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Handbook of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems

Book Description

The Handbook of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems is a single comprehensive reference on the smart antenna technologies applied to RFID. This book will provide a timely reference book for researchers and students in the areas of both smart antennas and RFID technologies. It is the first book to combine two of the most important wireless technologies together in one book. The handbook will feature chapters by leading experts in both academia and industry offering an in-depth description of terminologies and concepts related to smart antennas in various RFID systems applications. Some topics are: adaptive beamforming for RFID smart antennas, multiuser interference suppression in RFID tag reading, phased array antennas for RFID applications, smart antennas in wireless systems and market analysis and case studies of RFID smart antennas. This handbook will cover the latest achievements in the designs and applications for smart antennas for RFID as well as the basic concepts, terms, protocols, systems architectures and case studies in smart antennas for RFID readers and tags.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title Page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Foreword
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Contributors
  10. Part I: Introduction to RFID
    1. Chapter 1: The Evolution of RFID
      1. 1.1 Introduction
      2. 1.2 Electromagnetic Timeline
      3. 1.3 Radar
      4. 1.4 Genesis of RFID
      5. 1.5 Operating Frequencies
      6. 1.6 Chipless RFID
      7. 1.7 Recent Development
      8. 1.8 Summary
      9. References
    2. Chapter 2: Introduction to RFID Systems
      1. 2.1 Introduction
      2. 2.2 Brief History
      3. 2.3 Overview of RFID Technology
      4. 2.4 Application Areas of RFID
      5. 2.5 Benefits of RFID
      6. 2.6 The RF In RFID Technology
      7. 2.7 Em Terminology In RFID
      8. 2.8 Antenna Characteristics
      9. 2.9 Tag
      10. 2.10 Chipped And Chipless Tags
      11. 2.11 Reader/Interrogator
      12. 2.12 Standards, Regulations, And Mandates
      13. 2.15 Anti-Collision
      14. 2.13 RFID Market Trend
      15. 2.14 Chipless RFID Systems
      16. 2.15 Conclusion
      17. References
    3. Chapter 3: Recent Paradigm Shift In RFID And Smart Antennas
      1. 3.2 Pathway to Less-Than-A-Cent Chipless Tag
      2. 3.3 RFID Reader Architecture
      3. 3.4 RFID Reader/Tag Antennas
      4. 3.5 Smart Antennas For RFID Readers
      5. 3.6 Benefits of Smart Antennas For RFID Readers
      6. 3.7 Application-Specific Smart Antennas For RFID Readers
      7. 3.8 Authentication And Location of Items—Gaming Application
      8. 3.9 Conclusion
      9. References
  11. Part II: RFID Reader Systems
    1. Chapter 4: RFID Readers—Review and Design
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 RFID Technology and Applications
      3. 4.3 Limitations of Barcodes and Emergence of RFID as an Enabling Technology
      4. 4.4 RFID Reader System Architecture
      5. 4.5 Classification of RFID Readers
      6. 4.6 Universal Reader Design
      7. 4.7 Chipless Tag RFID Reader Design
      8. 4.8 Chipless Tag RFID Reader Performance
      9. 4.9 Chipless Tag RFID Reader Field Trials
      10. 4.10 Conclusions
      11. References
    2. Chapter 5: A Development Platform for SDR-Based RFID Reader
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 State of the Art
      3. 5.3 New Approach
      4. 5.4 Gnu Radio
      5. 5.5 Limitation of GNU Radio Platform
      6. 5.6 Gr-Based RFID Reader
      7. 5.7 Conclusion
      8. Acknowledgements
      9. References
  12. Part III: Physical Layer Developments of Smart Antennas for RFID Systems
    1. Chapter 6: RFID Planar Antenna—Smart Design Approach at UHF Band
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. Background Literature Review: Basis of Design
      3. 6.3 Design of the Antenna: Single Element
      4. 6.4 Study of Variation of the Design Parameters
      5. 6.5 Gain Improvement Method—Superstrate (Ceramic)
      6. 6.6 Array—Mutual Coupling Between Elements
      7. 6.7 Introduction of Aluminum Barriers—Reduction of Mutual Coupling
      8. 6.8 Conclusion
      9. References
    2. Chapter 7: Handheld Reader Antenna AT 5.8 GHZ
      1. 7.1 Introduction
      2. 7.2 Background Review of RFID Systems at 5.8 GH
      3. 7.3 Conventional Power Divider
      4. 7.4 Design Approach and Working Principle: Analogy with Flow of Water
      5. 7.5 Design of the Power Divider
      6. 7.6 Theory and Circuit Configuration
      7. 7.7 Results for the Performance of the Eight-Way Power Divider
      8. 7.8 Variation of Design Parameters and Their Effects on Frequency Response
      9. 7.9 Potential Applications of the Power Divider
      10. 7.10 Discussion
      11. 7.11 Conclusion
      12. References
    3. Chapter 8: Fpga-Controlled Phased Array Antenna Development for UHF RFID Reader
      1. 8.1 Introduction
      2. 8.2 Design of Phased Array Antenna
      3. 8.3 Phased Array Tracking for RFID Reader
      4. 8.4 Software Design
      5. 8.5 Field Trials
      6. 8.6 Conclusion
      7. Acknowledgments
      8. References
    4. Chapter 9: Optical Beamforming Phased Arrays for UWB Chipless RFID Reader
      1. 9.1 Introduction
      2. 9.2 Optical Beamforming Phased Arrays
      3. 9.3 The Effect of Group Delay Ripples
      4. 9.4 Optical Beamforming Using the Dispersive Delay and Nondispersive Delay Hybrid Approach
      5. 9.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    5. Chapter 10: Adaptive Antenna Arrays in RFID
      1. 10.1 Introduction
      2. 10.2 Adaptive Antenna Array Concept
      3. 10.3 Doa Estimation
      4. 10.4 Experimental Results
      5. 10.5 Conclusions
      6. References
    6. Chapter 11: Design of Portable Smart Antenna System for RFID Reader: A New Approach
      1. 11.1 Introduction
      2. 11.2 Theory
      3. 11.3 System Design and Implementation
      4. 11.4 Results
      5. 11.5 Conclusion
      6. Acknowledgment
      7. References
  13. Part IV: Doa and Localization of RFID Tags Using Smart Antennas
    1. Chapter 12: Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on A Single-Port Smart Antenna for RFID Applications
      1. 12.1 Introduction
      2. 12.2 Design of the Antenna
      3. 12.3 Forming Correlation Matrix From A Single-Port Smart Antenna
      4. 12.4 Simulation
      5. 12.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    2. Chapter 13: Doa Geo-Location in A Real-Time Indoor Wifi System Utilizing Smart Antennas
      1. 13.01 Introduction
      2. Research Methodology
      3. 13.3 Ieee 802.11 Standard
      4. 13.4 Wifi Localization System
      5. 13.5 Robust Methods for Multipath Errors Mitigation
      6. 13.6 Experiment Procedure
      7. 13.7 Conclusion
      8. References
    3. Chapter 14: Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) Estimation of Impulse Radio UWB RFID Tags
      1. 14.1 Introduction
      2. 14.2 System Model and Preliminaries
      3. 14.4 Analog-Differentiation-Based DOA Estimation
      4. 14.5 Conclusions
      5. References
    4. Chapter 15: Enabling Localization Services in Single and Multihop Wireless Networks
      1. 15.1 Introduction
      2. 15.2 Localization Techniques
      3. 15.3 A Remote Tracking Application
      4. 15.4 Conclusions
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
  14. Part V: Multi-Antenna RFID Tags
    1. Chapter 16: Multi-Antenna Backscattered Chipless RFID Design
      1. 16.1 Introduction
      2. 16.3 Stub-Loaded Microstrip Patch Antenna (SLMPA)
      3. 16.4 Slmpa Array
      4. 16.5 Transponder Fabrication and Measurement
      5. 16.6 Conclusion
      6. References
    2. Chapter 17: Link Budgets for Backscatter Radio Systems
      1. 17.1 Introduction
      2. 17.2 Channel Impairments
      3. 17.3 RFID Portal Example
      4. 17.4 High-Frequency Multiple Antenna Backscatter Radio Systems
      5. 17.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    3. Chapter 18: Fading Statistics for Multi-Antenna RF Tags
      1. 18.1 Introduction
      2. 18.2 the M × L × N Dyadic Backscatter Channel
      3. 18.3 M × L × N Dyadic Backscatter Channel Envelope Pdf.
      4. 18.4 Diversity Gains in the Dyadic Backscatter Channel
      5. 18.5 Conclusion
      6. Appendix A: Important Small-Scale Fading Distributions
      7. Appendix B: The M × L × N Backscatter Channel Pdf Derivation
      8. References
  15. Part VI: Mimo Antennas for RFID Systems
    1. Chapter 19: Optimum Power Allocation in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Systems Under Independent Rayleigh Fading
      1. 19.1 Introduction
      2. 19.2 Theory
      3. 19.3 Simulation Results and Analysis
      4. 19.4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
    2. Chapter 20: Low-Cost and Compact RF-MIMO Transceivers
      1. 20.1 Introduction
      2. 20.2 RF-MIMO Transceiver Architecture
      3. 20.3 Selection Criteria for the RF Weights
      4. 20.4 Results
      5. 20.5 Concluding Remarks
      6. 20.6 Acknowledgments
      7. References
    3. Chapter 21: Blind Channel Estimation in Mimo for MC-CDMA
      1. 21.1 Introduction
      2. 21.2 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) System
      3. 21.3 Methodology
      4. 21.4 Results and Discussions
      5. 21.5 Conclusions
      6. References
  16. Part VII: Anti-Collision Algorithm and Smart Antennas for RFID Systems
    1. Chapter 22: RFID Planar Antenna—Smart Design Approach at UHF Band
      1. 22.1 Introduction
      2. 22.2 System Model
      3. 22.3 Binary Tree Splitting
      4. 22.4 Slotted Aloha (S-Aloha)
      5. 22.5 Numerical Results
      6. 22.6 Summary
      7. References
    2. Chapter 23: Anti-Collision Algorithm and Smart Antennas for RFID Systems
      1. 23.1 Introduction
      2. 23.2 Anti-Collision Algorithm
      3. 23.3 Smart Antennas for Anti-Collision Protocol
      4. 23.4 Frame-Slotted Aloha Algorithm
      5. 23.5 Conclusion
      6. References
    3. Chapter 24: Anti-Collision of RFID Tags Using Capture Effect
      1. 24.1 Introduction
      2. 24.2 Theory
      3. 24.3 Experimental Methodology
      4. 24.4 Conclusion
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. References
  17. Index