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HBR's 10 Must Reads on Leadership (with featured article “What Makes an Effective Executive,” by Peter F. Drucker) by Bill George, Daniel Goleman, Peter Ferdinand Drucker, Harvard Business Review

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What Makes an Effective Executive

by Peter F. Drucker

AN EFFECTIVE EXECUTIVE DOES NOT need to be a leader in the sense that the term is now most commonly used. Harry Truman did not have one ounce of charisma, for example, yet he was among the most effective chief executives in U.S. history. Similarly, some of the best business and nonprofit CEOs I’ve worked with over a 65-year consulting career were not stereotypical leaders. They were all over the map in terms of their personalities, attitudes, values, strengths, and weaknesses. They ranged from extroverted to nearly reclusive, from easygoing to controlling, from generous to parsimonious.

What made them all effective is that they followed the same eight practices:

• They asked, “What needs to ...

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