    4. Introducing the multimeter
      1. Use a multimeter to measure resistance
    5. So what’s resistance?
      1. When resistance is low
      2. When resistance is high
    6. So how well did the multimeter do?
    7. An oscilloscope shows voltage changes
    8. Voltage is really electrical pressure
      1. So how does this help us troubleshoot problems?
    9. Where does noise on network cables come from?
    10. So how well did the oscilloscope perform for Mighty Gumball?
    11. A logical analyzer uses voltage too
    12. When is a logical analyzer useful?
    13. So which tool is best?
    14. The Mighty Gumball bonus went to Jill
    15. A LAN analyzer combines the functions of all the other tools
    16. A LAN analyzer understands the network traffic in the signal
    17. So which tool is best?
    18. The Mighty Gumball problems are fixed!
  10. 4. Packet Analysis: You’ve Been Framed
    1. What’s the secret message?
      1. So how do we extract a message from a signal?
    2. Network cards handle encoding
      1. So how does the NIC encode the data?
    3. To get the message, reverse the encoding
      1. So how do we decode the signal?
    4. The Ethernet standard tells hardware how to encode the data
    5. A quick guide to binary
      1. So how do we convert a binary to decimal?
    6. Computers read numbers, humans read letters
      1. But isn’t there an easier way?
    7. Hexadecimal to the rescue
      1. So how do we convert a hexadecimal to decimal?
    8. We can convert to ASCII using hex
    9. Back at the spy agency...
    10. Protocols define the structure of a message
    11. Network frames have lots of layers
    12. Your friendly packet field guide
      1. UDP Packet - Protocol Type 17
      2. ICMP Packet - Protocol Type 1
      3. TCP Packet - Protocol Type 6
    13. So can we decode the secret message?
    14. We’ve got all the right packets... but not necessarily in the right order
    15. The packet tells you the correct order
  11. 5. Network Devices and Traffic: How Smart is Your Network?
    1. You’ve decoded the secret message...
      1. ...but how do we know who sent it?
    2. The packet information tells us where the packet came from
    3. So who’s the mole?
    4. There’s more to networks than computers
    5. Hubs don’t change the MAC address
      1. So which device sent the packet to the hub?
    6. A hub sends signals, and sends them everywhere
      1. Hubs think in terms of electricity
    7. So what passed the signal to the hub?
    8. A switch sends frames, and only sends them where they need to go
      1. Switches think in terms of frames
    9. Switches store MAC addresses in a lookup table to keep the frames flowing smoothly
    10. The switch has the information...
    11. We can use software to monitor packets
    12. Let’s hook Wireshark up to the switch
    13. Wireshark gives us traffic information
    14. Routers have MAC addresses too
    15. We’re closing in!
    16. You’ve found the mole!
  12. 6. Connecting Networks with Routers: Bringing Things Together
    1. Networking Walking on the moon
    2. We need to connect two networks together
    3. The light’s on, but nobody’s home
      1. What do you think the flashing LEDs have to do with traffic on the network?
    4. Let’s see what traffic is on our network!
    5. MAC address versus IP address
    6. IP addresses give our networks a sense of location, and network nodes a sense of belonging to that location
    7. We retrieve IP addresses using the MAC address and the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
    8. So what’s the problem with the Moonbase?
    9. How do we get network traffic to move between networks?
    10. How the router moves data across networks
    11. Back to the Moonbase problem
    12. The secret of IP numbers is...
    13. Routers connect networks by doing the math...
    14. Back at the Moonbase...
    15. Are you ready to program the router?
    16. You just created this router config file!
    17. Let the router tell us what’s wrong...
  13. 7. Routing Protocols: It’s a Matter of Protocol
    1. Houston, we have a problem...
    2. Routing tables tell routers where to send packets
      1. We can see routes in the table using the show command
    3. Each line represents a different route
    4. So how do we enter routes?
    5. Routes help routers figure out where to send network traffic
    6. So are the moonbases now connected?
    7. Back on the moon...
      1. Moonbase 1 still has problems
    8. So how do we troubleshoot bad routes?
      1. We can start with the ping command
      2. So how does the ping command work?
    9. The traceroute command is useful too
    10. So what’s the problem with the network connection?
    11. The network address changes keep on coming...
    12. Use RIP to get routes to update themselves
      1. So what does this mean for Moonbase 1?
    13. So how do we set up RIP?
    14. But there’s still a problem...
    15. There are too many hops
    16. The routing protocol zoo
    17. So how do we setup EIGRP?
    18. We have lift off!
  14. 8. The Domain Name System: Names to Numbers
    1. The Head First Health Club needs a website
    2. Hello, my domain name is...
      1. So how do we get a domain name?
    3. Let’s go buy a domain name
    4. Uh-oh! We’re in trouble
      1. And she’s not the only one
    5. Introducing the DNS
    6. The DNS relies on name servers
    7. How the DNS sees your domain
    8. So how does this affect the Health Club?
    9. First install a DNS name server...
    10. ...then configure the name server
    11. The anatomy of a DNS zone file
    12. Here’s what the DNS zone file tells us about the Health Club servers
    13. The Health Club can’t send emails
    14. So what’s the problem?
    15. Email servers use RDNS to fight SPAM
    16. Check your sources with reverse DNS
    17. The dig command can do a reverse DNS lookup
    18. Your name server has another important zone file...
    19. The emails are working!
  15. 9. Monitoring and Troubleshooting: Listen to Your Network’s Troubles
    1. Pajama Death are back on tour
      1. So here’s your challenge...
    2. So where would you start troubleshooting a misfiring network?
    3. Start troubleshooting your network problems by checking in with your network devices
    4. Troubleshoot network connectivity with the ping command
      1. If you can ping, you get timings
      2. But what if you can’t ping?
    5. If the ping fails, check the cables
    6. Get started with the show interface command
      1. The interface’s network statistics are a gold mine of troubleshooting information
    7. The ticket network’s still not fixed
    8. SNMP to the rescue!
    9. SNMP is a network admininistrator’s communication tool
    10. How to configure SNMP on a Cisco device
    11. One hour to go...
    12. Get devices to send you their problems
    13. How to configure syslogd on a Cisco device
    14. How do you tell what’s in the logs?
      1. syslogd lets you fix problems before they’re problems
    15. Too much information can be just as bad as not enough
      1. What you need is relevant information
    16. How do you know which events are important?
    17. Pajama Death’s a sell-out!
  16. 10. Wireless Networking: Working Without Wires
    1. Your new gig at Starbuzz Coffee
      1. Starbuzz Coffee needs a wireless hotspot
    2. Wireless access points create networks using radio waves
    3. Let’s fit the wireless access point
    4. What about the network configuration?
    5. So what’s DHCP?
      1. DHCP allocates IP addresses
    6. First make sure the client has DHCP turned on...
    7. Second, make the wireless access point a DHCP server...
    8. ...and then specify an acceptable range of IP addresses
    9. So has setting up DHCP solved the problem?
    10. This time it’s personal
    11. We’ve run out of IP addresses
    12. NAT works by reallocating IP addresses
    13. So how do we configure NAT?
    14. So has this fixed the problem?
    15. There’s more than one wireless protocol
      1. Most newer access point support multiple protocols
      2. So is the Starbuzz wireless access point sorted?
    16. The central Starbuzz server needs to access the cash register
    17. Port mapping to the rescue!
      1. So port mapping is a bit like NAT in reverse
    18. Let’s set up port mapping on the Starbuzz access point
    19. The wireless access point is a success!
  17. 11. Network Security: Get Defensive
    1. The bad guys are everywhere
      1. The evil impersonator
      2. The evil attacker
    2. And it’s not just the NETWORK that gets hurt...
      1. The evil eavesdropper
    3. The big four in network security
    4. Defend your network against MAC address spoofing
    5. So how do we defend against MAC address spoofing?
    6. Defend your network against ARP poisoning attacks
    7. So what can we do about ARP poisoning attacks?
    8. It’s all about the access, baby!
      1. If an attacker can get past your router, then he’s on your network!
    9. Set up your router’s Access Control Lists to keep attackers out
    10. So how do we configure the Access Control List?
    11. Firewalls filter packets between networks
    12. Packet-filtering rules!
    13. Master the static packet filter
    14. Get smart with stateful packet-filters
    15. Humans are the weakest link in your security chain
    16. So how do social engineers operate?
    17. Smash social engineering with a clear and concise security policy
    18. You’ve hardened your network
  18. 12. Designing Networks: You Gotta Have a Plan!
    1. Now you have to plan a network from scratch!
    2. You have to know what the needs are before you can plan
    3. So you’ve developed your questions, now what?
    4. Look at your action plan
    5. So you have a physical layout, what’s next?
    6. Blueprints show everything in a building’s design
    7. You may have to modify your network design based on what you see in the blueprints!
    8. So you’ve got your physical network layout, what’s next?
      1. You have got several options to segment this into two networks
    9. Finally, you need an implementation plan
    10. Leaving town...
    11. It’s been great having you here in Networkville!
  19. A. Leftovers: The Top Ten Things (we didn’t cover)
    1. #1 Network topologies
      1. Star topology
      2. Bus topology
      3. Token Ring topology
    2. #2 Installing Wireshark
      1. Windows Install
      2. Mac OS X Install
      3. Linux Install (Ubuntu)
    3. #3 How to get to the console or terminal
      1. Windows
      2. Linux
      3. Mac OS X
    4. #4 The TCP Stack
    5. #5 VLANS
    6. #6 Cisco IOS Simulators
    7. #7 BGP
    8. #8 VPN
    9. #9 Intrusion Detection Systems
    10. #10 Cisco Certification
  20. B. Ascii Tables: Looking Things Up
    1. ASCII tables 0-31
    2. ASCII code tables 32-63
    3. ASCII code tables 64-95
    4. ASCII code tables 96-127
  21. C. Installing Bind: Getting a Server to talk DNS
    1. #1 Installing BIND on Windows (XP, 2000, Vista)
    2. #2 Installing BIND Mac OS X Server
    3. #3 Installing BIND Mac OS X Client & Linux
  22. Index
  23. About the Authors
  24. Special Upgrade Offer
  25. Copyright
O'Reilly logo

Chapter 1. Fixing Physical Networks: Walking on Wires

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Just plug in that cable and the network’s up, right? Network cables silently do their job, pushing our data from here to there, faster than we can blink. But what happens when it all goes wrong? Organizations rely on their networks so much that the business falls apart when the network fails. That’s why knowing how to fix physical networks is so important. Keep reading, and we’ll show you how to troubleshoot your networks with ease and fix physical problems. You’ll soon be in full control of your networks.

Coconut Airways has a network problem

There’s no better way to travel between islands than by seaplane, and Coconut Airways has an entire fleet. They offer scenic tours, excursions and a handy shuttle service between the islands. Their service is proving popular with tourists and locals alike.

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Demand for flights is sky-high, but Coconut Airways has a problem—whenever staff try to use the flight booking system, they’re presented with a network error message:

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Coconut Airways depends on their flight booking system. Without it, passengers can’t book seats, and it’s bringing their flights to a standstill. What’s more, no passengers means no money.

Coconut Airways needs to get their network up and running again, and fast. Think you can help them out?

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The booking system network cable is busted

It looks like a break in the flight booking network cable is giving the Coconut Airways staff network errors. If we can fix the network cable, that should get rid of the messages, and Coconut Airways will be able to book passengers on their flights again.

So how do you think we should fix the network cable?

How do we fix the cable?

There are two key things we need to do in order to mend the cable and get the flight booking system up and running again.

  1. We need to cut out the broken part of the cable.

    It’s the break in the cable that’s causing us the problem, so let’s get rid of it.

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  2. We need to attach a connector.

    By cutting out the broken part of the cable, we lose the connector on the end. We need the connector so that we can plug the cable into things, so we’ll need to put a new one on.

But how do we do this?

At the moment we don’t know anything about the sort of cable it is, and the type of cable has an effect on how we go about things.

So what sort of cable are we dealing with here?

Brain Power

What sorts of network cables do you already know about? How do you think they are different from one another? Why?

Introducing the CAT-5 cable

The sort of cable running the main Coconut Airways network is called a Category 5 cable for Ethernet, or CAT-5 cable. It has two distinguishing features. First of all, it has an unshielded twisted pair cable or UTP cable. Secondly, it takes an RJ-45 connector on either end. Most Ethernet networks run on CAT-5 cables.

CAT-5 cables have print on the outside giving you important information about the cable. As an example, you can look on the outside of the cable to see what type it is, what the speed is, and any relevant standards.

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So what’s inside a CAT-5 cable? Let’s take a look.

The CAT-5 cable dissected

If you open up a CAT-5 cable, you’ll find eight colored wires twisted into four pairs. One pair is brown, another pair is blue, another pair is green, and the final pair is orange. Each pair consists of one plain and one striped wire.

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So why are the pairs twisted?

The problem with wires that aren’t twisted is that they generate magnetic fields that interfere with the signal carried on the wire. This means that you can get electromagnetic interference and crosstalk—both of which are bad for your network data.

When the wires are twisted, the magnetic field around the wire is effectively disrupted so that any interference is reduced. The more twists there are in the pairs, the better.

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It’s not just the twists in the wires that are significant, the colors are important too. Let’s take a closer look.

So what’s with all the colors?

The paired wires in a CAT-5 cable are colored for a reason. Each color has a specific meaning, and so does the solidity of the color.

  • Orange and green wires send and receive data.

    The orange pair sends data, while the green pair receives data.

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  • The color solidity shows the wire polarity.

    If a wire is striped, then this means that it is positive. If a wire is solid, then the wire is negative.

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  • Blue and brown wires are reserved for future bandwidth capacity.

    Blue and brown wires don’t do anything yet, but they will in the future. The cable standards folks designed CAT-5 with the extra colored wires so that they could be used for higher bandwidths in the future.

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Brain Power

What’s the difference between bandwidth and speed on a network cable?



Let’s fix the broken CAT-5 cable

Now that we know more about how CAT-5 cables work, let’s see if you can fix the Coconut Airways network cable. All you need is a pair of wire cutters, a utility knife, a crimping tool, and an RJ-45 connector.

  1. Cut the broken part out.

    Cut the cable well before the break to ensure that you have a good set of wire ends. Make the cut as straight as possible so that the individual wires are the same length.

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  2. Strip the cable cover back on the good end.

    Cut carefully along the length of the jacket with a blade, making sure you don’t cut into the insulation of the bundled wires inside the jacket. A good cut length is somewhere between 1/2 and 1 inch. Once you’ve done that, pull the cable jacket apart and peel it back to expose the twisted pairs.

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  3. Untwist and flatten the individual wires.

    Untwist the wires so that you can line them up with the slots on the RJ-45 connector. Generally you need about1/2 inch of the wire to fit into the connector.

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  4. Place each wire into the RJ-45 connector.

    Each wire fits into a slot in the RJ-45 connector. Just line up each wire with the relevant slot and you’re good to go.

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Where you put each wire is important.

Each wire needs to go into a particular slot in the RJ-45 connector, but at the moment we don’t know which wire goes where. We need to know more about what’s inside the RJ-45 connector.

A closer look at the RJ-45 connector

As we saw earlier, the connector at the end of a CAT-5 cable is called an RJ-45 connector. It allows you to plug your cable into a wall jack or the network port of a network device like a computer.

Each wire in the cable goes into a slot inside the RJ-45 connector, and this connects it to a pin in the connector.

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So which wire goes where?

The position of each wire is important.

When you plug an RJ-45 connector into a jack, the pins on the connector make contact with pins in the jack. If the wires are in the correct position, this allows information, in the form of electrons, to flow. If the wires are in the wrong position, the information won’t be able to get through.

The order of the wires in an RJ-45 connector conforms to one of two standards. These standards are 568A and 568B.

So what are the physical steps?

Now that we know how the wiring standards for the RJ-45 connectors work, let’s have another go at fixing the broken CAT-5 network cable for Coconut Airways.

  1. Cut the broken part out.

    Cut the cable well before the break to ensure that you have a good set of wire ends. Make the cut as straight as possible so that the individual wires are the same length.

  2. Strip the cable cover back on the good end.

    Cut carefully along the length of the jacket with a blade, making sure you don’t cut into the insulation of the bundled wires inside the jacket. A good cut length is somewhere between 1/2 and 1 inch. Once you’ve done that, pull the cable jacket apart and peel it back to expose the twisted pairs.

  3. Untwist and flatten the individual wires.

    Untwist the wires so that you can line them up with the slots on the RJ-45 connector.


    These are the steps we went through earlier.

  4. Check whether the other end of the cable follows wiring standard 568A or 568B.

    Both ends of the cable need to follow the same wiring standard, so make a note of what the other end uses.

  5. Place each wire into the RJ-45 connector using the same standard as the other end.

  6. Attach the connector to the cable with a crimping tool.

    Once the lines are in their proper slots, place the RJ-45 into the crimping tool, and then squeeze the tool to crimp the RJ-45 snugly onto the cable. Check the end of the RJ-45 connector to ensure that the wire is seated correctly in each slot.

You fixed the CAT-5 cable

Thanks to you, the Coconut Airways flight bookings system is back in business. Before too long, all of their scheduled flights are fully booked and ready for take-off.

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Brain Power

We fixed the flight booking network, but it looks like the network troubles aren’t over for Coconut Airways. What do you think might have gone wrong?

Coconut Airways has more than one network

You’ve done a great job of fixing the flight booking system. Unfortunately, that’s not the only network at Coconut Airways.

The Coconut Airways accounts and payroll systems run off a coaxial network down in the basement, and they’ve recently had a problem with the local wildlife getting into the building. It looks like a hungry critter has taken a good chunk out of one of the coaxial cables, and the damaged cable has brought things to a standstill.

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Without the coaxial network, Coconut Airways can’t process payments from customers and can’t pay the pilots to fly the planes.

They need you to save the day for them again.

Introducing the coaxial cable

The Coconut Airways network in the basement runs on coaxial cables rather than CAT-5. So what’s the difference?

Just like CAT-5 cables, coaxial cables are used to create networks. There are two key differences between them.

  1. The cable contains one big copper wire rather than four twisted pairs.

    A coaxial cable has a jacket on the outside, just like a CAT-5 cable. Inside the cable, however, there’s just the one wire. It has a copper core or conductor, with a layer of insulation made of plastic and other materials.

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  2. The cables use different sorts of connectors and terminators.

    CAT-5 cables use RJ-45 connectors. Coaxial cables, on the other hand, use BNC connectors, T-connectors, and terminators. The sort of connector you use depends on why you need it.

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Now we’ve looked at the cables, what about the network?

Coaxial networks are bus networks

Coaxial networks (aka RG-62 networks) count on a central line, called a bus. The bus functions as the spine of the network.

Each workstation on the network or node must be connected to the network with a T-Connector. The T-Connector attaches the node’s network cable to the main bus. If the bus is broken, unterminated, or has a broken T-Connector, the entire network will go down.

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Network professionals use a kind of shorthand, symbolic diagram to depict a bus network. These diagrams show how all of the parts of a network are organized to work as a whole. We call these structural ideas network topologies.

So can we fix the cable?

We’ve found out a bit more about coaxial cables and networks. Does this give us enough knowledge to fix the Coconut Airways coaxial network?

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Let’s see if she’s right.

  1. Cut the broken part out.

    Cut the cable well before the break to ensure that you have a good set of wire ends.

  2. Strip and prepare the new end.

    Strip back the cable covering shield and insulator so that you leave a 1/2 to 1-inch portion of the copper core protruding.

  3. Place a BNC connector on the new end.

    You can either crimp or solder the new connector onto the end of the cable.

So has that fixed the network?

The network’s still not working

Unfortunately, cutting out the chewed bit of network cable and fitting a connector hasn’t worked. The Accounts staff are still seeing network error messages whenever they try to access their systems.

So why didn’t our fix work?

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Not all cable damage is visible from the outside.

Even though we’ve fixed the part of the cable that’s visibly damaged, there may be further damage inside the cable.

So how can we detect this sort of damage? To do that, we need to dig a bit deeper into how coaxial cables actually work.

So what goes on inside a coaxial cable?

As we’ve seen, coaxial network cables are made up of a jacket, an insulator, and a metal conductor in the center. The metal conductor allows electrons to move through it, and the electrons carry your network data. Electrons can’t pass through the insulator.

As long as the path of the conductor is complete and unbroken, electrons can flow through it and the network data can travel along the cable. We say that it’s continuous.

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But what if there’s a break in the conductor?

If there’s a break in the conductor, this means that electrons can’t flow along the length of the cable. We said earlier that electrons carry your network data, so if the electrons can’t go through the cable, neither can the network data.

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This means that if there’s a break in the coaxial conductor of the bus, Coconut Airways will get network error messages.

What about connectors and terminators?

Connectors conduct electrons, so adding connectors to coaxial network cables helps to maintain continuous electrical flow. Connectors allow electrons to bridge the gap between cables, or between cables and network devices, and this allows your network data to get through.

As we’ve seen, a coaxial network cable is made up of one big conductor core. When the conduction is not looped back through the copper core, we say that it is not terminated. When a wire isn’t terminated, the network loses the flow of electrons and, therefore, the flow of network data.

A terminator ensures that the signal in the cable keeps moving. The terminator does this by ensuring that the electrons stay in an electrical loop. A resistor in the terminator redirects electrons to the shielding layer, which effectively keeps them looping back along the cable without interfering with the network’s signal. If the main cable is not terminated, the network will not function.

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So how do we find a break in continuity in a coaxial cable network? We need to listen to electrons...

Use toner-tracer sets to listen to electrons

As we’ve seen, continuity breaks in a coaxial cable network stop electrons flowing. As electrons carry our network data, this means that the network data can’t get through either.

One way of finding a continuity break in a coaxial cable is to listen for signs of life from the electrons, and we can do this using a toner-tracer set. So what’s that?

A toner-tracer set is a tool used by network professionals to detect noises from electrons. You attach the toner part of the toner-tracer set to the network cable, and the toner then sends a generated signal along the cable. You then use the tracer to listen for the signal by placing it on the cable. The tracer sounds when it hears electrons carrying the signal. It amplifies the signal.

  1. Attach the toner to the network cable.

    The toner generates a signal and then sends it along the wire.

  2. Electrons carry the signal.

    Where electrons are flowing, they carry the signal the toner generates along the wire.

  3. The tracer sounds when it hears the signal.

    As long as the electrons are flowing where the tracer is, the signal can get to it.

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No sound means no electrons

We can use toner-tracer sets to identify breaks in continuity by listening out for when the electrons go quiet. If the tracer is unable to pick up a signal from the toner, this means there’s a break between the toner and where the tracer is currently positioned.

  1. The toner generates a signal.

  2. Electrons carry the signal until there’s a break.

    If there’s a break in continuity, the electrons can’t get past.

  3. If there’s no signal, the tracer’s silent.

    If electrons aren’t carrying the signal, the tracer can’t pick it up.

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So how do we find the continuity break?

We’ve said that up until the break, electrons are active, but after the break, they’re silent. The break in continuity is the point where the electrons go quiet. This means that you can find the continuity break by repositioning the tracer until you find the point where the electrons go silent. And when you’ve pin-pointed where the break in continuity is, you can fix it.

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Let’s use this to fix the Coconut Airways network.

Answers in Exercise Solution.

You’ve fixed the coaxial cable

Well done, you’ve found the break in the Coconut Airways coaxial cable network! The Accounting department staff are able to use their systems again, and pay their pilots.

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We’re in for a bumpy ride.

Tropical storms are a real problem out in the islands, and Coconut Airways have to carefully avoid flying their seaplanes when the weather gets too fierce. Normally it’s not a problem as they get up-to-the-minute weather reports over the Internet.

Today things are different. Coconut Airways lost their Internet connection, and it’s too dangerous for their pilots to fly without updated weather reports.

Coconut Airways are connected to the Internet via a fiber-optic line, and it looks like there might be a problem with it. But what can that problem be?

Let’s start by taking a closer look at how fiber-optic cables work.

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Introducing fiber-optic cables

Fiber-optic cables send network information using light rather than electrons. Light bounces through the inside of the cable, carrying the network signal.

The light passes through the transparent core of the fiber-optic cable. This core is made of transparent glass or plastic, which allows light to pass through it easily. The layer just outside of the core is called cladding. Cladding acts a bit like a mirror, reflecting light so that it bounces along the core and doesn’t escape.

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The outside of the cable is coated with polymer, and Kevlar® threads running between the core and the coating add strength and protection to the cable.

Fiber-optics have connectors too

Just like CAT-5 and coaxial cables, the ends of a fiber-optic cable have connectors. There’s a variety of connector types that can be used.

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The Coconut Airways cable’s over-bent

So what about Coconut Airways?

Here’s the fiber-optic cable. Can you see how tightly it’s bent?

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Fiber-optic cables usually have a minimum bend radius of 3.0 cm. If the cable’s bent more than this, the fiber core can develop microfractures, real fractures, or severely leak light. And as it’s the light that’s carrying the network data, a loss of light means a loss of information and network errors.

So how do we fix damaged fiber-optic cables? Well, one way is with a fusion splicer.

So what’s a fusion splicer?

A fusion splicer allows you to fuse two pieces of fiber together. The splicer provides high-precision guides that allow you to line up the fiber. Once you’ve got the ends lined up, you heat the two ends with an electric arc and push them together. After you fuse the ends together, the fusion-splicer heat-shrinks a protective cover over your splice.

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Let’s take a closer look at the steps for splicing a fiber-optic cable.

How to fix fiber-optics with a fusion splicer

Here are the steps you need to go through in order to fix a fiber-optic cable with a fusion splicer.

Watch it!

You need to train extensively on a fusion splicer before using one.

Fusion splicers are expensive and can be tricky to use, but they’re well worth the money and effort.

  1. Strip the coating from each end of the fiber-optic cable you want to splice.

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  2. Line up each end.

    The guides on the fusion splicer allow you to be really precise about this.

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  3. Smooth the ends before fusing them.

    The fusion splicer creates an arc of electricity that makes the faces of the core super smooth so that they can align properly.

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  4. Fuse the ends together.

    This is the main purpose of the fusion splicer. The electric arc melts the ends, fusing them together to create a spliced core.

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  5. Finish the splice by covering it with new coating.

    Your fiber-optic cable is now ready for testing.

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    So has this fixed the Coconut Airways fiber-optic?

A fiber-optic connector needs fitting too

Coconut Airways has one more problem with their fiber-optic cable. We’ve fixed the over-bent cable, but one of the connectors is missing too, right near the wall jack. We need to fit a new connector so that we can plug the fiber-optic in at the wall.

Fiber-optic cables take various types of connectors, but they all do the same basic job: they bring the ends of two fiber-optic cables together, and allow light to flow through uninterrupted.

The differences between the connectors is all to do with their housing. In other words, the shape, color, how large or small, how close together another fiber connector can be, and how they attach.

Here are some of the fiber-optic connectors you might see around.

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Brain Power

Why do some of the connectors have a pair of fiber cores, where others have only a single core?

We’re nearly ready to fix the connector

There’s just one more thing that can affect what sort of connector we choose to go on the end of the cable: there are two types of fiber. Let’s take a look.

There are two types of fiber

Fiber comes in two flavors: single mode and multimode. The word “mode” refers to the number of paths the light takes through the fiber.

Single mode fiber

In a single mode fiber, the light travels in a single path. It takes a laser light, and it has a very small core like this:

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Multimode fiber

In a multimode fiber, the light travels many paths. It takes a laser or LED light, and has a much larger core like this:

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So how do we choose between the two types of fiber?

Which mode fiber should you use?

The two types of fiber-optic cable have very different characteristics. There are differences in areas such as performance, speed, and possible distance. There are big differences in price, too, as it’s harder to manufacture single mode fiber.

Here’s a quick guide to the differences between single mode and multimode fiber-optic cable.


Single Mode





Easy of Implementation




14 Tbit/s

10 Gbit/s

LED Source

Laser Only

Laser or LED



2000 m+

Signal Loss



Core Size



Let’s fit the connector on the fiber-optic

There are two main ways that connectors are attached to fiber patch cables.

  1. Use a pre-built connector and splice it to the exisiting patch cable.

    This technique is faster and easier, but there is some light loss where the two fibers are pushed together.

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  2. Use a connector that does not have a fiber inside. You epoxy the fiber of the patch cable inside the connector, then polish the end of the fiber.

    This technique is slower and more complicated, and you need special equipment and training. The advantage is that it makes a higher quality connection.

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So which technique should we use?

While we could use either technique, let’s go with the pre-built connector for now. Only a few tools are needed for this approach, and any network tech can learn to do them in less than 15 minutes—which means that Coconut Airways will get their Internet connection up and running pretty quickly. You can even get videos and quick guides on how to fit these from manufacturers.

So has this fixed the problem for Coconut Airways?

Coconut Airways is sky high

Congratulations! You’ve successfully troubleshooted and fixed all of the network problems that Coconut Airways were experiencing, and they’re back in full operation. All of their flights are fully booked, their cash-flow problems are no more, and the pilots can fly safely thanks to their up-to-date weather information.

You’ve learned a lot in this chapter. You’ve found out about the different types of network cable, you’ve learned some important troubleshooting techniques, and you’ve seen the steps you need to go through to fix various cabling problems.

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