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Handbook of Terahertz Technology for Imaging, Sensing and Communications

Book Description

The recent development of easy-to-use sources and detectors of terahertz radiation has enabled growth in applications of terahertz (Thz) imaging and sensing. This vastly adaptable technology offers great potential across a wide range of areas, and the Handbook of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications explores the fundamental principles, important developments and key applications emerging in this exciting field.

Part one provides an authoritative introduction to the fundamentals of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications. The generation, detection and emission of waves are discussed alongside fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons, terahertz near-field imaging and sensing, room temperature terahertz detectors and terahertz wireless communications. Part two goes on to discuss recent progress and such novel techniques in terahertz technology as terahertz bio-sensing, array imagers, and resonant field enhancement of terahertz waves. Fiber-coupled time-domain spectroscopy systems (THz-TDS), terahertz photomixer systems, terahertz nanotechnology, frequency metrology and semiconductor material development for terahertz applications are all reviewed. Finally, applications of terahertz technology are explored in part three, including applications in tomographic imaging and material spectroscopy, art conservation, and the aerospace, wood products, semiconductor and pharmaceutical industries.

With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, the Handbook of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications is an authoritative guide to the field for laser engineers, manufacturers of sensing devices and imaging equipment, security companies, the military, professionals working in process monitoring, and academics interested in this field.

  • Examines techniques for the generation and detection of terahertz waves
  • Discusses material development for terahertz applications
  • Explores applications in tomographic imaging, art conservation and the pharmaceutical and aerospace industries

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Fundamentals of terahertz technology for imaging, sensing and communications
    1. Chapter 1: Optoelectronic techniques for the generation and detection of terahertz waves
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Terahertz detector technologies
      4. 1.3 Terahertz signal generation in terahertz photoconductive antennas (THz-PCAs)
      5. 1.4 Terahertz signal detection with terahertz photoconductive antennas (THz-PCAs)
      6. 1.5 Parametric interaction in nonlinear crystals
      7. 1.6 Difference frequency mixing in nonlinear crystals
      8. 1.7 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 2: Transmission and propagation of terahertz waves in plastic waveguides
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Main challenges of the plastic-based terahertz fiber optics
      4. 2.3 Devices based on subwavelength fibers
      5. 2.4 Hollow-core fibers
      6. 2.5 Composite terahertz materials
      7. 2.6 Experimental characterization of terahertz waveguides
      8. 2.7 Conclusions
      9. 2.8 Acknowledgments
    3. Chapter 3: Fundamental aspects of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 The Drude model
      4. 3.3 Surface plasmon polaritons on planar surfaces
      5. 3.4 Multilayered structures
      6. 3.5 New trends in terahertz plasmonics
      7. 3.6 Acknowledgments
    4. Chapter 4: Fundamental aspects of terahertz near-field imaging and sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Terahertz near-field measurements
      4. 4.3 Near-fields of various subwavelength holes
      5. 4.4 Kirchhoff formalism for near-field estimate
      6. 4.5 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 5: Field effect transistors for terahertz applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Plasma waves in low-dimensional structures
      4. 5.3 Instability of the steady state with a dc current in field effect transistors (FETs)
      5. 5.4 Detection of terahertz radiation by an FET
      6. 5.5 Studies of terahertz emission from FETs
      7. 5.6 Experimental studies of terahertz detection by FETs
      8. 5.7 Conclusions
      9. 5.8 Acknowledgements
    6. Chapter 6: Terahertz wireless communications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Motivation for terahertz wireless communications
      4. 6.3 Atmospheric propagation for communications
      5. 6.4 Modeling of terahertz communication channels
      6. 6.5 Hardware for terahertz communications: sources and detectors
      7. 6.6 Modulators for terahertz waves
      8. 6.7 Modulation formats for terahertz signals
      9. 6.8 Examples of terahertz communication systems
      10. 6.9 Experimental characterization of rain, fog and scintillations on terahertz communication links
      11. 6.10 Future trends
      12. 6.11 Sources of further information
      13. 6.12 Acknowledgments
  9. Part II: Recent progress and novel techniques in terahertz technology
    1. Chapter 7: Terahertz bio-sensing techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Sensing of water dynamics by terahertz waves
      4. 7.3 Sensing of proteins
      5. 7.4 Binding-state dependent sensing
      6. 7.5 Characteristic resonances of biomolecules in the terahertz range
      7. 7.6 Water-mediated terahertz molecular imaging
      8. 7.7 Conclusion
      9. 7.8 Acknowledgements
    2. Chapter 8: Terahertz array imagers: towards the implementation of terahertz cameras with plasma-wave-based silicon MOSFET detectors
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Resistive mixing – a quasi-static analysis
      4. 8.3 Plasmonic mixing – a hydrodynamic analysis
      5. 8.4 Technology, design and implementation of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) field effect transistors as terahertz detectors
      6. 8.5 Characterization and optimization of field effect transistor (FET) detectors
      7. 8.5.6 Results for MOSFET THz detectors
      8. 8.6 Developments towards a terahertz camera
      9. 8.7 Overview of other focal-plane technologies for terahertz imaging
      10. 8.8 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 9: Resonant field enhancement of terahertz waves in subwavelength plasmonic structures
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Fundamentals of surface plasmon polaritons at terahertz frequencies
      4. 9.3 Extraordinary transmission of terahertz waves through metallic hole arrays
      5. 9.4 Active control of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons
      6. 9.5 Conclusion
    4. Chapter 10: Fiber-coupled terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Fiber guiding
      4. 10.3 Experimental layout and system characterization
      5. 10.4 Measurement results of fiber-based terahertz systems
      6. 10.5 Comparison of THz-TDS with other systems and techniques
      7. 10.6 Future trends and conclusions
    5. Chapter 11: State-of-the-art in terahertz continuous-wave photomixer systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Continuous-wave emitter and detector technologies
      4. 11.3 Coherent signal detection
      5. 11.4 Laser sources
      6. 11.5 Selected applications of photomixing continuous-wave terahertz systems
      7. 11.6 Conclusion
      8. 11.7 Acknowledgements
    6. Chapter 12: Novel techniques in terahertz near-field imaging and sensing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 State-of-the-art terahertz near-field approaches
      4. 12.3 Novel micro-machined terahertz near-field probe-tips
      5. 12.4 Analysis of nanophotonic second-order nonlinear-optic waveguides with terahertz near-field probing
      6. 12.5 Failure analysis in integrated electronic structures based on terahertz time-domain reflectometry
      7. 12.6 High-resolution imaging of free-carrier concentrations for photovoltaic material inspection
      8. 12.7 Conclusion and future trends
    7. Chapter 13: Terahertz nano-devices and nano-systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Nanoscale terahertz detector
      4. 13.3 Near-field terahertz imager
      5. 13.4 Conclusion
      6. 13.5 Acknowledgments
    8. Chapter 14: Terahertz integrated devices and systems
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Integrated terahertz biosensor chip
      3. 14.2 Terahertz oscillators integrated with patch antennas
      4. 14.3 Results and discussion of fabricated resonant tunneling diodes
    9. Chapter 15: Terahertz frequency metrology based on frequency comb techniques
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Coherent frequency linking with a frequency comb
      4. 15.3 Terahertz-comb-referenced spectrum analyzer
      5. 15.4 Optical-comb-referenced terahertz synthesizer
      6. 15.5 Terahertz-comb-referenced spectrometer
      7. 15.6 Conclusions and future trends
    10. Chapter 16: Semiconductor material development for terahertz applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Generation and detection of broadband pulsed terahertz radiation
      4. 16.3 Generation of continuous wave terahertz radiation using photomixing
      5. 16.4 Photoconductive semiconductor materials
      6. 16.5 Conclusions
      7. 16.6. Acknowledgements
  10. Part III: Applications of terahertz technology
    1. Chapter 17: Terahertz applications in tomographic imaging and material spectroscopy: a review
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Tomographic imaging applications
      4. 17.3 Quantitative analysis of powdered chemicals
      5. 17.4 Conclusion
    2. Chapter 18: Terahertz applications in the aerospace industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Non-destructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy
      4. 18.3 Non-destructive evaluation of aircraft composites using reflective terahertz time domain spectroscopy
      5. 18.4 Continuous-wave non-destructive terahertz imaging for aerospace applications
      6. 18.5 Comparison of non-destructive imaging for glass fiber reinforced plastics
      7. 18.6 Conclusion
    3. Chapter 19: Terahertz applications in the wood products industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Applications of terahertz technology in the wood products industry
      4. 19.3 Wood structure and morphology
      5. 19.4 Far infrared properties of wood
      6. 19.5 Probing wood characteristics at terahertz frequencies
      7. 19.6 Terahertz sensing in the oriented strand board industry
      8. 19.7 Future trends
    4. Chapter 20: Terahertz applications in the pharmaceutical industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) spectroscopy set-up and analysis
      4. 20.3 Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS): identification, quantification and analysis
      5. 20.4 Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): imaging set-up and analysis
      6. 20.5 Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI): process monitoring, spectroscopic imaging and chemical mapping
      7. 20.6 Conclusions and future trends
      8. 20.7 Acknowledgement
    5. Chapter 21: Terahertz applications in art conservation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Material analysis using terahertz waves
      4. 21.3 Observation of the internal structure of artworks using terahertz waves
      5. 21.4 Prospective development of terahertz technology as a tool for heritage science
    6. Chapter 22: Applications of terahertz technology in the semiconductor industry
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Characterizations of electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry (EOTPR)
      4. 22.3 Examples of failure analysis using electro-optical terahertz pulse reflectometry (EOTPR)
      5. 22.4 Conclusions and future trends
  11. Index