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Handheld Computing for Mobile Commerce: Applications, Concepts and Technologies

Book Description

Handheld Computing for Mobile Commerce: Applications, Concepts and Technologies offers 22 outstanding chapters from 71 world-renowned scholars and IT professionals covering themes such as handheld computing for mobile commerce, handheld computing research and technologies, wireless networks and handheld/mobile security, and handheld images and video. It includes research and development results of lasting significance in the theory, design, implementation, analysis, and application of handheld computing. This book is essential for IT students, researchers, and professionals seeking to better understand handheld devices and concepts, thereby producing more useful and effective handheld applications and products.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
    1. REFERENCES
  5. Preface
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. AIM OF THE BOOK AND TARGET AUDIENCE
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
        1. Section 1: Handheld Computing for Mobile Commerce
        2. Section 2: Handheld Computing Research and Technologies
        3. Section 3: Wireless Networks and Handheld/Mobile Security
        4. Section 4: Handheld Images and Videos
    4. REFERENCES
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Handheld Computing for Mobile Commerce
    1. 1. A User Context-Aware Advertising Framework for the Mobile Web
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND MOTIVATION
        1. Context Awareness for Mobile Web
          1. Definition of Context and Context Awareness
          2. Characteristics of Contexts in Our Study
          3. Summary
        2. Literature Review
          1. Online Context-Aware Advertising
          2. Context Awareness
        3. Context-Aware Advertising Framework
          1. User Context Integration
          2. Mobile Advertising Evaluation
          3. Mobile Advertising Selection
          4. Mobile Advertising Design
        4. Exemplary Application and Case Study
          1. Detecting the Capability of the User's Mobile Device
          2. Advertisement Evaluation
          3. Advertisement Selection
          4. Advertisement Presentation
          5. Case Study and Proof of Concept
      3. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      4. REFERENCES
      5. ADDITIONAL READING
    2. 2. Plugging into the Online Database and Playing Secure Mobile Commerce
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OPEN SDK ACCELERATES MOBILE COMMERCE
      5. CLOUD COMPUTING ENABLES MOBILE COMMERCE
        1. Cloud Computing May Reduce the Storage Capacitance
        2. Cloud Computing May Benefit the Multimedia Contents
        3. Cloud Computing May Increase the Information Security
          1. A Modified RSA Signature Scheme Built on Web 2.0 Infrastructure
          2. The Workflow for the Modified RSA Signature Scheme Proposed
        4. Tutorial for Exploring Cloud Computing Service
          1. Start the Trip for Google Service from a Successful Authentication
          2. Go on the Trip for Further Adventure by Using Programming Language
          3. Finish the Trip for Demonstration by Creating Event via Programming
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    3. 3. Quality Evaluation of B2C M-Commerce Using the ISO9126 Quality Standard
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background
          1. Software Quality Evaluation
          2. The ISO9126 Quality Standard
          3. Is the WWW Mobile-Ready?
          4. Mobile Web Best Practices
        2. Decomposing Quality Attributes
          1. Modeling a B2C M-Commerce System
          2. The Presentation Pattern
          3. The Navigation Pattern
          4. The Purchasing Pattern
          5. The Location-Based Pattern
        3. A Survey for Defining Mapping Strengths
          1. Methodology
          2. Results
      3. CONCLUSION
      4. REFERENCES
    4. 4. A Picture and a Thousand Words: Visual Scaffolding for Mobile Communication in the Developing World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Technology Landscape
        2. Literacy
        3. Social and Cultural Context
      4. A MOBILE SOCIAL COMPUTING APPLICATION FRAMEWORK
        1. Rationale and Design Sketches
        2. Prototype Implementation
        3. Kiosk and Voice-only Access
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Identity
        2. Participation, Inclusion, and Viral Spread
        3. Blended Synchrony
        4. Navigational Affordances
        5. Information Sharing
        6. Synchronization and Offline Use
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    5. 5. Web Applications on the Move: Opening Up New Opportunities for Mobile Developers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR FUTURE MOBILE APPLICATION PLATFORMS
        1. The Qualitative Difference of Mobile Devices and Connected Challenges
        2. Derived Requirements for Future Mobile Applications Platforms
      4. THE MOBILE WEB PLATFORM
        1. What Is the "Mobile Web Platform"?
        2. Promises of the Mobile Web Platform
        3. Limits of the Mobile Web Platform
        4. Evolution of the Mobile Web Platform Through Public Bodies
          1. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
          2. OpenAjax Alliance / Mobile Ajax
          3. OMTP BONDI
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. HYBRID PLATFORM CASE STUDY: FOKUS MOBILE WIDGET RUNTIME
        1. Overview
        2. Architecture
        3. Runtime Environment Core
        4. Runtime Environment Interfaces
        5. Generic Host Interface and Device Services
        6. Widget Management
        7. Show Cases
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    6. 6. A J2ME Mobile Application for Normal and Abnormal ECG Rhythm Analysis
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
        2. ECG Analysis on Mobile Computing Platform
      4. J2ME
        1. Wavelet Transform
        2. Bayesian Classifier
      5. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Realtime ECG Signal Acquisition and Analysis
        2. Java Mobile Phone and Record Management System
        3. SMS and HTTP Client
        4. ECG Trace Analysis
        5. DWT for Baseline Wander Removal and QRS Complex Identification
      6. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
        1. ECG Signal
        2. System Implementation and Functions
          1. Screen Menus
          2. DWT Function
          3. ECG Segmentation
        3. Performance Evaluation
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    7. 7. Factors Facing Mobile Commerce Deployment in United Kingdom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Technology and Characteristics of Mobile Phones
        2. Key Features of M-Commerce
        3. Main Issues, Controversies, Problems
        4. Data Collection: The Survey
        5. The Results
      4. DISCUSSIONS
        1. Solutions and Recommendations
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  8. 2. Handheld Computing Research and Technologies
    1. 8. UbiWave: A Novel Energy-Efficient End-to-End Solution for Mobile 3D Graphics
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Motivations
        2. Challenges
        3. Ubiwave
        4. Roadmap
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. Background on Wavelets
        2. Related Work
          1. Systems for Scalable Graphics
          2. Perceptual Error Metric for Simplification
          3. A. Surface-to-Surface Geometric Simplification Metrics
          4. B. Perceptual Simplification Metrics
          5. Unequal Error Protection for Wavelet-Encoded Meshes
          6. Heuristic for Energy-Efficient Rendering
          7. A. LoD Selection to Achieve Real-Time Frame Rates
          8. B. Application-Directed Energy Management Techniques
          9. 3D Streaming
      4. PARETO-BASED PERCEPTUAL ERROR METRIC
        1. Overview
        2. Our Approach for Perceptual Simplification
        3. PoI Error Metrics
          1. Geometry-Only PoI Metric
          2. Perceptual Metric
        4. Metric Validation and Analysis
          1. User Studies
          2. Resource Saving Using PoI
        5. Section Summary
      5. UNEQUAL ERROR PROTECTION FOR WAVELET-BASED 3D TRANSMISSION
        1. Overview
        2. Unequal Error Protection of Wavelet-Encoded Meshes
          1. Unequal Error Protection
          2. UEP in Wavelet-Based Multiresolution
          3. Distortion Measure
          4. Block-Based Encoding
        3. Result
          1. Channel Model
          2. Simulation Results
        4. Section Summary
      6. ENERGY-EFFICIENT ADAPTIVE REAL-TIME RENDERING HEURISTIC
        1. Overview
        2. Our Approach
          1. Heuristic Architecture
          2. Overview of EARR Heuristic
        3. Workload Predicting model
          1. Overview
          2. Workload Predicting Model for a Single Object
          3. Workload Predicting Model for Multiple Objects
          4. CPU Scheduler
        4. EARR Heuristic
        5. Experiment and Results
          1. Experiment
          2. Discussion
        6. Section Summary
      7. ENERGY-EFFICIENT 3D STREAMING
        1. Overview
        2. 3D Streaming in ubiWave
          1. Streaming Generation
          2. Server Decision Algorithm
          3. Rendering
        3. Results
        4. Section Summary
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    2. 9. Peer-to-Peer Service Sharing on Mobile Platforms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Mobile Platforms
        2. Service-Oriented Architectures on Resource-Constrained Devices
      4. P2P SERVICE-ORIENTED INFRASTRUCTURES
        1. Design Challenges
        2. NSAM model
        3. Framework for P2P Service-Oriented Infrastructures
          1. Overlay Scheme
          2. Dynamic Service Composition
          3. Self-Configuration of Peers
          4. Evaluation of Service Discovery and Aggregation Strategies
      5. JXTA-SOAP MOBILE EDITION
        1. Architecture
        2. Security
        3. Applications and Performance Evaluation
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 10. Scripting Mobile Devices with AmbientTalk1
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Hardware Phenomena
        2. Distributed Languages and Middleware
          1. Distributed Languages
          2. Middleware
        3. Summary
      4. AMBIENTTALK: SCRIPTING FOR AD HOC NETWORKS
        1. AmbientTalk Objects
        2. Distributed Programming in AmbientTalk
        3. Asynchronous Message Passing
        4. Far References and Partial Failures
        5. Exporting objects as Services
        6. Service Discovery
        7. Interoperability with the JVM
          1. Accessing Java Objects in AmbientTalk
          2. Accessing AmbientTalk Objects in Java
        8. Deployment and Platform Constraints
      5. PERVASIVE SOCIAL APPLICATIONS
        1. Urbiflock
        2. Writing a Simple Application in Urbiflock
        3. Guanotes: An Advanced Urbiflock Application
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    4. 11. Interrupt Handling in Symbian and Linux Mobile Operating Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND AND RELATED WORK
        1. Interrupt Mechanism
        2. Interrupt Handling Mechanisms
        3. Main Differences Among Interrupt Handling Mechanisms
        4. RT-Linux Interrupt mechanism
        5. Symbian OS Interrupt Mechanism
        6. Software interrupts in the Symbian OS.
        7. Hardware interrupts in Symbian OS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
    5. 12. Web Page Adaptation and Presentation for Mobile Phones
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RELATED WORK
      4. WEB BROWSING SYSTEM FOR MULTIMODAL USER SITUATION
        1. System Design of OPA Browser
        2. Structure of Web Pages
        3. OPA Browser Functions
          1. Function 1: Overview
            1. Scaled-Down View
            2. Tile View
          2. Function 2 / Functions 3 and 4
          3. Function 5: Jump to an Image
          4. Function 6: Fisheye View
          5. Function 7: Word Search
          6. Function 8: Jump to a Relevant Component
          7. Function 9: Auto-Scrolling
        4. User Experiment of OPA Browser
          1. Selected Functions According to Users' Situations
          2. Effects of Page Type
          3. Users' Subjective Impression
      5. WEB BROWSING SYSTEM FOR USER NAVIGATION ON A WEB PAGE
        1. System Design of MotoBrowser
      6. USAGE SCENARIO OF MOTOBROWSER
        1. Road Paving Phase
        2. Annotation Generation Phase
          1. Annotation Extraction
          2. Category Extraction
        3. Drive Mode
        4. Overview Mode
        5. MotoBrowser Evaluation
          1. Accuracy of Annotation and Category Extraction
          2. MotoBrowser User Experiment
          3. MotoBrowser vs. NetFront
            1. Mobile Web Experts vs. Beginners
            2. Already-Read Pages vs. Unread Pages
            3. Questionnaire Survey
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    6. 13. Technologies and Systems for Web Content Adaptation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTERNET-ENABLED MOBILE HANDHELD DEVICES
        1. Mobile Operating Systems
        2. Mobile Central Processing Units
        3. Microbrowsers
        4. Input and Output Components and methods
        5. Memory and Storage
        6. Batteries
      4. MICROBROWSERS
        1. Features
        2. Technologies
        3. Major Microbrowsers
        4. Two Examples of Built-in Web Content Adaptation
      5. WEB CONTENT ADAPTATION
        1. Page Segmentation
        2. Component Ranking
        3. Other Ad Hoc methods
          1. Page Summarization
          2. Transcoding
          3. Web Usage Mining
      6. SUMMARY
      7. REFERENCES
  9. 3. Wireless Networks and Handheld/Mobile Security
    1. 14. Positioning and Privacy in Location-Based Services
      1. INTRODUCTION
      2. BACKGROUND: LOCATION POSITIONING TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Satellite-Based Position System
          1. Technology Behind GPS
        2. Mobile Positioning within a Cellular Radio Network
          1. Cell Based Approach
          2. Time Based Approach
          3. Angular Based Approach
          4. Signal Strength Based Approach
            1. Free Space Propagation Model
            2. Signal Propagation Model
            3. Ellipse Propagation Model
            4. Directional Propagation Model
            5. Fingerprinting Approach
          5. Hybrid Approach
      3. NON-EXPOSURE LOCATION CLOAKING
        1. Proximity k-Clustering
      4. SECURE BOUNDING
      5. PRIVACY-AWARE NEAREST NEIGHBOR SEARCH
        1. Voronoi Cell and Diagram
      6. OVERVIEW OF 2PASS
        1. Approximate MVWCC Algorithm
      7. WAG-TREE AND 2PASS
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    2. 15. Survivability in RFID Systems
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Survivability
        2. RFID Security and Privacy
      4. RFID THREAT MODEL AND SURVIVABILITY REQUIREMENTS
        1. The Threat Model
        2. RFID System Survivability Requirements
      5. SURVIVABILITY ENHANCING TECHNIQUES
        1. Preventive Techniques
        2. Protective and Reactive Techniques
        3. Recovery-Oriented Techniques
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
    3. 16. Mobile and Handheld Security
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MOBILE SECURITY RISKS AND THREATS
        1. Mobile Threats: Reality Check
      5. MOBILE HARDWARE SECURITY
        1. Designated Hardware for Stronger and Faster Encryption
        2. Two-Factor and Multi-Factor Authentication
      6. MOBILE OPERATING SYSTEM SECURITY
        1. Symbian Security
        2. BlackBerry Security
        3. Windows Mobile Security
      7. MOBILE APPLICATION SECURITY
        1. Application Security on Symbian
        2. Application Security on Windows Mobile
        3. Layered Mobile Security
      8. FUTURE OF MOBILE SECURITY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
    4. 17. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Proactive Micro Mobility Protocol for Mobile Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Background
      3. MICRO MOBILITY
        1. Functions Supported by Micro Mobility Protocols
        2. Functions Not Supported by Micro Mobility Protocols
        3. Working Model of Micro Mobility Protocols
      4. PROACTIVE MICRO MOBILITY NETWORK
        1. The Terminology of Active Mobile Host (MH)
          1. Location Management
          2. Routing
          3. Handoff
          4. Paging in PMM Networks
        2. Proactive Micro Mobility Protocol Design (PMM)
          1. The Structure of Micro Mobility Networks
        3. Disadvantages in PMM Networks
      5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
        1. Mathematical Analysis
          1. Route Maintenance Cost
      6. SIMULATION
        1. Comparison of Mathematical and Simulation Results
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
    5. 18. A Comparative Review of Handheld Devices Internet Connectivity Revenue Models to Support Mobile Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW: MOBILE LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES ON HANDHELD DEVICES
      4. CATEGORIZATION OF EXISTING REVENUE MODELS FOR MOBILE BROADBAND ACCESS
        1. Model 1: Pay in Advance Models
        2. Model 2: Laptops with Fixed Limits
        3. Model 3: External Modems with Fixed Limits
        4. Model 4: Flexible Pricing
        5. Model 5: Connection only-unlimited Data
        6. Model 6: Wireless Routers-Fixed Limit
        7. Model 7: Phone as a Modem-Unlimited Data
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
  10. 4. Handheld Images and Videos
    1. 19. Mobile Vision on Movement
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Catching Motion
        2. Compaction
        3. Image Stabilization
        4. Tracking the Move
        5. Networked Vision
      3. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      4. REFERENCES
    2. 20. Distributed Video Coding for Video Communication on Mobile Devices and Sensors
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Distributed Source Coding
        2. Distributed Video Coding and Its Applications
      3. OVERVIEW OF DVC SOLUTIONS
        1. A General Architecture for DVC
      4. PRISM
        1. Stanford Codec
        2. Other Systems
      5. FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS IN A DVC SYSTEM
        1. Intra Coding
        2. Transformation and Quantization
        3. Bitplane Extraction
        4. Turbo Coding
          1. Turbo Encoding
          2. Turbo Decoding
          3. Puncturing and Feedback Channel
        5. Side Information Generation
          1. Mean Filtering of Reference Frames
          2. Forward Motion Estimation Between Reference Frames
          3. Obtaining Bidirectional Motion Vectors for the Frame to be Predicted
          4. Bidirectional Motion Refinement
          5. Spatial Smoothing of the Motion Vectors
          6. Motion-Compensated Interpolation
        6. Virtual Noise Estimation
        7. Reconstruction
      6. FLEXIBLE DISTRIBUTION OF COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY THROUGH HYBRID PREDICTIVE-DISTRIBUTED VIDEO CODING
        1. Description of the Codec
          1. Mode-Dependent Part in the Predictive Video Coding Mode
          2. Mode-Dependent Part in the DVC Mode
          3. Mode-Dependent Part in the Hybrid Predictive-Distributed Video Coding Modes
        2. Hybrid Video Coding Using Spatial Partitioning
        3. Hybrid Video Coding by Splitting the Motion Search Algorithm
        4. Results
          1. Rate-Distortion Performance of the System
          2. Validation of Complexity Analysis
        5. Video Coding with Controllable Complexity
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Side-Information Generation
        2. Estimating Virtual Channel Noise
        3. New Coding Modes
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    3. 21. Fast Mode Decision in H.264/AVC
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MODE DECISION IN H.264/AVC
        1. RDO Based Mode Decision for H.264/AVC
        2. Low-Complexity Mode Decision
      4. SPEEDING UP RDO BASED MODE DECISION IN H.264/AVC
        1. Fast Skip/Direct Mode Decision Techniques
        2. Fast Inter Mode Decision Techniques
        3. Fast Intra Mode Decision
        4. Fast Mode Selection Between Intra and Inter Sets of Modes
      5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. REFERENCES
    4. 22. Mobile Video Streaming
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOBILE VIDEO STREAMING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION
        1. Broadcasting
        2. Client-Server
        3. Peer-to-Peer (P2P)
      4. WIRELESS NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE
        1. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
        2. Wireless Cellular Network
        3. Mobile WiMAX
      5. VIDEO-CAPABLE MOBILE HANDHELD DEVICES
        1. Smartphones
        2. PDAs
        3. Operating Systems
      6. END-USER EXPERIENCE AND EXPECTATION
        1. Network
        2. CPU Speed
        3. Video Rate
        4. User Interface
        5. Keyboard Layout
        6. Application Programs
        7. Memory Size
        8. Internal Storage
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
        1. Upgraded and Integrated Network
        2. Graphics Accelerator
        3. Adaptive Software
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
  11. Compilation of References
  12. About the Contributors